What So What Now What?


What So What Now What

What is the Rolfe model of reflection?

The Rolfe et al. model attempts to demystify the reflection process by offering a simple, practical model consisting of three key questions: What? So What? Now What?

What is the so what reflection model?

What is a What, So What, What Now? – What? So What? Now What? is a reflective model that helps teams evaluate a shared experience or a recent event so that they can identify ways to improve or act. This critical thinking model was researched and developed by Rolfe et al,

Understanding the event (What?) Making sense of the facts and implications (So What?)Identifying the course of action or new solutions (Now What?)

What is the now what model?

This reflective method will help you understand problems and discover better solutions. – What? So What? Now What? is a reflective model that helps teams evaluate a shared experience or a recent event so that they can identify ways to improve or act. The exercise works on three phases:

Understanding the event (What?)Making sense of the facts and implications (So, What?)Identifying the course of action or new solutions (Now What?)

This reflective model was researched and developed by Rolfe et al. in 2001. It is also attributed to Henri Lipmanowicz and Keith McCandless, the creators of Liberating Structures,

Why use Rolfe et al reflective model?

Rolfe Reflective Model Pros And Cons – Everything has two sides, like the coin that also have two sides. So well, when we talk about Rolfe’s reflective practice framework, there is no more difference. It has many benefits that are combined with some drawbacks.

What is the 4 F’s model of reflection?

The four F’s of active reviewing – What So What Now What The four F’s of reviewing will help you to review an experience and plan for the future by moving through four levels: Facts, Feelings, Findings, and Future.

What is the so what approach?

0 saved What So What Now What 30.4K views Share this with your network Share this with your network This model was created by Terry Borton as a group facilitation technique in the 1970s before it was popularised as a reflective tool for clinical healthcare practitioners in the 1980s.

Since then, it remains a simple and effective reflective, learning, and communication technique. The What? So What? Now What? approach involves asking ‘what’ happened by describing the facts of an event; ‘so what’ by analysing, sense-making, and drawing insights from the event; and ‘now what’ by applying your lessons for effective next steps.

REFLECTION BASICS. Educator John Dewey captured it best when he noted “We do not learn from experience. we learn from reflecting on experience.” Reflection involves thinking about our past experiences to identify lessons that will inform our future actions.

A simple reflective practice has been shown to boost performance, for example, a research project with call centre workers showed that 15 minutes of daily reflection led to 23% performance improvement, similar results have been demonstrated in more complex work, especially in the health sector (see Origins and Resources for links).

The What? So What? Now What? method has proved to be a popular reflection choice because it’s simple to remember and apply. It can be used in group sessions, for project retrospectives, as part of training interventions, coaching and mentoring conversations, and even as a communication or storytelling framework to structure reports and presentations.

WHAT? Past: describe what happened

What was your experience? What happened, focusing on the actual facts only? What did you particularly notice? What worked well and what didn’t? Who else was involved? What did you do? What was the related data or information?

SO WHAT? Present: analyse and sense-make

How did you feel when it happened? What might have been behind your response? Was this event part of a broader pattern? What caused this event? Why might have other people acted the way they did? What other insights or hypotheses might be drawn from the experience and data?

NOW WHAT Future: effective next steps

What lessons can you take forward in similar and other contexts? How might you prevent negative outcomes or problems in a similar situation? What would you do differently if a similar situation arose? How might you better prepare and resource yourself for a similar situation? How might you test out your understanding or hypotheses through tests or experiments?

LAUNCH YOUR REFLECTION HABIT. After you read this summary, be sure and go back and read about Habit Loops, Embedding a habit of reflection will improve your effectiveness, learning, and productivity, so consider which cues you can use to trigger your reflection routine.

For example, you might initiate a 10m reflection routine when you have a coffee, when you turn off your computer, or even when you board the train to go to the office. The point is to incorporate these ‘what’ questions into your routine. Beyond personal application, you can also consider how to embed reflection into your team and collaborative work by scheduling retrospectives and project reflections using the same questions.

IN YOUR LATTICEWORK. This approach will work best when you apply First Principles in the ‘What?’ section to challenge and let go of assumptions as you focus on the facts. Try digging deeper to understand the So What by applying the Five Whys and/or the Fishbone Diagram to dig into the root cause.

It’s one of the methods you can use to explore Double Loop Learning, particularly if you use ‘So What?’ questions to challenge your existing mental models. It also has close links to other reflective and learning techniques including Black Box Thinking, the OODA Loop, and ultimately the Scientific Method,

Beyond reflection and learning, also consider using this approach as a simple storytelling and communication technique, complementing models such as the Hero’s Journey, the Rule of Three, Minto’s Pyramid and SCQA, and Aristotle’s Rhetoric, The approach also has links to Spotify’s DIBB Framework, which is the company’s data-driven approach to communication and decision making.

What is Schön’s reflective model?

Library: Reflective writing: Schön Schön’s (1991) Reflection in action/Reflection on action provides an additional element by making a distinction between reflection during the event and reflection after the event. It may be helpful to take account of this distinction during your own reflective practice.

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What are the 3 key components of the reflection process?

Library: Reflective writing: What does reflection involve? At the heart of reflection is critical thinking. In short, this means you must ‘question’ everything about your experiences, about what you are felt and with what you read. For an assignment, you need to use evidence-based research or theories by academic writers alongside your personal experience.

objectivity (stand back, be factual and do not take sides) detachment (avoid emotional responses) theories / models / concepts (abstract ideas) compare and contrast (relative thinking) judge evidence based upon reliable research (facts, not feelings) methodologies (quantitative v. qualitative) experimental approaches (empirical approach).

This is where and why your reflective writing comes into its own. The more your reflective writing includes critical and analytical questioning, the more beneficial it will be for your academic achievements and future prospects. In order to take an objective, balanced stance, you need to reflect carefully upon the evidence you have reviewed in the academic literature and adopt an analytical approach to experimental results. Reflective thinking and writing involve a large element of self-discovery. Cottrell (2010) pointed out that the reflective process is challenging. This is because we do not always like to discover the truth about ourselves and the things we most need to know can be the hardest to hear.

It takes time and practice for anyone to develop good reflective skills. You should not be discouraged if the process of reflection does not come naturally or quickly. If you do face up to difficult aspects of our approach to learning (e.g. not being organised) then there will be great benefits. Reflective thinking essentially involves three processes: experiencing something, thinking (reflecting) on the experience, and learning from the experience.

Here is an example: a student receives a low mark in an assignment and reflects upon the experience.

An experience/event : You receive a low mark in an assignment Self-awareness: How you think and feel about the experience
Thinking about the experience: You read the feedback from your tutor and think about what you can do to improve your marks Self-improvement : Learning from experience and wanting to improve on past performance
Learning from the experience : You act on the feedback Empowerment : You take control of making changes in order to achieve a better outcome

The three processes above outline the most simplistic model for reflective practice: There are models that are more complicated and frameworks that you can use for reflection and this section will later consider models by Kolb, Gibbs and Schön. A lot of students struggle with reflective thinking as it seems a very alien skill to those used in the majority of academic reports and essays.

How do you cite the Driscoll model of reflection?

You can find Driscoll’s discussion of the development of his reflective cycle in Driscoll’s Practising clinical supervision on page 43. Your Harvard style in-text citation would be Driscoll (2007, p.43) or (Driscoll, 2007, p.43). A full Harvard reference for your reference list would look like this: Driscoll, J.

What is the most popular reflective model?

Gibbs Reflective Learning Cycle – The Gibbs Reflective Learning Cycle is one of the most commonly-used reflective models in academic writing. It is especially useful if you would like a highly structured way to reflect on an experience, e.g. if you are new to reflective writing.

Describe an experience: What happened and when? This will be important later on to help keep track of your experiences and look back on them. How did it make you feel? This is your raw data that needs to be immediate and authentic. If you think back later on it is unlikely that you will be able to remember your emotional response. Evaluate the experience: What went well? What went less well? Why do you think that may have been the case? Analyse the experience: Can you put your experience in a wider context? Have you had similar experiences before and how did they compare? Is there literature that can help you to understand your experience? What conclusions can you draw? What were the alternatives? What have you learned from the experience? What will you do differently next time? Looking ahead, what can you take away from this experience that you can learn from and improve on in the future?

See G. Gibbs (1988), Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods, Further Education Unit. Oxford Polytechnic: Oxford. Check out our video on the Gibbs Reflective Cycle to get some ideas of how to use it in your work.

Why use Kolb’s reflective model?

Nov 21 The Kolb Reflective Cycle And Why You Should Use It This is the stage where you reflect on your concrete experience. Here you note information from within and outside your body. For example, you should note the thoughts and emotions you experienced during the activity.

Alternatively, you may note any ways in which you were surprised by the activity (e.g., an unexpected reaction from another person). Abstract Conceptualisation After gathering information, you turn observations into concepts, explanations and theories. Specifically, it is important to try and explain why the concrete experience led to what you observed.

For example, you may speculate that taking more breaks improved productivity because energy levels were sustained for a longer portion of the day. Active Experimentation : Nov 21 The Kolb Reflective Cycle And Why You Should Use It

What is the best reflective practice model?

Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle One of the most famous cyclical models of reflection leading you through six stages exploring an experience: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan. Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle was developed by Graham Gibbs in 1988 to give structure to learning from experiences.

Description of the experience Feelings and thoughts about the experience Evaluation of the experience, both good and bad Analysis to make sense of the situation Conclusion about what you learned and what you could have done differently Action plan for how you would deal with similar situations in the future, or general changes you might find appropriate.

Below is further information on:

The model – each stage is given a fuller description, guiding questions to ask yourself and an example of how this might look in a reflection Different depths of reflection – an example of reflecting more briefly using this model

This is just one model of reflection. Test it out and see how it works for you. If you find that only a few of the questions are helpful for you, focus on those. However, by thinking about each stage you are more likely to engage critically with your learning experience.

What is the Gibbs model?

What So What Now What The reflective model according to Gibbs is based on several stages, during which you are required to answer several questions in order to go as deep as possible with your reflections. Gibbs suggests the following stages: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusions and action plan,

  • The idea of this model is to systematise reflections and isolate feelings.
  • The different stages usually help to slow down our thought processes so that we don’t jump to conclusions too quickly.
  • Description: What happened? At this stage you are asked to describe the situation and not to make any judgements or draw conclusions.
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Try to be as detailed as possible, but remain descriptive. Feelings: What were your reactions and feelings? Again you are not to analyse the situation, yet. You are asked to describe your emotional response to the situation you have experienced. Consider what you felt, how your body felt and what you did as well as how the others reacted to your actions.

  1. Evaluation: What was good or bad about the experience? At this stage you are considering the situation and your responses more objectively to make your first value judgements.
  2. You should also consider the experience from other people’s perspective in addition to your own.
  3. This will help you understand if the situation was bad for you only, or if it was a bad experience for others, too.

Analysis: What sense can you make of the situation? What was really going on? Were different people’s experiences similar or different? Once you have considered the situation in an evaluative way, you can start to analyse it in greater detail by considering the above questions.

At this stage you should also bring in ideas from outside the experience to help you. This could mean involving colleagues and peers in your reflections, but also to consult literature and theories in order to make sense of what happened. Conclusions: What can be concluded from these experiences and the analyses you have undertaken? What can be concluded about your personal situation and your way of working? When you draw conclusions you ought to consider the general applicability as well as your specific situation.

Think about what your conclusions mean for you personally, for your immediate context and then more widely for others, too. Personal action plan: What are you going to do differently in this type of situation next time? What steps are you going to take on the basis of what you have learnt? In order for you to improve on your practice and learn from specific experiences you need to take this stage particularly seriously.

What are the 4 F’s in psychology?

As mentioned, when our trauma responses are overactive, we are more likely to feel threatened by non-threatening stressors. Fortunately, there are some ways to cope when trauma responses are overactive: –

Learn relaxation techniques : Techniques such as meditation, yoga, or deep abdominal breathing can help in counteracting the stress responses and allow the body to enter into a calmer state. Engage in physical exercises : Engaging in physical activity is another way to promote calmness in the body. The benefits of regularly exercising have been long mentioned in the research such as increasing and decreasing stress hormones, including adrenaline and cortisol. Seek social support : Finding support from the people around you can help reduce psychological and physiological reactions to perceived threats. Research has found evidence for support by listing benefits such as providing a sense of safety and protection, which in turn helps you feel less stressed and fearful. Gain awareness of triggers : When we are able to understand what triggers our trauma responses, it leaves us in a better position to understand our responses and create new, healthier coping strategies to deal with the threat or trigger. Practice self-compassion : It is also important to not judge your trauma responses or feel ashamed of them. Recognize that these responses, at one point, served as your understanding of the best way to cope with a threat. With an open mind, gain an understanding that our trauma responses may not seem to always be useful in protecting us, the way they did in the past, in current non-threatening situations.

Do you recognize yourself in any of these trauma responses? : Trauma Response (The 4 F’s – Fight, Flight, Freeze, and Fawn)

What are the 4 dimensions of reflection?

Background: This article attempts to move reflection forward from a process currently identified as two-dimensional (reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action) to a four-dimensional process by adding reflection-before-action and reflection-beyond-action.

In nursing clinical practice reflection-in-action is the required skill, but reflection-on-action is often advocated in nurse education through the application of reflective models in assignments. Nurse education draws on practice but generally, when using reflective practice, applies some sort of method or guide to direct student learning.

This approach does not fully recognise that much learning arises from individual students’ own clinical practice experiences. The notion that undertaking reflection-on-action assignments develops the reflection-in-action skills needed for clinical practice is not demonstrated in the literature.

Yet it is reflection-in-action that can aid professional practice and enhance learning. This is why it is important to explore a broader approach to reflection. Aims: To show more value can be gained from engaging with two additional dimensions of reflection – those of reflection-before-action and reflection-beyond-action, and to demonstrate how these can be linked to the better known concepts reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, and to the author’s doctoral research, practice experience and practice development activities.

Findings: Nursing reflection-on-action is widely used for a range of purposes, but restricting reflection in nurse education to this neglects the full potential of a broader application of reflection. A lifelong application of reflection can demonstrate its value for a more holistic and practical development approach.

  1. Conclusions: This article expands reflection and provides two additional dimensions.
  2. Instead of identifying reflection as two-dimensional, this article proposes that reflection can better serve learning from practice and developing professional practice with four-dimensions: reflection-before, reflection-in, reflection-on and reflection-beyond-action.

Implications for practice:

Reflection as a four-dimensional process can give access to improved professional practice that would otherwise remain hidden Through reflecting differently, nurses can process their reflection before-action, in-action, on-action, and beyond-action as a means to expand and deepen their understanding of professional practice Nurses can benefit from being allowed to engage in reflection freely and without constraint

What are 3 types of reflective practices?

Types of Reflective Practice in Language Teaching – Based on some of the earlier research on reflective thinking (e.g. Killion and Todnem, 1991; Schön 1987), Farrell (2012) offers three distinct styles of reflective practice: reflection-in-action, reflection-on-action, and reflection-for-action.

  • Reflection-in-action takes place in the classroom.
  • This is the style of reflection when the teacher is observing what is taking place in the moment, or as the instruction or activities are taking place.
  • In other words, as the teacher is teaching they are noticing what is working or what is not, both in their own teaching and in the learners’ performance.

The second style of reflective practice, reflection-on-action, takes place after the teaching or activity has been concluded. It may take place immediately afterwards or later in the day, or even at a later date altogether. Again, the teacher is reflecting on what they noticed in the classroom.

The third style of reflective practice, reflection-for-action, would be the ultimate goal for teachers. Similar to reflection-on-action, it takes place after the instruction or activity has been concluded, but also includes the data collected from reflection-in-action. However, this process is longer and more critical.

The main focus of reflection-for-action is to utilize the information or data gathered in the classroom, create methods of improving the instruction or activity, and then apply the enhancement towards future lessons. If the adjustments prove successful, the teacher should adopt them, if not, they shouldn’t.

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Is SWOT analysis a reflective model?

How can I engage in reflective learning? – By now, we hope we’ve convinced you about how useful reflective learning can be. However, we do understand that all of this can be quite abstract, so here are some methods to help you get started. Elaborative interrogation Although interrogations are generally something you aim to avoid, you should definitely try elaborative interrogation.

  • Elaborative interrogation simply involves asking yourself questions about the information you are trying to learn or reflect on.
  • For example, you may ask yourself: What are leasehold covenants? Why are leasehold covenants important? Why were leasehold covenants important to the client? The Flex Legal SQE Journal is great for elaborative interrogation.

Our journal entries go far beyond what is required by the SRA in relation to QWE, and ask you to consider various factors, such as your future learning needs and what technical or cultural knowledge you actually acquired from your experience. So, you are automatically engaging in elaborative interrogation by completing your Flex Legal SQE Journal.

SWOT Analysis One very popular method of reflection is the SWOT analysis. This is where an individual considers their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Whilst these headings are relatively self-explanatory, people can sometimes find it difficult to really pinpoint these ideas. Whilst assessing your strengths, you may ask yourself: “What did I do better than others on the project?” or “What have other people complimented me on during my QWE?”.

When thinking about your weaknesses, you may think about what tasks you actively avoided on your QWE because you didn’t feel confident in doing them. To pinpoint your current opportunities, you could consider how new technology could help you during your future QWE, or whether you have built any new contacts that you could take advantage of.

  • Finally, when identifying threats, you may want to ask yourself what obstacles you faced during your QWE.
  • Venn Diagram Approach The final approach is a fantastic tool for visual learners, as it can really help you to visually organise your thoughts and ideas.
  • The left side of the venn diagram contains your current strengths.

You may find it useful to ask yourself some of the SWOT analysis questions to determine these. The right side contains your aspirations for your future career. These aspirations may be as big as becoming a Partner at a magic circle law firm, or something smaller, such as mastering LexisNexis on your next QWE placement.

What are the 6 stages of Gibbs reflective cycle?

Embracing Gibbs cycle in your organisation – Here’s a list of guidance tips for organizations interested in embracing Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle as their professional development model.

Understanding the Gibbs Reflective Cycle : Before implementing, ensure that everyone in the organization understands the Gibbs Reflective Cycle model. This model consists of six stages: Description, Feelings, Evaluation, Analysis, Conclusion, and Action Plan. The goal is to encourage deep level reflection on experiences to foster learning and improve future actions. Promote a Culture of Reflection : Encourage everyone in the organization to incorporate reflection into their daily routine. Reflection should not be seen as an added task, but rather as an integral part of the professional development process. Use Real-Life Situations : For the methods in education to be effective, use real-life situations when applying the Gibbs Reflective Cycle. This way, employees can relate to the experiences, making the reflection process more relevant and meaningful. Encourage Sharing of Reflections : Create a safe space for individuals to share their reflections. This could be through team meetings, one-on-one sessions with managers, or through online platforms. Sharing allows for collective learning and may provide different perspectives on the same situation. Integrate Reflective Practice in Training Programs : Use the Gibbs Reflective Cycle in training programs. After each training session, encourage participants to go through the reflective cycle. This can help them understand the training content better and apply it in their work. Link Reflection to Personal Development : Connect the outcome of the reflection to personal development plans. The Action Plan stage of the cycle should feed into the individual’s personal development plan, helping them identify areas of strength and areas needing improvement. Provide Guidance and Support : Provide guidance and support in the early stages of implementing the Gibbs Reflective Cycle. This could include providing templates or guides, or offering training on how to use the model effectively. Continuous Review and Feedback : Regularly review the use of the Gibbs Reflective Cycle in your organization and provide feedback. This will help ensure that the model is being used effectively and is helping individuals in their professional development. Model Reflective Practice : Leaders and managers should model reflective practice themselves. This shows that the organization values reflective practice and can motivate employees to engage in it themselves. Celebrate Success : Recognize and celebrate when reflective practice leads to positive changes or improvements. This can motivate employees to continue using the Gibbs Reflective Cycle in their professional development.

What are the questions in the Rolfe reflective model?

What? is the problem/difficulty/ reason for being stuck/reason for feeling bad/reason we don’t get on? was my role in the situation? was I trying to achieve? actions did I take? was the response of others? were the consequences for the student?

What is the model of reflective pedagogy?

What is Reflective pedagogy is a teaching model where educators continually reflect upon their lessons and curriculum to improve future iterations of their course. Instructors who use the reflective pedagogy model regularly gather data on student satisfaction, engagement and belonging to help inform subsequent lessons.

  • They typically poll learners before, during and after class to ensure their course is taught in a way that’s conducive to student success.
  • Reflective pedagogy refers to a curriculum approach where educators collect and analyze evidence of effective teaching.
  • Educators typically turn to evidence, including qualitative and quantitative data from students, colleagues’ perceptions, personal experiences and educational theory and research.

Self-assessment is a core component of reflective pedagogy. Here, educators may record themselves giving a lecture and then observe their behavior and delivery to critique the efficacy of their lessons. Educators may also use a teaching inventory to assess their current teaching practices and spark new ideas for future lessons and/or courses.

What is the self-reflection learning theory?

Students who are reflective will be able to relate new understandings to previous knowledge, take a critical overview of the self and broaden their thinking into a larger (such as sociopolitical) context, thus moving to a higher-order learning stage (Moon 1999).