What Speed Is Mach 10?

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What Speed Is Mach 10

Has Mach 10 ever been reached?

NASA’s X-43A Scramjet Achieves Record-Breaking Mach 10 Speed Using Model-Based Design Design and automatically generate flight control software for a scramjet vehicle traveling at Mach 10 speed Use Simulink to model and validate control systems, Simulink Coder to automatically generate flight code, and MATLAB to process and analyze postflight data

Reduced development time by months Accurately predicted separation clearance Aided in achieving SEI CMM Level 5 process rating

“Our autopilot worked on the first try, which is amazing given that a vehicle like this had never been flown before. MathWorks tools helped us design and implement control systems that kept the vehicle stable throughout the flight.” Dave Bose, Analytical Mechanics Associates On November 16, 2004, NASA made history by launching the X-43A, the first-ever air-breathing hypersonic vehicle, into the atmosphere, achieving Mach 10 speed.

The X-43A separated from its booster and accelerated on scramjet power at nearly ten times the speed of sound (7000 MPH) at roughly 110,000 feet. The experiment enabled NASA to validate key propulsion and related technologies for air-breathing hypersonic aircraft. Dubbed Hyper-X, the project was a collaborative effort involving engineers from a variety of organizations, including NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, NASA Langley Research Center, Analytical Mechanics Associates (AMA), and Boeing PhantomWorks.

These teams used MathWorks tools for Model-Based Design to develop and automatically generate flight code for the vehicle’s propulsion and flight control systems. They also used MATLAB ® to analyze preflight assumptions and postflight results. NASA was tasked with developing controls for the X-43A and its subsystems, including flight control, propulsion, actuators, and sensors.

  1. These controls would keep the unmanned vehicle stable within a half-degree angle-of-attack and ensure sufficient clearance between the research vehicle and the adaptor on the front of the booster when the two parts separated.
  2. The engineers would need to complete the project under a wide range of environmental conditions and an uncharted flight regime.

Because this unique project involved multiple teams and a highly complex design, NASA would need a common modeling environment and a proven design process based on reliable models. With a high likelihood that system requirements and models would change as the program matured, they also sought to automate development and minimize manual coding and debugging.

  1. Finally, NASA would need tools for efficiently analyzing gigabytes of multidimensional telemetry data.
  2. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control team at NASA worked with Boeing and AMA to develop the propulsion and flight control laws for the X-43A scramjet and integrate them into the onboard system.
  3. All teams collaborated on the project by applying Model-Based Design with MathWorks tools.

“There aren’t any software packages out there that can match the capabilities of MathWorks tools,” says Dave Bose, vice president of modeling and simulation at AMA. “From the team’s perspective, it really was an easy decision to choose MathWorks tools.”

Is Mach 10 possible top gun?

Could The Human Body Survive Mach 10? – What Speed Is Mach 10 Tom Cruise’s character’s feat of Mach 10 speed in Top Gun: Maverick is one scientifically improbable stunt out of many featured in the film. That being said, is it possible for the human body to be able to withstand such acceleration? The most likely answer is a resounding no.

Mach 10 speed has never been achieved by a manned aircraft, though, so it has never been tested. Mach 10 has, however, been achieved by a spacecraft – on November 16, 2004, NASA launched the X-43A, an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle, and was able to reach real Mach 10 while being pushed into the atmosphere.

But that was an unmanned craft. The problem with humans withstanding such a speed has to do with the acceleration needed to reach it, and the resultant G-force. A normal human could withstand up to around 4-6Gs. Real fighter pilots, on the other hand, are able to take a whopping 9Gs for a second or two, but that only comes with extensive training.

What happens at Mach 10 speed?

Understanding Turbulence in the Fast Lane – Mach 10 and Beyond Ed Stiles March 10, 2005 Although NASA’s X-43A and other hypersonic airplanes use air-breathing engines and fly much like 747s, there’s a big difference between ripping air at Mach 10 (around 7,000 mph) and cruising through it at 350 mph.These differences are even more pronounced when hypersonic aircraft sip rarified air at 100,000 feet, while commercial airliners gulp the much thicker stuff at 30,000.Aero-thermodynamic heating is a very big deal at Mach 10.

The critical point comes where air changes from flowing smoothly across a surface — laminar flow — to when it becomes chaotic — turbulent flow.Aero-thermodynamic heating largely determines the engine size, weight, choice of materials and overall size in hypersonic airplanes. So engineers would like to have a much better understanding of what triggers turbulence and how they can control it at hypersonic speeds.Air goes from laminar to turbulent at what engineers call the “boundary layer.” They understand how this happens at slower speeds, but they’re still grappling with which factors influence it at hypersonic speeds.Associate Professor Anatoli Tumin, of UA Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering (AME), is among those studying the problem and has developed a model that predicts the surface roughness effects on the transition from laminar to turbulent flow at hypersonic speeds.

His theory has a lot to do with partial differential equations, Navier-Stokes equations and other brain-taxing mathematics that Tumin and Applied Math Ph.D. student Eric Forgoston have grappled with during the past couple of years.”In principle, the theory tells us what the optimal perturbations are that will lead to turbulent flow,” Tumin said.

  • Now we can explore different geometries for roughness elements to see which are best.
  • We can explore how to space them and where we should position them.”The researchers will soon run a supercomputer simulation to compare their theory with what actually happens when air flows across a roughened surface at hypersonic speeds.Currently, these simulations guzzle tens of hours of supercomputing time.

But if Tumin’s theory is correct, engineers will soon get the same results from their office laptops.Tumin is working with Research Assistant Professor Simone Zuccher, of UA AME, to develop a software package that will allow designers to do this laptop-style analysis.

The software will help them predict when and where the transitions from laminar to turbulent flow occur in engines and on surfaces operating at hypersonic speeds.”We developed our theory and arrived at what is called the ‘transient growth mechanism,'” Tumin said. “The airflow is stable, but there are some tiny disturbances within it that can grow downstream.

We can generate these downstream, streamwise vortices (spiraling flows) by using the correct amount of roughness in the right places. We can do this at an engine inlet, for instance, in order to trip the boundary layer and to have stable engine performance.””If we can understand the laminar-turbulent transition mechanism, we can predict the transition point accurately,” Tumin said.

  1. This is important for heat protection, where you want laminar flow.
  2. Otherwise, you need to add a lot of weight for thermal insulation because you have to assume turbulent flow at the surface when you do your design calculations.
  3. Similarly, engine designers would like to have a quick transition to turbulence to have a turbulent flow at an engine inlet.”Ultimately, better understanding the transition to turbulence at hypersonic speeds will allow designers to build lighter, faster, more efficient airplanes capable of traveling at even higher speeds of Mach 15 or more.

: Understanding Turbulence in the Fast Lane – Mach 10 and Beyond

What is the fastest mach speed ever recorded?

Pegasus booster rocket ignites to send the X-43A on its record setting flight on Nov.16, 2004. NASA photo It’s Official. X-43A Raises the Bar to Mach 9.6 Guinness World Records recognized NASA’s X-43A scramjet with a new world speed record for a jet-powered aircraft – Mach 9.6, or nearly 7,000 mph.

  • The X-43A set the new mark and broke its own world record on its third and final flight on Nov.16, 2004.
  • In March 2004, the X-43A set the previous record of Mach 6.8 (nearly 5,000 mph).
  • The fastest air-breathing, manned vehicle, the U.S.
  • Air Force SR-71, achieved slightly more than Mach 3.2.
  • The X-43A more than doubled, then tripled, the top speed of the jet-powered SR-71.

+ View Press Release View QuickTime Movies: X-43A/Pegasus Launch: 2.6 Mb | 5 Mb | 7.3 Mb | 12 Mb B-52B Takeoff: 1.6 Mb | 3.1 Mb | 4.6 Mb | 7.5 Mb Getting Ready for Mach 10: 3.2 Mb | 6 Mb | 8.9 Mb | 14.5 Mb

Can a human survive Mach 10?

Has Mach 10 ever been reached? – Could The Human Body Survive Mach 10? – Tom Cruise’s character’s feat of Mach 10 speed in Top Gun: Maverick is one scientifically improbable stunt out of many featured in the film. That being said, is it possible for the human body to be able to withstand such acceleration? The most likely answer is a resounding no.

  • Mach 10 speed has never been achieved by a manned aircraft, though, so it has never been tested.
  • Mach 10 has, however, been achieved by a spacecraft – on November 16, 2004, NASA launched the X-43A, an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle, and was able to reach real Mach 10 while being pushed into the atmosphere.

But that was an unmanned craft. The problem with humans withstanding such a speed has to do with the acceleration needed to reach it, and the resultant G-force. A normal human could withstand up to around 4-6Gs. Real fighter pilots, on the other hand, are able to take a whopping 9Gs for a second or two, but that only comes with extensive training.

How did Tom Cruise survive Mach 10?

Only one way: his fictional hypersonic aircraft had an escape capsule like the F-111.

Can Tom Cruise fly a fighter jet?

Why It’s Sensible That Tom Cruise Wasn’t Allowed To Fly A Fighter Jet – What Speed Is Mach 10 The Super Hornet jet does feature in the sequel, but Tom Cruise did not fly them in Top Gun: Maverick as those scenes were all completed with assistance from Navy pilots. According to producer Bruckheimer, Cruise does fly a P-51 propeller-driven fighter plane, as well as some helicopters.

With the assistance of skilled editing, the action sequences are convincing to even the best-trained eye. There’s no confirmation about why the US Navy might have denied Cruise’s aspirations to pilot a Super Hornet, even though the actor has experience flying Top Gun ‘s supersonic military aircraft,

However, the most logical reason would be insurance concerns, which is always enough of a consideration to prevent actors from doing their own stunts. The cost of the plane also figures into this – a real F-18 Super Hornet would make up roughly half of Top Gun: Maverick ‘s $152 million budget.

  1. That would be likely to create logistical nightmares for the insurance of the film.
  2. That’s not even to mention insuring Cruise himself, who, though already a certified pilot, may not have the specific training required to fly the F-18 safely.
  3. Insurance woes aside, should an inexperienced pilot such as Cruise lose control of a high-speed aircraft, it could also mean peril for civilians and/or military personnel on the ground.

Besides, while Tom Cruise does his own stunts to great effect, the real Navy pilots in Top Gun: Maverick ‘s brought more than enough authenticity to the sequel.

What jet did Tom Cruise fly in Top Gun Mach 10?

During Top Gun: Maverick, Tom Cruise hit Mach 10 in the SR-72 Darkstar.

What is the highest Mach a human has gone?

The Top Ten fastest planes in the World – Before we start – here is a nice video showing you the 10 fastest planes in the world: There are very many aircraft that has exceeded the speed of Mach 2.0. Some of them are research aircraft, some are military and some are simply flying for reconnaissance purposes.

But there is always something special with supersonic aircraft. Just imagine flying at an altitude of 5 kilometres, hearing a “go” from the radio and pushing that throttle backwards while feeling the 100+kN engine accelerating you to speeds higher than any other life form has ever been seen doing. But you are not the fast one, you are just the passenger.

The aircraft that you are flying in, the machine that gives you powers to rise above the clouds in mere minutes is the true masterpiece. The masterpiece of military engineering. In this article, we will look into ten of the fastest military aircraft ever flown and see what they have in the trunk. Su-27SKM Number 10: Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker. Its top speed of 2.35 Mach brings it to the very edge of USSR craftmanship with a twin engine and the first fly-by-wire control system on a Russian jet ever. It was built for air superiority to counter the new American 3.5 gen fighters such as the F-15 Eagle.

It is armed with a 30 mm gun and 10 external pylons that can hold both Air-to-Air, heat-seeking, short and medium-range missiles. Due to all its accomplishments and popularity, it has very many different variants. Some of which are top-modern even today, 35 years after the first flight of the Flanker (1977).

Some of them are:

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Sukhoi Su-30 Sukhoi Su-33 Sukhoi Su-34 Sukhoi Su-35 Sukhoi Su-37

And – the Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker was once available for passenger fun flights with MiGFlug! Read more here, Picture of an F-111 showing its variable sweep wing. Number 9: General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark. Number nine on this list is not a fighter but a tactical bomber capable of flying at Mach 2.5. It had, before its retirement in 1998, 9 hardpoints and 2 weapon bays, together with being able to deliver a payload of 14,300 kg of bombs, a nuclear bomb, air-to-air missiles or a 2000 round machine gun could be fitted. F-15C during Operation Noble Eagle Number 8 : McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle The F-15 has been claimed to be one of the most successful aircraft ever built and is still in service with the US Air Force. The Eagle’s twin-engine and thrust-to-weight ratio of almost 1:1 can propel the 18,000 kg aircraft to more than 2.5 times the speed of sound.

It was introduced in 1976 and will continue to be a part of the air force beyond 2025. There has almost 1200 F-15s built and it has been exported to among others Japan, Saudi Arabia and Israel. The current plan is to keep producing them until 2019. It was first designed as an air-superiority aircraft but later the F-15E Strike Eagle was built, an Air-to-Ground derivative.

The F-15 can load a variety of Sparrow, Sidewinder, 120-AMRAAM, drop bombs ( for instance Mark 84 or 82) or external fuel tanks on its 11 hardpoints. Together with its 20 mm M61A1 Vulcan gun, it is no surprise that this buster has over 100 confirmed aerial combat victories. MiG-31 flying over Russia Number 7: Mikoyan MiG-31 Foxbat With a top speed of Mach 2.83, the next aircraft on our list is the Mikoyan Gurevich-31 Foxhound (also this one was once available for tourist flights !). Due to its enormous twin-engine with a thrust of 2*152kN, it was able to fly at supersonic speeds at both high- and low altitudes.

One 23 millimetre gun with 260 rounds. Under fuselage:

4x R-33 Air-to-Air (heavy) or 6x R-37 Air-to-Air missiles.

On pylons:

Long or medium-range missiles, short-range IR missiles or a special medium-range Air-to-Air missile for high-speed targets.

The production ended in 1994 but is unknown exactly how many MiG-31 that were built but between 400-500 is said to be a qualified guess. The MiG-31 is still today in service with the Russian and Kazakhstan Air Forces. The MiG-31 is a derivative of the MiG-25 which can be read about further down (place 4) and in the link at the very end of the article. XB-70 Valkyrie (taking off) Number 6: XB-70 Valkyrie. The XB-70 Valkyrie was a unique aircraft with six engines which together could accelerate the 240,000-kilogram aircraft to a velocity of Mach 3. This speed resulted in the frame of the aircraft being heated up to as much as 330°C in some areas.

The extreme speed was needed for two reasons: 1: To accelerate away from Soviet interceptors and 2: To be able to escape the blast of the nuclear bombs that it was capable of dropping. The big size (weight) was needed to carry the fuel needed for the 6,900-kilometre flight into the Soviet Union and escape without refuelling and to house the 14 nuclear bombs that it was capable of carrying.

US Revealed Top SECRET Hypersonic Aircraft Reaching Mach 10

The aircraft had its first flight in 1964 and is now retired, only two were built. X-2 Starbuster together with its crew Number 5: Bell X-2 Starbuster. The Starbuster was an American research aircraft which had its first flight in 1955 and was retired in 1956. It was a continuation of the X-2 program and so Its area of investigation was to see how aircrafts behaved when flying at speeds higher than Mach 2.0.

It did, as can be understood, not carry any weapons and featured a back-swept wing which made it have little air-resistance and was by that able to achieve the stunning speed of Mach 3.196 in 1956. However soon after this speed was attained the pilot, Milburn G. Apt, made a sharp turn and the aircraft tumbled out of control.

He could not regain control of the aircraft and bailed out. Unfortunately, only the small parachute of the escape shuttle was opened and he hit the ground with too high speed. This fatal crash ended the Starbuster program. Mikoyan Gurevich 25PU Number 4: Mikoyan MiG-25 Foxbat. This jet was a Soviet machine built to intercept American aircraft during the cold war like the SR-71 and high- slow flying surveillance aircraft. Since it was built to intercept the SR-71 it was required to have an extreme speed, hence its Mach 3.2 top capability.

The Foxbat, unlike the Blackbird, featured 4 air-to-air missiles which made it an interceptor rather than a reconnaissance aircraft. It has never shot down a Blackbird but it has had many other combat missions which have been successful, for instance in the Iran-Iraq war. Over 1100 Foxbats were built between 1964 and 1984, however, today the use is limited, with its only users being Russia, Syria, Algeria and Turkmenistan.

For more information about this astonishing bird see the link at the bottom of the article. The MiG-25 was also the fastest plane ever offered for fun flights by MiGFlug – it was mainly used for Edge of Space flights, YF-12A, the first YF-12 Number 3: Lockheed YF-12. This jet was an American interceptor prototype with a top speed of Mach 3.35. It looked almost like the SR-71 Blackbird and featured three Air-to-Air missiles. The reason for it looking a lot like the SR-71 was because the SR-71 was based on the YF-12, and also because both of them had the same designer, the extremely famous Clarence “Kelly” Johnson. SR-71B (double cockpit) Number 2: Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird After its introduction in 1966 it has been used by both the USAF and NASA.32 Blackbirds were built, all used for reconnaissance and experimental research. It featured stealth technology but if it was, against all odds, spotted by enemy forces, it could outrun the interceptors or surface-to-air missiles that were fired at it, due to its fantastic speed.

The Blackbird was so fast that the air in front of it did not have time to escape, hence building up a huge pressure, and raised the temperature. The temperature of the aircraft, which could reach several hundred degrees high, expanded the metal, hence it had to be built by too small pieces. Because of this, the SR-71 actually leaked oil when standing still.

The Blackbird holds the record for manned, air-breathing aircraft, see here, A nice documentary about the SR-71 for those who love this plane as much as we do: The winner of our top 10 – the X-15! Number 1: North American X-15 This aircraft has the current world record for the fastest manned aircraft. Its maximum speed was Mach 6.70 (about 7,200 km/h) which it attained on the 3rd of October 1967 thanks to its pilot William J.

“Pete” Knight. To be stable at these super high velocities, it had to feature a big wedge tail, however, the downside of this was at lower speeds the drag was extremely big from such a tail. Therefore a B-52 Stratofortress had to carry it up to an altitude of about 14,000 meters before dropping it at which it ignited its own engines.

Just imagine sitting in a rocket measuring only 15 m in length and then being dropped, must have been a truly magnificent feeling! The X-15 was used at such extreme speeds so that it did not use traditional ways to steer (using drag over a fin) but instead it used rocket thrusters! This made it possible to reach altitudes higher than 100 kilometres, which was one of its world records.

It was the first operational space plane. It got to a height of more than 100 km. It flew more than six times the speed of sound (Mach 6.70).

Can a human survive Mach 20?

Of course a human can survive Mach 20. Rockets reaching orbit generally go Mach 23 or faster. On the other hand, those astronauts are well protected from massive heat and pressure of air friction. Without protection, as happened to the Columbia astronauts, they would be pancaked.

How fast can the human body travel without dying?

What’s the fastest speed a human body can travel at without causing physical damage Status Vaulted: Jun 12, 2011 23:52 Biophysics Mathematical physics Anatomy I’m looking for someone to calculate what the fastest speed a human body can travel at on earth without causing themselves physical damage.

The candidate should preferably have a strong mathematical background Results for this zomb have been placed in the vault. You can access it for free. There is no maximum ‘speed’ that is at the limit of human tolerance. Theoretically if we had enough energy someone (in a suitably designed vehicle) could be taken up to speeds close to the speed of light.

As an example, astronauts in the International Space Station are orbiting at speeds of 27,700km/h (17,200miles/h) but suffer no harm as they are only accelerating at 1g. What does limit in reality a human’s top speed is acceleration: we can reach very high top speeds, but we have to take time in getting there in order to avoid injury and possible death from the g-forces resulting from acceleration and inertia.

If we try to accelerate too quickly the inertia from the various parts of our bodies causes large amounts of force to be exerted on things like organs, tendons and bones, which can of course be potentially fatal. This is a well documented field, and the average maximum survivable g-force is about 16g (157m/s) sustained for 1 minute.

However this limit depends on the individual, whether the acceleration is applied to one’s entire body or just individual parts and the time in which the acceleration is endured over. John Stapp, a US Air Force surgeon survived 46g exerted over 1 second, though suffered quite serious injuries during the process.

  • Of course for practical reasons there must be some maximum speed at which one can travel on earth, but this is determined by the materials and techniques used to engineer vehicles and the like.
  • The fastest plane currently is the X-15 with a top speed of 7,258km/h.
  • This is only due to the constraints imposed by air resistance, there is no “top speed” in space as there are no resistive forces imposed by air and other materials.

Comments for results No comments yet. Q: Would this be in an apparatus or exposed to open air? Asked by on May 30, 2011 A: In an apparatus, like a plane Disclaimer Zombal does not in anyway guarantee the quality or correctness of the vaulted results. The results have been compiled by members on the site and have not been reviewed by a third party.

Is anything faster than Mach 1?

Flying at or near the speed of sound is defined as transonic flight. Speeds between Mach 1 and Mach 5 are called supersonic. And speeds beyond that—the space shuttle, for example, re-enters the earth’s atmosphere at Mach 25—are designated as hypersonic.

What Mach is the speed of light?

Answer and Explanation: The speed of light is Mach 874,030. This is because the speed of light in air is 874,030 times faster than the speed of sound in air. Sound travels are a speed of 1234 km/hr while light travels at 1,078,553,020 km/hr.

Has any human gone Mach 5?

What Speed Is Mach 10 March 24, 2010 / 1:00 PM / AP Retired Air Force Maj. Gen. Robert M. White, who flew high enough as a test pilot in an X-15 rocket plane to earn astronaut wings in the early 1960s, has died at age 85. White died March 17, NASA said in a statement. His son, Greg White, told the Orlando Sentinel and the Los Angeles Times that his father died in his sleep in Orlando, Fla.

  1. White was a veteran combat pilot before he came to Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., and began flying X-15s in the hypersonic, high-altitude research program that contributed to the U.S.
  2. Space effort.
  3. X-15s were carried aloft under the wing of a B-52 bomber and released at 45,000 feet.
  4. The rocket engine was ignited to hurl the slender, stubby-winged craft on altitude or speed runs that ended with an unpowered glide to a landing on a dry lake bed in the Mojave Desert north of Los Angeles.

On July 17, 1962, White flew to an altitude of 314,750 feet, more than 59 miles high. That was well above the 50-mile altitude the Air Force accepted as the start of space, earning him the service’s first rating as a “winged astronaut.” At the time, only four other Americans, all Mercury astronauts, had gone into space.

During the previous year, White had become the first person to fly a winged craft several times the speed of sound at Mach 4, Mach 5 and then – at full throttle – to Mach 6, or more than 4,000 mph. Born in New York City in 1924, White joined the military in 1942 as an aviation cadet. He served in the 355th Fighter Group in Europe during World War II, flying P-51 fighters from July 1944 to February 1945, when he was shot down over Germany on his 52nd mission and held as a prisoner of war until April 1945, according to his Air Force biography.

White received a bachelor of science degree from New York University in 1951, the year he was recalled to active duty during the Korean War, serving with units based in the U.S. and Japan. In 1954, White went to the Air Force’s Experimental Test Pilot School at Edwards and was eventually selected as an Air Force representative in the X-15 program, which also involved NASA, the Navy and aircraft builder North American Aviation.

  • In all, he flew 16 X-15 missions between April 13, 1960, and Dec.14, 1962.
  • There were 199 flights in the X-15 program, which ran from 1959 to 1968.
  • At the time, only the Air Force pilots were awarded astronaut wings.
  • White returned to Edwards in 2005 when astronaut wings were awarded to three civilian X-15 pilots, two posthumously, according to Alan Brown, a spokesman at NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center.
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After his X-15 flights, White served in various Air Force assignments and received a master of science degree in business administration from George Washington University before being sent to Southeast Asia. He flew 70 combat missions in F-105 aircraft over North Vietnam in 1967 and earned the Air Force Cross.

  1. White later commanded the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards before retiring in 1981.
  2. He and his wife, Chris, who died previously, will be buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
  3. On the Net: NASA X-15 Interactive: http://www.nasa.gov/externalflash/x15_interactive/ Thanks for reading CBS NEWS.
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How fast is 10G force?

How fast is 10G force? G/10 = 3.2 ft/sec/sec = 2.2 MPH per second (3.2*3600/5280=2.2 approximately!) In other words, the speed increases by 2.2 MPH every second.

Is Top Gun a real thing?

Fact: The Top Gun Program Is a Real Training School – Top Gun is a real flight program known to the Fleet as the Navy Strike Fighter Tactics Instructor (SFTI) program. Top Gun was founded during the Vietnam war after Naval aviators saw a decline in prominence. They had been sustaining high levels of casualties despite superior aircraft and weapons technology. Thus, a comprehensive fighter pilot school was introduced.

What is the maximum speed of gravity?

What Speed Is Mach 10 LIGO/T. Pyle In the wake of recent news that astronomers finally detected the space-warping boom of colliding neutron stars, measuring the merging of black holes might seem kind of old hat. You might have moved on, but researchers are still picking through the data gathered from those previous ground-breaking thunderclaps,

Now two teams of physicists used figures from the variety of gravitational waves to narrow estimates on just how fast we think gravity moves, and while their results aren’t shocking, they are strangely comforting. A few centuries ago, Isaac Newton assumed gravity’s tug was instantaneous; a claim later Albert Einstein refuted by reasoning the force travelled at the speed of light.

Going by Einstein’s reckoning, space isn’t just an empty stage for matter to move on, but is a major actor itself. Mass pulls on the very fabric of space, curving time and distance in such a way that objects accelerate towards one another. Just as the speed of a massless particle of light in a vacuum is restricted by the Universe’s upper speed limit, the massless distortions of spacetime would also be energy zipping along at top speed.

Or, to be more precise, gravity moves at 299,792,458 metres per second, a rate we can just call c, Of course you’d be a fool to bet against Mr. General Relativity himself, but good science demands that even geniuses need to be checked against reality. And in spite of being intimate with Earth’s strong grip, the force of gravity is kind of hard to measure.

“Until the advent of gravitational wave astronomy, we had no way to directly measure the speed of gravity,” Neil Cornish, a physicist from Montana State University, told Phys.org, The numbers are pretty insane. As objects dozens of times more massive than our Sun orbit one another thousands of light years away, they lose energy by making space ripple.

  1. In that final moment before finally colliding, that effort equals something like 10 times the amount of energy pouring from every star in the Universe.
  2. Mind blown? By the time it reaches us, each wave is ten thousand times smaller than a proton, and passes in just one fifth of a second,
  3. We rely on a network of 4 kilometre (2.5 mile) long light beams arranged at right angles to spot those signature distortions.

It might all sound simple in practice, but the technology behind the detectors – worthy of a Nobel Prize – is about as cutting edge as it gets. The growing pool of data collected by these detectors is opening the way for scientists everywhere to dig for evidence on everything from hidden dimensions to the basic properties of space.

The speed of gravity, like the speed of light, is one of the fundamental constants in the Universe,” says Cornish, By comparing the exact timing of the gravitational waves as they hit different observatories across the globe, researchers can get a good idea of the wave’s overall speed. Cornish’s team of researchers combined the timings of the first three detections to narrow down the speed of the waves to between 55 and 142 percent of c,

If enough detectors stay in top working order, this method could be used to calculate the figure to within just 1 percent of c by measuring just another five gravitational waves. Before you start marking off the days on your calendar, another team made up of a small army of physicists used the burst of gamma rays captured from last month’s neutron star collision to come up with their own estimate.

Their method was a little more precise. Ok, a whole lot more precise. They found the difference between the lightning flash of the gamma ray burst and the thunderclap of the gravitational wave was extremely close – within -3 x 10^-15 and 7 x 10^-16 of c, Close enough to call it a tie, really. To be fair, the previous team couldn’t have predicted the neutron star collision, so hats off to them for going old school.

Having multiple methods come to similar conclusions also gives us confidence we’re on the right track, and that’s pretty damn cool. This research was published here and here,

How fast is 10g top gun?

How Fast Is Mach 10? – What Speed Is Mach 10 Mach is a unit commonly used in aviation to describe an object’s speed relative to sound. Mach 10 is a feat that has been previously accomplished by a manless aircraft called X-43A, developed by NASA as an experimental aircraft to test hypersonic speeds.

  • Mach 10 is approximately a speed of 3.43 kilometers per second or 12,348 kilometers per hour, which translates to 7,680 miles per hour.
  • Practically achieving Mach 10 speed for humans is impossible due to the sheer amount of G-force involved.
  • G-force is a term used in aviation to describe the stress experienced by pilots.

On average, a human being can only withstand 4 to 6 G-force for a brief amount of time before experiencing adverse effects. However, pilots undergo vigorous training to withstand a higher number of G-forces. On average, trained pilots can endure up to 9 G-force for a short amount of time.

Anything higher or sustained for a longer period can affect internal organs or even cause a person to go unconscious. The speed at which Maverick flies the Darkstar in Top Gun: Maverick is Mach 10, which would subject him to approximately 34 G-force, rendering it practically impossible for a human to survive such forces as it would severely damage their body from the inside.

Furthermore, it was also shown that Maverick ejects from the Darkstar going at the speed of Mach 10.3, and in a real-life scenario, that would result in immediate death due to the air density outside. The real-life SR-72 is currently under development and is expected to fly sometime in 2023, but the aircraft wouldn’t be able to match the Mach 10 speed, not even close.

What speed is hypersonic?

Understanding hypersonic speed – The term ‘hypersonic speed’ is widely defined as any speed beyond Mach 5, meaning five times faster than the speed of sound. This threshold is used to define a subset of air vehicles because a range of physical effects start becoming a significant engineering challenge at that speed.

Specifically, the object endures a massive heat flux when it flies through dense layers of the earth’s atmosphere at hypersonic speeds. This and other physical effects make developing aerial vehicles for hypersonic flight particularly difficult and costly. However, there are also some problems linked to the definition of ‘hypersonic speed’, and with that, part of the definition of ‘hypersonic missiles’.

First, defining hypersonic speed as anything beyond Mach 5 actually results in a variation of the object’s speed, depending on its altitude. The speed of sound, which defines the speed of Mach 1, depends not only on the chemical composition of the gas that the sound is moving through (in this case, the air in the earth’s atmosphere) but also on its temperature.

  1. The most common standard model of the earth’s atmosphere, the US Standard Atmosphere, shows a significant change of temperature with altitude.
  2. This results in a different measurement of what the speed—in kilometres per hour—of a missile moving with Mach 5 is, simply depending on the altitude that the missile is flying at (see figure 1).

There is also another factor to add to this variation. Since the Mach number strongly depends on the surrounding gas that the object is moving through, using a Mach number for definitions becomes more and more difficult once the surrounding gas gets thinner and thinner—and disappears completely at higher altitudes.

Did Tom Cruise fly in Top Gun 2?

Tom Cruise Isn’t The Only Famous Plane Enthusiast – What Speed Is Mach 10 Outside of the Tom Cruise P-51 Mustang scene in Top Gun: Maverick, Cruise owns other jets as well — and he’s not the only celebrity who’s made a hobby out of owning a plane. A long list of celebrities also owns their own jets for whatever travels light their fancy.

The most common jets owned by celebrities are the Gulfstream G650, Dassault Falcon, and the Bombardier, with each jet costing over $50 million and then some. Mark Wahlberg ( The Departed ) owns a Bombardier BD-700, with which he takes frequent trips overseas, and across the U.S. Harrison Ford ( Indiana Jones ) himself owns a Cessna 680 Citation that jets him quickly all over the U.S.

The Fabelmans director Steven Spielberg has a Gulfstream G-650, visiting various locations overseas. Star Wars creator George Lucas also owns a Gulfstream, with which he flies overseas relatively frequently. Movie stars aren’t the only celebrities who own their own aircraft, as plenty of famous singers also like to travel in style as well.

  1. Country superstar Blake Shelton purchased a Gulfstream 4 and takes summer trips across the U.S.
  2. Country musician Kenny Chesney also owns a jet, a Dassault Falcon 900 to be exact, and also tours the U.S.
  3. Jay-Z owns a Gulfstream 5, taking frequent trips all over.
  4. Finally, Taylor Swift herself is the proud owner of a Dassault Falcon 7X, which she uses to travel the globe.

The Tom Cruise P-51 Mustang scene in Top Gun: Maverick isn’t the only proof of the aircraft he owns, as he also has a Bombardier Challenger 300.

What is the highest Mach ever reached by a human?

The Top Ten fastest planes in the World – Before we start – here is a nice video showing you the 10 fastest planes in the world: There are very many aircraft that has exceeded the speed of Mach 2.0. Some of them are research aircraft, some are military and some are simply flying for reconnaissance purposes.

But there is always something special with supersonic aircraft. Just imagine flying at an altitude of 5 kilometres, hearing a “go” from the radio and pushing that throttle backwards while feeling the 100+kN engine accelerating you to speeds higher than any other life form has ever been seen doing. But you are not the fast one, you are just the passenger.

The aircraft that you are flying in, the machine that gives you powers to rise above the clouds in mere minutes is the true masterpiece. The masterpiece of military engineering. In this article, we will look into ten of the fastest military aircraft ever flown and see what they have in the trunk. Su-27SKM Number 10: Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker. Its top speed of 2.35 Mach brings it to the very edge of USSR craftmanship with a twin engine and the first fly-by-wire control system on a Russian jet ever. It was built for air superiority to counter the new American 3.5 gen fighters such as the F-15 Eagle.

It is armed with a 30 mm gun and 10 external pylons that can hold both Air-to-Air, heat-seeking, short and medium-range missiles. Due to all its accomplishments and popularity, it has very many different variants. Some of which are top-modern even today, 35 years after the first flight of the Flanker (1977).

Some of them are:

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Sukhoi Su-30 Sukhoi Su-33 Sukhoi Su-34 Sukhoi Su-35 Sukhoi Su-37

And – the Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker was once available for passenger fun flights with MiGFlug! Read more here, Picture of an F-111 showing its variable sweep wing. Number 9: General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark. Number nine on this list is not a fighter but a tactical bomber capable of flying at Mach 2.5. It had, before its retirement in 1998, 9 hardpoints and 2 weapon bays, together with being able to deliver a payload of 14,300 kg of bombs, a nuclear bomb, air-to-air missiles or a 2000 round machine gun could be fitted. F-15C during Operation Noble Eagle Number 8 : McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle The F-15 has been claimed to be one of the most successful aircraft ever built and is still in service with the US Air Force. The Eagle’s twin-engine and thrust-to-weight ratio of almost 1:1 can propel the 18,000 kg aircraft to more than 2.5 times the speed of sound.

It was introduced in 1976 and will continue to be a part of the air force beyond 2025. There has almost 1200 F-15s built and it has been exported to among others Japan, Saudi Arabia and Israel. The current plan is to keep producing them until 2019. It was first designed as an air-superiority aircraft but later the F-15E Strike Eagle was built, an Air-to-Ground derivative.

The F-15 can load a variety of Sparrow, Sidewinder, 120-AMRAAM, drop bombs ( for instance Mark 84 or 82) or external fuel tanks on its 11 hardpoints. Together with its 20 mm M61A1 Vulcan gun, it is no surprise that this buster has over 100 confirmed aerial combat victories. MiG-31 flying over Russia Number 7: Mikoyan MiG-31 Foxbat With a top speed of Mach 2.83, the next aircraft on our list is the Mikoyan Gurevich-31 Foxhound (also this one was once available for tourist flights !). Due to its enormous twin-engine with a thrust of 2*152kN, it was able to fly at supersonic speeds at both high- and low altitudes.

One 23 millimetre gun with 260 rounds. Under fuselage:

4x R-33 Air-to-Air (heavy) or 6x R-37 Air-to-Air missiles.

On pylons:

Long or medium-range missiles, short-range IR missiles or a special medium-range Air-to-Air missile for high-speed targets.

The production ended in 1994 but is unknown exactly how many MiG-31 that were built but between 400-500 is said to be a qualified guess. The MiG-31 is still today in service with the Russian and Kazakhstan Air Forces. The MiG-31 is a derivative of the MiG-25 which can be read about further down (place 4) and in the link at the very end of the article. XB-70 Valkyrie (taking off) Number 6: XB-70 Valkyrie. The XB-70 Valkyrie was a unique aircraft with six engines which together could accelerate the 240,000-kilogram aircraft to a velocity of Mach 3. This speed resulted in the frame of the aircraft being heated up to as much as 330°C in some areas.

The extreme speed was needed for two reasons: 1: To accelerate away from Soviet interceptors and 2: To be able to escape the blast of the nuclear bombs that it was capable of dropping. The big size (weight) was needed to carry the fuel needed for the 6,900-kilometre flight into the Soviet Union and escape without refuelling and to house the 14 nuclear bombs that it was capable of carrying.

US Revealed Top SECRET Hypersonic Aircraft Reaching Mach 10

The aircraft had its first flight in 1964 and is now retired, only two were built. X-2 Starbuster together with its crew Number 5: Bell X-2 Starbuster. The Starbuster was an American research aircraft which had its first flight in 1955 and was retired in 1956. It was a continuation of the X-2 program and so Its area of investigation was to see how aircrafts behaved when flying at speeds higher than Mach 2.0.

It did, as can be understood, not carry any weapons and featured a back-swept wing which made it have little air-resistance and was by that able to achieve the stunning speed of Mach 3.196 in 1956. However soon after this speed was attained the pilot, Milburn G. Apt, made a sharp turn and the aircraft tumbled out of control.

He could not regain control of the aircraft and bailed out. Unfortunately, only the small parachute of the escape shuttle was opened and he hit the ground with too high speed. This fatal crash ended the Starbuster program. Mikoyan Gurevich 25PU Number 4: Mikoyan MiG-25 Foxbat. This jet was a Soviet machine built to intercept American aircraft during the cold war like the SR-71 and high- slow flying surveillance aircraft. Since it was built to intercept the SR-71 it was required to have an extreme speed, hence its Mach 3.2 top capability.

The Foxbat, unlike the Blackbird, featured 4 air-to-air missiles which made it an interceptor rather than a reconnaissance aircraft. It has never shot down a Blackbird but it has had many other combat missions which have been successful, for instance in the Iran-Iraq war. Over 1100 Foxbats were built between 1964 and 1984, however, today the use is limited, with its only users being Russia, Syria, Algeria and Turkmenistan.

For more information about this astonishing bird see the link at the bottom of the article. The MiG-25 was also the fastest plane ever offered for fun flights by MiGFlug – it was mainly used for Edge of Space flights, YF-12A, the first YF-12 Number 3: Lockheed YF-12. This jet was an American interceptor prototype with a top speed of Mach 3.35. It looked almost like the SR-71 Blackbird and featured three Air-to-Air missiles. The reason for it looking a lot like the SR-71 was because the SR-71 was based on the YF-12, and also because both of them had the same designer, the extremely famous Clarence “Kelly” Johnson. SR-71B (double cockpit) Number 2: Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird After its introduction in 1966 it has been used by both the USAF and NASA.32 Blackbirds were built, all used for reconnaissance and experimental research. It featured stealth technology but if it was, against all odds, spotted by enemy forces, it could outrun the interceptors or surface-to-air missiles that were fired at it, due to its fantastic speed.

The Blackbird was so fast that the air in front of it did not have time to escape, hence building up a huge pressure, and raised the temperature. The temperature of the aircraft, which could reach several hundred degrees high, expanded the metal, hence it had to be built by too small pieces. Because of this, the SR-71 actually leaked oil when standing still.

The Blackbird holds the record for manned, air-breathing aircraft, see here, A nice documentary about the SR-71 for those who love this plane as much as we do: The winner of our top 10 – the X-15! Number 1: North American X-15 This aircraft has the current world record for the fastest manned aircraft. Its maximum speed was Mach 6.70 (about 7,200 km/h) which it attained on the 3rd of October 1967 thanks to its pilot William J.

“Pete” Knight. To be stable at these super high velocities, it had to feature a big wedge tail, however, the downside of this was at lower speeds the drag was extremely big from such a tail. Therefore a B-52 Stratofortress had to carry it up to an altitude of about 14,000 meters before dropping it at which it ignited its own engines.

Just imagine sitting in a rocket measuring only 15 m in length and then being dropped, must have been a truly magnificent feeling! The X-15 was used at such extreme speeds so that it did not use traditional ways to steer (using drag over a fin) but instead it used rocket thrusters! This made it possible to reach altitudes higher than 100 kilometres, which was one of its world records.

It was the first operational space plane. It got to a height of more than 100 km. It flew more than six times the speed of sound (Mach 6.70).

Can anything go mach 20?

Falcon HTV-2 is an unmanned, rocket-launched, maneuverable aircraft that glides through the Earth’s atmosphere at incredibly fast speeds—Mach 20 (approximately 13,000 miles per hour). At HTV-2 speeds, flight time between New York City and Los Angeles would be less than 12 minutes.

How did Tom Cruise survive Mach 10?

Only one way: his fictional hypersonic aircraft had an escape capsule like the F-111.

Has anything reached Mach 1?

Breaking the Sound Barrier: Chuck Yeager and the Bell X-1 Seventy-five years ago, on October 14, 1947,, piloted by U.S. Air Force Captain Charles E. “Chuck” Yeager, became the first airplane to fly faster than the speed of sound (Mach 1). The experimental purpose-built aircraft reached 1,127 kilometers (700 miles) per hour (Mach 1.06).

Air launched from the bomb bay of a Boeing B-29 bomber after a 30-minute climb to 20,000 feet above Rogers Dry Lake in the southern California desert, the X-1 used its rocket engine to climb to its test altitude of 42,000 feet and began its test run. Early attempts had confronted severe aerodynamic buffeting as the X-1 approached the speed of sound, which threatened the success of the program.

This time the flight went smoothly. Engineers had recently upgraded the aircraft’s adjustable stabilizer allowing Yeager to make instantaneous incremental changes in the angle of attack which smoothed out the airflow as the aircraft approached the speed of sound maintaining elevator effectiveness.

  • On this, the ninth powered flight of the X-1, the Mach meter jumped from Mach,965 to Mach 1.06—faster than the speed of sound.
  • The transition to supersonic flight was remarkably uneventful.
  • After flying under power from the XLR-11 rocket engine for 20 seconds, Yeager cut the power and glided down to the lakebed for a safe landing.

The world’s first piloted supersonic flight had lasted 14 minutes from release from the B-29 to landing. The Bell X-1 flew 78 times—as fast as Mach 1.45 and as high as 21,900 meters (71,900 feet). The X-1 program gathered crucial flight data about transonic and supersonic flight for the Air Force and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), NASA’s predecessor.

  1. It was the first of a series of “X” experimental piloted and unpiloted projects that continue to this day.
  2. Bell X-1 Glamorous Glennis aircraft captured during flight.
  3. Smithsonian Institution) To overcome dangerous aerodynamic forces, the X-1 had extremely thin yet strong wings and a minutely adjustable horizontal stabilizer to improve control.

Designers shaped the fuselage like a,50 caliber bullet, because high-powered bullets were stable at supersonic speeds. A four-chambered Reaction Motors, Inc., XLR-11-RM-3 rocket engine provided 26,500 newtons (6,000 pounds) of static thrust. The data gathered during the X-1 program were immediately applied to a new generation of high-performance combat aircraft, such as the, America’s first supersonic fighter, during the early years of the Cold War.

  1. Capt. Charles Yeager was chosen to fly the Bell X-1 as he was the Air Force’s most experienced test pilot.
  2. A World War II ace with 11 victories, the West Virginia native was a superb pilot with an innate understanding of machines and the rare ability to convey his feel for subjective flight characteristics into performance data for the engineers monitoring his flights.

He named the aircraft Glamorous Glennis in honor of his wife. At the time, many feared that supersonic flight was impossible because of an invisible “barrier” that could destroy aircraft. This flight put that belief forever to rest. As Yeager later stated, “I realized that the mission had to end in a let-down because the real barrier wasn’t in the sky but in our knowledge and experience of supersonic flight.” Chuck Yeager sits in the pilot’s seat of the Bell X-1 Glamorous Glennis,

(Smithsonian Institution) The X-1 experiments solved the challenge of supersonic flight but did not create the transformation people expected. Of great significance to the security and prosperity of the country, these lessons were directly applied to the next generation of military aircraft, keeping America in the forefront of aeronautical research.

However, flying faster than sound proved too expensive for all but military applications, so the age of the civil supersonic transport was brief. Nevertheless, the data gathered on transonic and supersonic flight has made new generations of subsonic civil airliners safer and more efficient.

  1. Today the Bell X-1 Glamorous Glennis is displayed temporarily at the Museum’s Steven F.
  2. Udvar-Hazy Center, appropriately between the Boeing Aviation Hangar and the entrance to the James S.
  3. McDonnell Space Hangar, as it helped bridge the gap between flight in the atmosphere and flight into space.
  4. It will return to display at the Museum in DC in the Boeing Milestones of Flight Hall later in our renovation project.

The Bell X-1 Glamorous Glennis photographed while on display at the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum. (Smithsonian Institution) : Breaking the Sound Barrier: Chuck Yeager and the Bell X-1