What Is The Capital Of China?


What Is The Capital Of China
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Does China have 2 capitals?

China’s Capital Cities: Beijing, Xi’an & Shanghai.

What was the original capital of China?

2. Xi’an — the First Capital When China Was United – X’ian Xi’an is also a world-class historical city that retains more of its ancient character and atmosphere than Beijing. Xi’an was the first imperial capital of China in the brief Qin era (221–206 BC). It was also notably the capital of the Western Han (206 BC – 9 AD) and Tang (618–907) dynasties.

3-Day Essence of Xi’an Tour 1-Day Xi’an Highlights Tour

What was the capital city of China before Beijing?

National Capital On September 27, 1949, the First Plenary Session of the CPPCC unanimously adopted a resolution making Beiping, renamed Beijing as of the day, capital of the PRC. Beijing’s History Some half a million years ago, Peking man lived in Zhoukoudian, in the southwestern suburbs of Beijing.

  1. The climate of that time was warmer and more humid than it is today.
  2. Forests and lakes in the area supported large numbers of living creatures.
  3. The fossil remains of Peking man, his stone tools and evidence of use of fire, as well as later tools of 18,000 years ago, bone needles and article of adornment from the age of Upper Cave Man are the earliest cultural relics on record in China today.

Some four to five thousand years ago, settlements to the southwest of Beijing were thriving on basic agriculture and animal husbandry. Story has it that the legendary Yellow Emperor (Huang Di) battled against the tribal leader Chiyou in the “wilderness of the prefecture of Zhuo.

“Zhuolu, a town west of present day Beijing, is perhaps the site of the first metropolis in the area. Yellow Emperor’s successor, Emperor Yao, was said to have established a legendary capital Youdu (City of Quietude) that was where the city of Ji was actually built. During the Warring States Period (475-221BC), the Marquis of Yan annexed the territory of the Marquis of Ji, making the city of Ji his new capital.

The approximate location was north of Guang’ anmen Gate in presentday Beijing near the White Cloud Temple (Baiyunguan). Early in the third century BC, the first Emperor of Qin (Qin Shi Huang) set about conquering six states and unifying China. The city of Ji was named administrative center of Guangyang Commandery, one of 36 prefectures in China’s first feudal empire.

For 10 centuries, through to the end of the Tang Dynasty (618-907), Ji remained a strategic trading and military center and the object of frequent power struggles. Two emperors during that period – Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty (581-618) and Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty – left their mark on the city.

Emperor Yang amassed troops and supplies at Ji for expeditions against Korea. Emperor Taizong also used the city for military training. He built the Temple for Compassion for the Loyal (Minzhongsi), which is dedicated to troops who died in battle. This temple was the precursor of the Temple of the Origin of the Dharma (Fayuansi) located outside the old walls of the city.

  1. At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, Ji was little different from any other large feudal cities.
  2. Several centuries later, however, when the Tang was nearing a state of collapse, the Qidans (Khitans) came from the upper reaches of the Liaohe River and moved south to occupy Ji and make it their second capital.

They called the city Nanjing (Southern Capital) or Yanjing. Emperor Taizong of the Liao Dynasty (916-1125) carried out reconstruction projects and built palaces, which were used as strongholds from which the Qidans set out to conquer the central plains of China.

  • In the early 12th century, the Nuzhen (Jurchen) conquered the Liao and established the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234).
  • In 1153, Wan Yanliang moved the Jin capital from Huiningfu in present day Liaoning Province to Yanjing and renamed it Zhongdu (Central Capital) as a challenge to the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279), which had its capital at Lin’an (present day Hangzhou).

Before the ascension of Wan Yanliang to the throne, the city of Yanjing had changed little from the Liao period. The rebuilding of the new city began in 1151 with expansion to the east, west and south. Palaces were constructed on a scale similar to the Northern Song (960-1127) capital at Bianliang (modern Kaifeng), and many of the actual building materials were transported from Bianliang.

The new expanded city, with its splendid buildings in the center measured roughly five kilometers in circumference. The registered population of the Imperial Palace in the center measured roughly five kilometers in circumference. The registered population of Zhongdu amounted to 225,592 households, or approximately one million people.

Mongol armies occupied Zhongdu in 1215. At this time, the city of Kaiping (in present day Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region) served as the principal Mongol capital (Shangdu), while Yanjing was given provincial status. It was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan formally adopted the new dynasty’s name – Yuan – and made Yanjing the capital.

  • Ublai Khan rebuilt the city and gave it the Chinese (Han) name of Dadu (Ta-tu) or Great Capital, though in Mongol it was known as Khanbalig (Marco Polo’s Cambaluc), the City of the Great Khan.
  • When the Mongols finally eliminated the Southern Song and unified China, Dadu became the political center of the country for the first time in history.

The construction of Dadu began in 1267 and ended in 1293, extending throughout the entire period of Kublai Khan’s rule. The magnificent palaces of the Jin capital Zhongdu were destroyed by fire during the dynastic turnover from the Jin to the Yuan. When the capital was rebuilt, the original site of Zhongdu was replaced by a larger rectangular area centered in a beautiful lake region in the northeastern suburbs.

  • The construction of Dadu consisted of three main projects – the imperial palaces, the city walls and moats, and the canal.
  • The first stage was construction of the palace buildings, most of which were completed in 1274.
  • The next stage was construction of the mansions for the imperial princes, the government offices, the Taimiao (Imperial Ancestral Temple) and Shejitan (Altar of Land and Grain) to the east and west of the palace, and a system of streets for ordinary residences.

In 1293, the strategic Tonghui Canal, connecting the capital to the Grand Canal, was completed. As the capital city of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), Dadu enjoyed great fame in the 13th century world. The envoys and traders from Europe, Asia and Africa who paid visits to China were astounded by the splendor and magnificence of Dadu.

  1. Marco Polo’s description of the palaces of Cambaluc, as the called Khanbalig, us most famous of all: “You must know that it is the greatest palace that ever was – the roof is very lofty, and the walls of the palace are all covered with gold and silver.
  2. They are adorned with dragons, beasts and birds, knights and idols, and other such things.

The Hall of the Palace is so large that 6,000 people could easily dine there, and it is quite a marvel to see how many rooms there are besides. The building is altogether so vast, so rich and so beautiful, that no man on earth could design anything superior to it.

The outside of the roof is all colored with vermilion and yellow and green and blue and other hues, which are fixed with a varnish so fine and exquisite that they shins like crystal, and lend a resplendent luster to the palace as seen for a great way around.” The new Dadu was a rectangular city more than 30 kilometers in circumference.

In the later years of Kublai Khan’s rule, the city population consisted of 100,000 households or roughly 500,000 people. The layout was the result of uniform planning, the broader streets all 24 paces wide, the narrow lanes half this width. The regular chessboard pattern created an impression of relaxed orderliness.

  1. Achievements in stone and plaster sculpture and painting at this time reached great heights.
  2. The names of two contemporary artisans have come down to us: the sculptors Yang Qiong and Liu Yuan.
  3. The latter was known for the plaster statues he created for temples.
  4. Liulansu Lane at the northern end of Fuyou Street in present day Beijing was named after Liu Yuan.

On August 2, 1368, Ming troops seized Dadu and renamed it Beiping (Northern Peace). Zhu Yuanzhang, the founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), however, made Nanjing his first capital. Beginning in 1406, Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty spent 15 years constructing walls 12 meters high and 10 meters thick at their base around the city of Beiping.

  1. The construction of palace buildings and gardens began in 1417 and was completed in 1420.
  2. The following year, Emperor Yongle formally transferred the capital from Nanjing to Beiping and, for the first time, named the city Beijing (Northern Capital).
  3. Extensive reconstruction work was carried out in Beijing during the first years of the Ming Dynasty.

The northern city walls were shifted 2.5 kilometers to the south. Evidence of great advances in city planning is the district known as the Inner (Tartar) City. The Outer or Chinese City to the south was built during the reign of Emperor Jiajing (1522-1566), adding to the rectangular city a slightly wider “base” in the south.

  1. When the Manchus founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, they began to build suburban gardens, the most famous of which was Yuanmingyuan.
  2. Construction over the course of an entire century, the imposing columned palaces and open-air pavilions blended with the serenity of well-planned gardens to create a masterpiece of garden architecture unrivaled in the history of China.

A city plan was first laid out in the Yuan Dynasty. Yet only after extensive reconstruction during the Ming and Qing (1644-1911), did the city emerge as an architectural masterpiece fit to serve as the capital of the Chinese empire. A north-south axis bisects the city with the Imperial Palace was knows as Danei (The Great Within).

In the Ming, it was renamed the Forbidden City (Zijincheng), and more recently it has come to be called the Palace Museum (Gugong Bowuyuan). Designed with thousands of halls and gates arranged symmetrically around a north south axis, its dimensions and luxuriance are a fitting symbol of the power and greatness of traditional China.

After the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, China fell prey to the Northern Warlords and Kuomintang, Beijing suffered the same fate as the rest of China, hobbling along like an old camel without a sense of direction. The Chinese People’s Liberation Army formally entered Beijing on January 31, 1949, opening a new chapter in the long history of the city.

It was in Tian’anmen Square on October 1st, 1949, that Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital. The city has changed totally since then. It has expanded from its old confines within the nine gates of the Inner City wall (Zhengyangmen, Chongwenmen, Xuanwumen, Chaoyangmen, Dongzhimen, Fuchengmen, Xizhimen, Andingmen and Deshengmen) to the seven outer gates (Dongbianmen, Guangqumen, Xibianmen, Guang’ anmen, Yongdingmen, Zuoanmen and Youanmen) and out into the suburbs, Beijing now covers an area of about 750 square kilometers, which includes a dozen new living districts built on the outskirts of town.

Tian’anmen Square is still the center of Beijing, Chang’ an Boulevard now running 38 kilometers from Shijingshan in the west to Tongxian in the east. The palaces and city towers along both sides have been designated cultural relics for national protection.

  • Former imperial residences and gardens have been opened for public viewing.
  • New buildings like the International Post Office and Bank of China have been built along the Second Ring Road, the former line of the Inner City wall.
  • Old living quarters and blocks of traditional Beijing-style buildings, such as Liulichang Culture Street, have been restored.

Large-scale construction has been undertaken along the Third Ring Road and the fourth Ring Road. Future development in Beijing will continue to preserve the symmetry of the old city layout while integrating modern architectural design into the over-all plan.

Beijing’s Location The city has shifted location several times in the past several thousand years, but the spatial dimensions have remained fairly constant over time. The present city center is 39:56′ N, 116:20′ E, at an elevation of 44.38 meters above sea level, the northwestern corner rising mere 10 meters above the southeast.

Originally the city stood on a slight ridge of land formed by alluvial deposits. This silted base, the edge of the North China Plain, was built up over time by the sand carried downstream through the mountains by the Yongding River in the west and the Chaobai River in the east.

In terms of outlying geographical features, the extensive Yanshan Mountain range forms a silvan screen to the northeast, the long, winding Taihang Mountain range to the west. Just beyond, to the northwest, the vast Mongolian plateau begins. The Gulf of Bohai lies 113 kilometers to the east and to the south, the vast North China Plain.

Geologists call this small gulf-shaped plain surrounding Beijing the “Beijing Gulf” though in fact, the city sits off in its southwestern corner, Early writers described the setting with the sea on one side and the mountains in the background as a “heavenly paradise,” a “city of the gods.” Beijing has a continental monsoon climate commonly found in the temperate zone.

  • In winter, cold, dry winds blow out of Siberia and Mongolia in the northwest; in summer, warm, moist air currents from the southeast take over.
  • A general change of wind direction occurs in March or April and again in September.
  • Wind velocity in Beijing is comparatively low, averaging 2 meter/second.
  • The average annual rainfall of 630 millimeters is regarded as a generous “heavenly endowment” for North China, which is otherwise predominantly dry and short of rain.

The coldest month in Beijing is January, with an average temperature of 4.7:C. The hottest month is July, with an average of 26.1:C. Rapid temperature increases in the spring are often accompanied by sandstorms, but windless days in that season are wonderfully pleasant.

Autumn, though short-lived, is a concentrated stretch of clear, crisp days and patchwork trees. Historically speaking, the mountains to the north, east and west acted as boundaries with outlying pasture lands. Communities in the presentday “Beijing Gulf” traded with the nomadic tribes who lived out beyond Gubeikou in the north and Nankou in the west and maintained frequent commercial contact with people of the central plain region settled along the Yellow River.

It was trade and the pivotal role of the area as a center of commerce which gave rise to the ancient city of Ji. Official Trees and Flowers In the spring of 1987, delegates to the Sixth Session of the Eighth Municipal People’s Congress, meeting in the Great Hall of the People. What Is The Capital Of China The stately cypress symbolizes the courage and strength of the Chinese people, their simple, and hard working nature and their defiance in the face of aggression. This Platydadus Orientalis, or Oriental Arborvites, can grow as tall as 20 meters. Some of those in Zhongshan Park were planted as long as 1,000 years ago during the Liao Dynasty. The scholar tree is a symbol of good fortune, joy and well-being. Dating back to the Qin and Han dynasties Sophora Japonica were planted extensively at the Tang Dynasty Imperial Palace in Chang’ an. At Beihai Park an ancient specimen in the courtyard of the Painters Corridor, is believed to have been planted during the Tang Dynasty, before 907. The rose, a Chinese native, has been cross-bred many times, but it still has half of the original Chinese strain, Known as Perpetual Spring, Monthly Red, Snow Challenger and Victorious, it is fast growing, regenerates easily and is graceful and long blooming (May to October). The chrysanthemum has many names and varieties. In Beijing potted chrysanthemums may be seen year round. They flower in summer and fall naturally but can be forced to bloom any time of year. During the Qing Dynasty, there were 400 rare strains of chrysanthemum. Beijing’s flora-culturists now boast more than 1,000 varieties. : National Capital

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Is it Nanking or Nanjing?

In English, the spelling ‘Nanking’ was traditional until pinyin, developed in the 1950s and internationally adopted in the 1980s, standardized the spelling as ‘Nanjing’.

Is Hong Kong is a part of China?

Academic publications –

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  • Cheng, Edmund W. (June 2016). “Street Politics in a Hybrid Regime: The Diffusion of Political Activism in Post-colonial Hong Kong”, The China Quarterly,226 : 383–406. doi : 10.1017/S0305741016000394,
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  • Fu, Poshek (2008). “Japanese Occupation, Shanghai Exiles, and Postwar Hong Kong Cinema”. The China Quarterly,194 (194): 380–394. doi : 10.1017/S030574100800043X, JSTOR 20192203, S2CID 154730809,
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  • Jordan, Ann D. (1997). “Lost in the Translation: Two Legal Cultures, the Common Law Judiciary and the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region”, Cornell International Law Journal,30 (2): 335–380.
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What is China’s largest city?

List of major cities by population

Rank City Latest Estimate
1 Shanghai 26,875,500
2 Beijing ⍟ # 21,167,303
3 Guangzhou #* 18,810,600
4 Shenzhen #~ 17,633,800

How old is China country?

7. China: 2100 BC – What Is The Capital Of China Image Source Amongst the oldest nations in the World, the next on the list is China as it has been known to exist for over 3500 years. The Shang Dynasty ruled in China in 17th century B.C to 11th century B.C. This is considered as the longest-ruling period for any dynasty.

What is the old name for Beijing?

Beijing | Province, City, History, Map, & Facts The residents of Beijing speak a dialect of Mandarin Chinese that forms the basis of Modern Standard Chinese (Guoyu), or putonghua (“common language”), which is commonly taught throughout the country. The is an imperial palace complex at the heart of Beijing, designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987 in recognition of its importance not only as the centre of Chinese power for five centuries but also for its unparalleled architecture and adherence to the practice of feng shui.

The former name of Beijing is Beiping (Pei-p’ing; “Northern Peace”). The third Ming emperor gave it the new name of Beijing (“Northern Capital”) during the 15th century. Beijing has been the capital of China since the early 15th century, except for a brief period during the 20th. Beijing hosted the Summer Olympics for the first time in 2008.

Beijing, Pei-ching, conventional Peking, city, province-level shi (municipality), and capital of the, Few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural centre of an area as immense as China. The city has been an part of China’s history over the past eight centuries, and nearly every major building of any age in Beijing has at least some national historical significance.

  1. The importance of Beijing thus makes it impossible to understand China without a knowledge of this city.
  2. More than 2,000 years ago, a site north of present-day Beijing was already an important military and trading centre for the northeastern frontier of China.
  3. In 1267, during the (1206–1368), a new city built northeast of the old—called Dadu—became the administrative capital of China.

During the first five decades of the subsequent (1368–1644), (Nanking) was the capital, and the old Mongol capital was renamed Beiping (Pei-p’ing; “Northern Peace”); the third Ming emperor, however, restored it as the imperial seat of the and gave it a new name, Beijing (“Northern Capital”).

  1. Beijing has remained the capital of China except for a brief period (1928–49) when the government again made Nanjing the capital (although the capital was removed to during World War II); during that time Beijing once again resumed the old name Beiping.
  2. The city remained the most flourishing cultural centre in China despite the frequent political changes in the country throughout the early decades of the 20th century; Beijing’s importance was fully realized, however, only when the city was chosen as the capital of the People’s Republic in 1949, and this political status has added much vitality to it.

Indeed, few cities have ever had such rapid growth in population and geographic area, as well as in industrial and other activities. Combining both historical relics of an ancient and new urban construction, ranging from fast-food franchises to plush hotels for foreign tourists and corporate travelers, it has become a showplace of modern China and one of the world’s great cities.

Renewed international attention focused on Beijing after it was chosen to host the 2008 Summer, Area city, 1,763 square miles (4,567 square km); Beijing municipality, 6,500 square miles (16,800 square km). Pop. (2006 est.) city, 8,580,376; (2009 est.) urban agglom., 12,214,000; (2010) Beijing municipality, 19,612,368.

Although much of Beijing’s older and more character has been destroyed in the drive since 1949 to modernize and industrialize, some parts of the city are still redolent of the past. Many fine monumental buildings, old, and centres of traditional Chinese arts and crafts remain, and the central has taken measures to prevent the city core from being further industrialized.

Broad new boulevards, replete with even newer commercial ventures, have displaced the colourful stalls and markets for which the city was once famous, but the neighbourhood life of old Beijing can still be glimpsed in the narrow hutong s (residential alleys), with their tiny potted-plant gardens, enclosed courtyards, and (decreasingly) -burning —some of which are still guarded by carved stone lions at their gates.

People in Beijing by,,, or and on hot summer evenings sit outside their blocks to catch cooling breezes and to chat. The citizenry has a wide range of leisure pursuits, particularly those considered good for, The ancient art of ( taijuquan ; Chinese boxing) is widely practiced, singly or in groups, along roadsides and in parks.

Locals as well as tourists are attracted to the many nearby historical sites, such as the Summer Palace, the tombs of the Ming emperors, and the, Older people, especially the men, like to huddle in tiny restaurants and tea shops. Young people are drawn to the city’s many cafés and nightclubs, where the entertainment can range from DJ-run dance music to Chinese rock bands.

For all the of its history, Beijing continues to be a source of great pride for its inhabitants. Their are, as they have been for centuries, food and knowledge: they eat heartily when they have the means and read voraciously. Food stalls on the streets, selling a variety of cooked treats, are well, as are newspaper and magazine kiosks.

How many states in China?

Source: National Bureau of Statistics Administratively, China 16 is divided into 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions (Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang), 4 municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing) and 2 Special Administrative Regions (Hong Kong, Macao).

  1. Mainland China is also classified into different geographic areas, specifically eastern, central and western regions.
  2. A Many economic and human development indicators are lower in the western region, compared to the eastern region.
  3. A Eastern region includes 11 provinces (municipalities): Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong and Hainan.

Central region includes 8 provinces: Shanxi, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei and Hunan. Western region includes 12 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities): Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang.

Is Beijing the oldest city in the world?

Beijing is one of the world’s oldest cities – As an inhabited city, Beijing has over 3,000 years of history and is one of the oldest in the world! The city is six times older than New York. The historical artifacts around Beijing are ancient: the Great Wall was built in the Qin Dynasty (221-207 BCE).

Why did China change its capital?

Are the Chinese Longing for a New Capital? February 15, 2013 Beijing has been the capital of China for about 700 years. Is that about to change? What Is The Capital Of China Cars drive on and below Guomao Bridge on a heavily hazy day in Beijing January 30, 2013 (Jason Lee/Reuters) That a city on the northern fringe of what’s considered ” ” as the capital of the Chinese empire is something of an accident of history. When the moved the capital to his old fiefdom from Nanjing after usurping the throne from his nephew, he could hardly foresee that this place, with its shortage of fresh water and an abundance of dust, would become home to more than 20 million people and 5 million cars.

  • On February 8, social media user @ tweeted on Sina Weibo a rumor that Xinyang, a small city in Henan Province, may become the capital of China in 2016, citing information leaked by a local government website in the city.
  • He claimed that a group of more than 160 experts descended on Xinyang to explore the possibility for the 28th time in July 2012.

The idea may have plenty of backers. A search for “capital move” (迁都) yielded almost 450,000 results on Sina Weibo, China’s Twitter. Sick and tired of, getting bumped on the subway, and while government vehicles with special license plates cruise by, many Beijingers fantasize about the day when their fellow countrymen stop crowding into their city to take advantage of its highly concentrated resources.

That’s great! Finally Beijing will be saved,” wrote @. User @ declared, “This is the most exciting rumor of 2013.” Beijing resident @ commented, “Please move soon. Move to wherever, as soon as possible. Over the Chinese New Year holidays, there were just 9 million people left here out of the population of 20 million.

There were no traffic jams, the subway cars were quite empty, and the air improved. It was awesome.” And why not? After all, as some Internet users noted, there are many precedents of capitals moving from large metropolises to planned cities, such as in Brazil, Argentina, and even the United States.

  • However, for China, such a move is unlikely to be taken as lightly as in the New World.
  • Historically, a capital move signified great upheaval and potential dynastic transition in China.
  • Only when the legitimacy of the reigning power was severely imperiled in some way did the emperor pick up and leave for a new home.

Surely, that is not the message that the Chinese Communist Party leadership wants to send to its people and the world. It’s also worth asking whether the people of Xinyang actually want their home to become the new capital. User @, a current Xinyang resident, wrote, “Please don’t come.

Was Peking renamed Beijing?

Peking – Look up Peking in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Portugal was the first European country to contact China in modern times. In Portuguese, the city is called Pequim. This name appeared in the letters of Francis Xavier in 1552. It transferred to English as “Pekin” and to French as Pékin,

  • Jesuit missionary Martino Martini used “Peking” in De bello Tartarico historia (The Tartary War) (1654) and Novus Atlas Sinensis (New Atlas of China) (1655).
  • In 1665, Martini’s work was reissued as part of Atlas Maior (great atlas), a much-praised atlas by Dutch publisher Joan Blaeu,
  • Before 1842’s Treaty of Nanking, the only Chinese port cities open for trade with western countries were Canton (廣州 Guǎngzhōu), Amoy (廈門 Xiàmén) and Chusan (舟山 Zhōushān) wherein the predominant spoken languages were Cantonese or Min Chinese,
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In Cantonese, 北京 (Běijīng) is bak1 ging1, and in Southern Min Chinese, it’s Pak-kiaⁿ. As with many other long-established Chinese names and terms, “Peking” came from those languages rather than Mandarin, the native areas of which were long inaccessible to westerners.

In English, both “Pekin” and “Peking” remained common until the 1890s, when the Imperial Post Office adopted Peking. Beginning in 1979, the Chinese government encouraged use of pinyin romanisation system. The New York Times adopted “Beijing” in 1986, with all major US media soon following. Elsewhere in the Anglosphere, the BBC switched in 1990.

“Peking” is still employed in terms such as ” Pekingese “, ” Peking duck “, ” Peking Man ” and various others, as well as being retained in the name of Peking University,

Does Japan still deny Nanking?

Japanese historians challenge historical deniers of the Nanjing atrocities. Last Updated: May 12, 2020 History education and documentation were the focal points for historian Ienaga Saburo. His successful suit against the Japanese government to change the method by which history textbooks were adopted and how events like the Nanjing Atrocities and the institution of military sexual slaves are included greatly impacted Japanese society.

  • Despite Ienaga’s efforts, since the 1970s ardent Japanese nationalists continued to use history education as a platform to promote their political views.
  • Criticizing what they perceived as a liberal view of history, these Japanese public figures, intellectuals, and politicians critiqued the depiction of wartime atrocities in textbooks and called for yet another revision of texts.

Some publically dismissed the extent of Japanese wartime atrocities and called for a revision of history texts once again while at the same time expressing nostalgia about the era of prewar empire in Japan and Japanese power in the region.1 In response, Japanese historians such as Fujiwara Akira (1922–2003) and his allies within Japan established the “Nanjing Massacre Research Group” in the 1980s.

  • Their efforts to present and publish research on what occurred between 1937 and 1938 in Nanjing, China, within Japan stands as a direct reaction to the escalation of nationalism directed at erasing the culpability of Japan’s wartime actions.
  • As an effort at countering and challenging historical deniers, Fujiwara published the following essay, “Nankin jiken o do miru ka” (How to see the Nanjing incident), on the 60th anniversary of the occupation of Nanjing in 1997: Sixty years have passed since imperialist Japan began its total war of aggression in China in July 1937 and, in November of that year, committed large-scale atrocities during the occupation of Nanjing, the Chinese capital.

In Japan today, some forces still refuse to acknowledge the war of aggression and persist in affirming and glorifying the war. And these war glorifiers focus particularly on denying the facts of the Nanjing massacre. Just as Nazi glorifiers focus particularly on denying the facts of the Holocaust, the symbol of German war crimes, their Japanese counterparts are vehement deniers of the Nanjing massacre, which symbolized the war crimes committed by Japan.

Now, sixty years later, researchers must investigate the Nanjing incident in order to stop these denial arguments and demolish the glorification of war. When Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration and surrendered in August 1945, the state officially acknowledged the war of aggression and the Nanjing massacre committed by the Japanese army.

The Potsdam Declaration denounced Japanese aggression and specified the punishment of war criminals. After the surrender, the International Military Tribunal for the Far East convened in Tokyo. In November 1948 the court handed down its judgment that the war was a war of aggression for which Japan was responsible, and it also acknowledged that 200,000 people had been massacred in Nanjing.

Then, in article 11 of the San Francisco Peace Treaty concluded in San Francisco in 1951, Japan signaled its acceptance of the judgments of the war crimes trial about the war of aggression and the Nanjing massacre. And because most Japanese, having experienced the horrors of war welcomed the Peace Constitution and were deeply critical of the war, they, too, accepted the treaty.

But this provision was disregarded almost as soon as the treaty came into effect. Because the postwar purge of public officials was lifted around the same time, right-wing activists returned to politics in force. The affirmation and glorification of the war began with a publishing boom in war books and the assault on history textbooks for being critical of the war.

One focus of the present movement of politically motivated historical revisionism is the denial of the facts of the Nanjing massacre. In order to counter the views of these war glorifiers and “liberalists” who distort history for their own purposes, it is up to us to make the facts clear. However abhorrent these events are to Japanese, that they occurred is a fact, and only confronting these facts can they become “lessons for the future.” Recently the denials of the Nanjing massacre have centered on the question of numbers.

At the beginning, the war glorifiers had labeled the massacre as an “illusion” or a fiction, but this view was completely bankrupted by advances in scholarly research. So now they are reduced to arguing about the number of victims, to the effect that because the numbers are small, it was not a massacre.

  • This debate limits the time frame and geographic extent of the events in order to calculate as small a number of victims as possible,
  • Yet another question that must be addressed is why Japanese became the perpetrators.
  • Believing in emperor-system militarism, poisoned by sexism and ethnocentrism, without offering any resistance whatsoever, they became the perpetrators of a massacre.

Understanding the conditions that made this possible is essential to preventing such offenses of history from ever happening again.2

Has Japan apologized for Nanking?

2010s –

  • February 11, 2010: Foreign Minister Katsuya Okada said: “I believe what happened 100 years ago deprived Koreans of their country and national pride. I can understand the feelings of the people who lost their country and had their pride wounded,” Okada said during a joint news conference with South Korean Foreign Minister Yu Myung-hwan, (This was a statement marking the 100th anniversary of Japan’s colonial annexation of Korea, and not in reference to Japan’s war acts in particular.)
  • August 10, 2010: Prime Minister Naoto Kan expressed “deep regret over the suffering inflicted” during the Empire of Japan’s colonial rule over Korea. Japan’s Kyodo News also reported that Cabinet members endorsed the statement. In addition, Kan said that Japan will hand over precious cultural artifacts that South Korea has been demanding. Among them were records of an ancient Korean royal dynasty.
  • September 13, 2010: Foreign Minister Katsuya Okada apologized to a group of six former American soldiers who during World War II were held as prisoners of war by the Japanese, including 90-year-old Lester Tenney, a survivor of the Bataan Death March in 1942. The six and their families and the families of two deceased soldiers were invited to visit Japan at the expense of the Japanese government in a program that will see more American former prisoners of war and former prisoners of war from other countries visit Japan in the future.
  • December 7, 2010: Prime Minister Naoto Kan apologized for Korea’s suffering under colonization as part of a statement marking the 100th anniversary of the annexation in 1910. “I express a renewed feeling of deep remorse and state my heartfelt apology for the tremendous damage and suffering caused by colonial rule,” Kan said. Kan said Japan colonized Korea “against the will of the Korean people” who suffered great damage to their national pride and loss of culture and sovereignty as a result and added that he wants to take an honest look at his country’s past with the courage and humility to address its history.
  • March 3, 2011: Foreign Minister Seiji Maehara apologized to a group of Australian POWs visiting Japan as guests of the Government of Japan for the ill-treatment they received while in Imperial Japanese captivity.
  • December 8, 2011: Parliamentary Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs Toshiyuki Kat apologized to Canada for their treatment of Canadian POW’s after the Battle of Hong Kong,
  • November 13, 2013: Former Japanese Prime Minister Hatoyama Yukio offered personal apology for Japan’s wartime crimes, especially the Nanking Massacre, “As a Japanese citizen, I feel that it’s my duty to apologize for even just one Chinese civilian killed brutally by Japanese soldiers and that such action cannot be excused by saying that it occurred during the war.”
  • April 9, 2014: Japanese Ambassador to the Philippines Toshinao Urabe expressed “heartfelt apology” and “deep remorse” and vowed “never to wage war again” at the Day of Valor ceremony in Bataan.
  • April 29, 2015: Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, during the first speech of a Japanese prime minister at a Joint session of the United States Congress, stated “deep repentance” for Japan’s actions during World War II.
  • December 28, 2015: Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida and South Korean Foreign Minister Yun Byung-se announced at a joint press conference, which consisted of their respective statements on behalf of Japan and South Korea. Kishida stated, “The issue of comfort women, with involvement of the Japanese military authorities at that time, was a grave affront to the honor and dignity of large numbers of women, and the Government of Japan is painfully aware of responsibilities from this perspective. As Prime Minister of Japan, Prime Minister Abe expresses anew his most sincere apologies and remorse to all the women who underwent immeasurable and painful experiences and suffered incurable physical and psychological wounds as comfort women.” The statement went on to explain that “the Government of Japan will now take measures to heal psychological wounds of all former comfort women through its budget” and that it had been decided that the South Korean government would “establish a foundation for the purpose of providing support for the former comfort women”. In return, Yun stated that his government “acknowledges the fact that the Government of Japan is concerned about the statue built in front of the Embassy of Japan in Seoul from the viewpoint of preventing any disturbance of the peace of the mission or impairment of its dignity, and will strive to solve this issue in an appropriate manner”. Both stated that this agreement will “finally and irreversibly” resolve the contentious issue and that “on the premise that the Government of Japan will steadily implement the measures it announced”, both countries “will refrain from accusing or criticizing each other regarding this issue in the international community, including at the United Nations”.

Is Mandarin spoken in Nanjing?

The Nanjing dialect (simplified Chinese: 南京话; traditional Chinese: 南京話; pinyin: Nánjīnghuà), also known as Nankingese, Nanjingese and Nanjing Mandarin, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Nanjing, China.

Why Hong Kong is so rich?

1. Hong Kong’s Unique Location and History – What Is The Capital Of China Hong Kong’s bays are more than just aesthetically-pleasing spots for tourists and photographers – they are one of the primary reasons behind the region’s success. Hong Kong’s spot on the globe, combined with its geography, makes it a prime location for trade.

  1. The region’s ports make it perfect for merchants, and its proximity to other Asian countries allows Hong Kong to import and export a diversity of products.
  2. Hong Kong has been used as a trading centre since its time under British rule.
  3. Back in the late 1800s, the region was already a crucial port where manufacturing, shipbuilding, and goods export were prevalent.

Changes happened when numerous mainlanders took refuge in Hong Kong to escape the war. The influx of refugees brought entrepreneurs and capital into the region, and industrialization began at a rapid pace. During this time, Hong Kong was known for exporting textiles and clothing and manufacturing electronics, plastic items, and other products.

Are Hongkongers considered Chinese?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For the local Cantonese dialect, see Hongkongese,


Total population
c.7.413 million
Regions with significant populations
Hong Kong 7,413,070
Mainland China 472,900
United States 330,000
Canada 213,855
United Kingdom 145,000
Taiwan 87,719
Australia 86,886
Macau 19,355
Netherlands 18,300
Japan 18,210
Hong Kong Cantonese (94.6%), Hong Kong English (53.2%), Mandarin (48.6%)
Non-religious with ancestral worship, Christianity, Chinese folk religion, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, minority Islam and other faiths
Related ethnic groups
Cantonese people, Macau people, Hoklo people, Hakka people, Teochew people, Shanghainese people


Hongkongers Chinese 香港人 Traditional Chinese 香港人 Simplified Chinese 香港人


Hongkongers ( Chinese : 香港人 ), also known as Hong Kongers, Hongkongian, Hong Kongese, Hongkongese, Hong Kong citizens and Hong Kong people, are demonyms that refer to the citizens and nationals of Hong Kong, It also typically refers to residents of the territory of Hong Kong ; although may also refer to others who were born and/or raised in the territory.

  • The earliest inhabitants of Hong Kong are indigenous villagers such as the Punti and Tanka, who have inhabited the area prior to British colonization,
  • Though Hong Kong is home to a number of people of different racial and ethnic origins, the overwhelming majority of Hong Kongers are of Han Chinese descent.

Many of whom are Yue –speaking Cantonese peoples and trace their ancestral home to the adjacent province of Guangdong, Nevertheless, the territory also holds other Han subgroups including the Hakka, Hoklo, Teochew (Chiuchow), Shanghainese, Sichuanese and Taiwanese,

Why did China take over Hong Kong?

The Chinese government resumed exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong The Hong Kong issue was left over from history. Hong Kong(including the Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories) has been a part of China ‘s territory since the ancient times.

Britain Launched the Opium War against China in 1840 and compelled the Qing government to sign the Treaty of Nanking, permanently ceding the Hong Kong Island to it. Britain and France launched the Second Opium War in 1856. In 1860, Britain forced the Qing government to sign the Convention of Peking, permanently ceding to it the southern tip of the Kowloon Island.

In 1898, exploiting the establishment of sphere of influence in China by imperialist powers, Britain again forced the Qing government to sign the Kowloon Extension Agreement, “leasing” large area of land north of the Boundary Street of the Kowloon Island and over 200 islets nearby(later called the New Territories) for a term of 99 years until June 30, 1997.

The Chinese people have always been opposed to these three unequal treaties. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the Chinese government took a consistent position over Hong Kong: Hong Kong is a part of China ‘s territory. China does not recognize the three unequal treaties imposed on it by imperialism.

The Hong Kong issue should be resolved through negotiation when conditions permit, and the existing status of Hong Kong should be maintained pending a solution. After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held in 1978, the Chinese people endeavored to turn China into a modern socialist country, bring about the country’s reunification and oppose hegemonism.

  1. Deng Xiaoping put forward the concept of “one country, two systems” for resolving the issues of Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao.
  2. With the approaching of 1997, Britain was anxious to learn about China ‘s position on resolving the Hong Kong issue.
  3. It thus became possible to settle the Hong Kong issue.
  4. The negotiations on resolving the Hong Kong issue between the Chinese and British governments proceeded in two phases.
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During the first phase, from September, 1982 when British Prime Minister Mrs. Thatcher visited China to June, 1983, the two sides discussed the guiding principles and procedures for conducting negotiation. During the second phase, from July, 1983 to September, 1984, the government delegations of the two countries held 22 rounds of talks on substantive issues concerning Hong Kong.

Deng Xiaoping met Mrs. Thatcher on September 24, 1982, after the Chinese premier held talks with her. The Chinese leaders officially informed Britain that the Chinese government had decided to recover the whole area of Hong Kong in 1997 and stated that China would adopt special policies on Hong Kong after it is recovered.

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region would be set up. Hong Kong would be governed by the people of Hong Kong. The existing social and economic systems in Hong Kong and its way of life would remain unchanged. Mrs. Thatcher, on her part, insisted that the three unequal treaties should remain in force.

She said that if China agrees to continued British administration of Hong Kong after 1997, Britain may consider China ‘s demand for sovereignty over Hong Kong. In response to her views, Deng Xiaoping made important remarks when meeting Mrs. Thatcher. Deng said: “Our stand on Hong Kong is explicit. Three issues are involved here.

First is the issue of sovereignty. The second is that in what way China will administer Hong Kong after 1997 to ensure its prosperity. The third is that the Chinese and British governments should have consultations to ensure that no major disturbances occur in Hong Kong in the 15 years leading to 1997.” Deng pointed out that “sovereignty is not negotiable.” He said that ” the political and economic systems and even the majority of the laws currently in force in Hong Kong may continue.” “Capitalism will continue to be practiced in Hong Kong.” He suggested that ” an agreement be reached by two sides to begin consultation on the issue of Hong Kong.

  • The premise is that China will recover Hong Kong in 1997.
  • On this basis, consultation can be conducted on how to ensure the smooth transition in the next 15 years and on how Hong Kong will function after the 15 year transitional period.” During the meeting, the two sides agreed to enter into consultation on resolving the Hong Kong issue through diplomatic channels.

In the following six months, however, no progress was made in the consultation as Britain stuck to its position on the sovereignty of Hong Kong. In March, 1983, Mrs. Thacther wrote to the Chinese premier, promising that she was prepared to propose to the British Parliament during a certain stage that the sovereignty of the whole of Hong Kong be reverted to China,

  • The Chinese premier wrote back in April, informing her that the Chinese government agreed to hold formal talks on this issue at an early date.
  • The first round of talks were held between the Chinese and British government delegations between July12-13, 1983.
  • No progress was made in the ensuing three rounds of talks as Britain insisted that it should continue to administer Hong Kong after 1997.

In September, 1983, Deng Xiaoping told the visiting former British prime minister Heath that Britain’s proposal of exchanging sovereignty for power of administration was not acceptable. He urged Britain to change its position lest China had to make public unilaterally in September, 1984 its policies on resolving the Hong Kong issue.

The British prime minister wrote a letter to the Chinese side in October, agreeing that both sides may discuss ways for long-term arrangements for Hong Kong on the basis of China ‘s proposal. During the fifth and sixth rounds of talks, Britain affirmed that it would no insist on British administration of Hong Kong, nor would it seek any form of joint administration.

It accepted China ‘s plan based on the premise that both the sovereignty and power of administration of Hong Kong should be returned to China after 1997. Thus, a major obstacle standing in the way of Sino-British talks was removed. Starting from the 7th round of talks, the negotiations proceeded on the basis of the basic policies of the Chinese government for settling the Hong Kong issue.

  1. In accordance with the basic polices of the Chinese government on the Hong Kong issue, the future Hong Kong Special Administrative Region will be directly under the Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China.
  2. With the exception of foreign affairs and defense, which are the responsibilities of the Central People’s Government, the future Hong Kong Special Administrative Region will enjoy a high degree of autonomy.

The Central People’s Government will station troops in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to conduct defense. The government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region will be composed of local inhabitants. British and other foreign nationals may be employed to serve as advisors or hold positions up to deputy department directors in the government.

  • Although Britain made the explicit commitment that it would not raise any proposal that contravenes the principle of China ‘s sovereignty over Hong Kong, it still raised many issues that violated its commitment.
  • For instance, Britain tried repeatedly to use the concept of “maximum autonomy” to alter the concept of “high degree of autonomy” raised by the Chinese side in an attempt to obstruct placing the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region under the direct jurisdiction of the central government.

Britain also repeatedly asked the Chinese side not to station troops in Hong Kong so as to limit China ‘s exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong. It asked to set up the office of “British Commissioner” who is different from the counsels general of other countries in Hong Kong, hoping to turn the future Hong Kong Special Administrative Region into a member or associated member of the Commonwealth.

Britain asked that foreign nationals holding Hong Kong passports may serve the highest level officials in Hong Kong’s civil services and that China take over without any change the structure the existing Hong Kong government and accept changes Britain may make in the Hong Kong government during the transitional period.

In essence, by raising the above demands, Britain wanted to turn the future Hong Kong into an independent or semi-independent political entity under its influence. As they directly contravened China’s sovereignty, these demands were naturally rejected by China,

  1. Starting from the 12th round of talks in April, 1984, the negotiation shifted onto arrangements in Hong Kong during the transitional period and matters relating to the transfer of power,
  2. Through negotiation, China and Britain agreed that China would recover Hong Kong and resume the exercise of sovereignty over it, and there should be explicit reference in this regard in the agreement between the two sides.

Britain, however, did not accept China ‘s formulation of its resumption of exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong. The several drafts it put forward all had the implication that the three unequal treaties were valid, which were not acceptable to the Chinese side.

Finally, both sides agreed to use the following formulations in the form of a Joint Declaration: The Chinese government declared that “the Government of the People’s Republic of China has decided to resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong with effect from 1 July 1997.” The British government declared that “the Government of the United Kingdom will restore Hong Kong to the People’s Republic of China with effect from 1 July 1997.” During the ensuing three rounds of talks, the delegations of the two sides discussed complex technical issues on nationality, aviation and land and the wording of the agreement.

The two sides reached agreement on all the issues on September 18, 1984 and initialed the Sino-British Joint Declaration and its three annexes. This brought the two-year old Sino-British negotiation on Hong Kong to a successful conclusion. On December 19, 1984, the heads of government of China and Britain officially signed the Joint Declaration on the issue of Hong Kong in Beijing.

On May 27, 1985, the Chinese and British governments exchanged instruments of ratification, and the Sino-British Joint Declaration formally entered into force. Following the signing of the Joint Declaration, Hong Kong entered the transitional period. Generally, the Chinese and British governments had good cooperation during the transitional period and resolved many important issues.

The British side, however, in a bid to accomplish its “honorary retreat” from Hong Kong, sought to change the political system in Hong Kong under the name of expanding democracy and attempted to impose it on the Chinese side. With this in mind, Patten, the last governor of Hong Kong, introduced a plan of political reform.

  1. The Chinese government rejected the plan with a firm and yet measured response, ensuring the smooth transition of Hong Kong and the transfer of its power.
  2. At midnight, June 30, 1997, the Chinese and British governments held a power transferring ceremony in Hong Kong at which the Chinese government formally resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong.

Hong Kong’s return to China marks the success of applying Deng Xiaoping’s concept of “one country, two systems” to resolve the Hong Kong issue and an important step forward in the cause of China ‘s reunification. It also contributed to world peace and stability.

In his speech delivered at the power transferring ceremony, President Jiang Zemin emphasized that after Hong Kong is returned to China, the Chinese government will firmly pursue the basic policy of “one country, two systems”, “Hong Kong people governing Hong Kong” and ensuring a high degree of autonomy for Hong Kong.

The existing social and economic systems in Hong Kong and its way of life will remain unchanged. He expressed the confidence that with the strong backing of the entire Chinese people, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the people in Hong Kong can certainly run Hong Kong well, ensure its long-term prosperity and stability and create a bright future for Hong Kong.

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The Chinese government resumed exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong

What is the largest city on earth?

1. Tokyo, Japan – 37.4 million people.

Which part of China is the richest?

Shanghai is China’s richest city. But even billionaires and celebrities aren’t safe from its extreme lockdown – ABC News.

What is China’s official language?

Spoken Language – China covers a very broad area of land. There are more than 70 million people belonging to 55 different national minorities living in China.7 Each minority has their own spoken language. Many of the minority groups do not have a distinguishable written form for their languages.

The spoken Chinese language is comprised of many regional variants called dialects. Modern Chinese dialects evolved between the 8 th and 3 rd centuries BC.8 The differences in dialect are due to the different pronunciation and vocabulary. The official dialect of China is Mandarin, also call “Putonghua”.

More than 70% of the Chinese population speaks Mandarin, but there are also several other major dialects in use in China: Yue (Cantonese), Xiang (Hunanese), Min dialect, Gan dialect, Wu dialect, and Kejia or Hakka dialect.9

Why is Peking the capital of China?

News When did Beijing become the capital of China?

This story is from January 20, 2007 When did Beijing become the capital of China? Beijing, earlier known as Peking and Peiping, was founded by Zhou around 700 B.C. Kublai Khan made it the capital of his Khanbalik Empire, from 1264 to 1267. The Ming emperors made it their capital in 1421 and it remained China’s capital till 1912 when the Manchu Empire fell and SunYat Sen turned China into a republic.

Why isn’t Xi an the capital of China?

All had been capitols in the past. Xi’an was rejected because it is too far west. The infrastructure of today might have made a difference. Nanjing had recently been the capitol of Guo Min Dang (KMT) and it was considered that many KMT sympathizers were still there.

When did Peking become Beijing?

Peking – Look up Peking in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Portugal was the first European country to contact China in modern times. In Portuguese, the city is called Pequim. This name appeared in the letters of Francis Xavier in 1552. It transferred to English as “Pekin” and to French as Pékin,

Jesuit missionary Martino Martini used “Peking” in De bello Tartarico historia (The Tartary War) (1654) and Novus Atlas Sinensis (New Atlas of China) (1655). In 1665, Martini’s work was reissued as part of Atlas Maior (great atlas), a much-praised atlas by Dutch publisher Joan Blaeu, Before 1842’s Treaty of Nanking, the only Chinese port cities open for trade with western countries were Canton (廣州 Guǎngzhōu), Amoy (廈門 Xiàmén) and Chusan (舟山 Zhōushān) wherein the predominant spoken languages were Cantonese or Min Chinese,

In Cantonese, 北京 (Běijīng) is bak1 ging1, and in Southern Min Chinese, it’s Pak-kiaⁿ. As with many other long-established Chinese names and terms, “Peking” came from those languages rather than Mandarin, the native areas of which were long inaccessible to westerners.

  1. In English, both “Pekin” and “Peking” remained common until the 1890s, when the Imperial Post Office adopted Peking.
  2. Beginning in 1979, the Chinese government encouraged use of pinyin romanisation system.
  3. The New York Times adopted “Beijing” in 1986, with all major US media soon following.
  4. Elsewhere in the Anglosphere, the BBC switched in 1990.

“Peking” is still employed in terms such as ” Pekingese “, ” Peking duck “, ” Peking Man ” and various others, as well as being retained in the name of Peking University,

Why did China move their capital to Beijing?

A political center in the north can better guard the northern frontiers. – Before Zhu Di became the emperor of Ming, he was the King of Yan and guarded the northern frontiers and protected people in Beijing and surrounding areas from being robbed by the nomadic Mongolians.

  1. When he took over the throne and moved to Nanjing, the defense in the north was weakened, and the Mongolians harassed the territory of Ming more frequently.
  2. In order to strengthen the military power in the north and block the harm caused by the Mongolian power, Zhu Di moved the capital to Beijing, which was also the beginning of the Ming Dynasty’s policy “the Emperor guards the national gate”.

– Last updated on Sep.18, 2019 –