What Is A Cat N?


What Is A Cat N

What does N mean in a cat?

‘N’ basically means non-structural damage, indicating the vehicle is repairable and that repair costs will never exceed its market value. The damage is always less than category C. You may need to replace the bumpers, roof panel, electrics, engine, and seats.

What cat 1 means?

Category 1 cable – Wikipedia Type of twisted-pair cable Category 1 cable, also known as Cat 1, Level 1, or voice-grade copper, is a grade of cabling designed for communications, and at one time was the most common, The maximum frequency suitable for transmission over Cat 1 cable is 1 MHz, but Cat 1 is not currently considered adequate for data transmission (though it was at one time used for that purpose on the starting in the late 1980s in the form of, an implementation of Apple’s networking hardware standard).

What is neutral cat?

From around the age of 4 months, kittens reach sexual maturity and are therefore capable of breeding and producing kittens themselves. Most people do not have the time or desire to breed from their cat and do not wish to add to the number of unwanted cats and kittens already looking for homes.

What is cat F1?

F1 Savannah cats are 50% “wild” – “F” stands for the Savannah cat’s “filial” rating—specifically, how many generations removed from the African serval that particular cat is. In the case of an F1 Savannah cat, the highest number, you’re looking at a first generation domestic Savannah.

  1. The F1 Savannah cat is considered 50% wild.
  2. As the filial number increases (F2, F3), the measure of wild blood (serval DNA) decreases.
  3. Because there is a significant difference in gestation periods between the African serval (75 days) and a domestic cat (65 days), F1 Savannah cats are considered very difficult to produce.

There are also incompatibilities between each species’ sex chromosomes.

What does cat 2 mean?

Understanding Voltage Ratings – In the CAT ratings system, the roman numerals, (i.e. I through IV) refer to the location of a circuit in relation to the power source, defined in terms of the total potential transient voltage danger,

CAT I describes secondary circuits not intended to be connected to the mains electricity supply, such as electronics, including a typical laptop PC, and circuits powered by regulated low voltage sources. CAT II is defined as local-level electrical distribution, such as a standard mains socket and plug-in loads. This category includes household appliances, such as washing machines, and portable plug-in power tools. CAT III references a building’s electrical installations, including circuit-breakers, wiring, switches and industrial equipment,

CAT IV involves the source of the low-voltage power installation, essentially the power grid infrastructure, such as underground utility vault s or outdoor power lines,

However, determining the appropriate voltage category is only half the story. Simply matching the presumed voltage to the test and measurement device will also not provide adequate safety assurance. F ailed electrical units can experience impulse or transient voltages on the order of many times a particular electrical tool’s rating.

  • For example, a line may normally have a voltage of 120 or 240, but a lightning strikes can create transient voltage, perhaps several thousand volts, that can cause a short circuit and arcing that may severely injure personnel testing the power infrastructure with inadequate equipment,
  • In essence, not only must the tool have the appropriate CAT rating for the application, the device must also have a voltage rating higher than the maximum voltage of the given environment to withstand potentially dangerous surges in voltage.

Thankfully, IEC supplies a quick-reference chart to determine whether or not a given electrical tool is appropriate for the task at hand.

Rated Voltage IEC 61010-1 2nd Edition UL 61010B-1 (UL 31111-1)
150V 4000V 2500V 1500V 2500V 1500V 800V
300V 6000V 4000V 2500V 4000V 2500V 1500V
600V 8000V 6000V 4000V 6000V 4000V 2500V
1,000V 12kV 8000V 6000V 8000V 6000V 4000V
Resistance 2-ohms  2-ohms 12-ohms  2-ohms 12-ohms 30-ohms

What is a cat III rating?

A: The CAT III & IV ratings defines the overvoltage installation categories that applies to low voltage systems of The lower the number, the less impulse the item can withstand and also the further downstream from the voltage source the component can be installed or used.

Can male cats spray?

4 min read Inappropriate peeing is one of the most common problems people have with their feline friends. It can happen for many reasons. Medical issues such as kidney problems and arthritis can cause your cat to urinate in the wrong place. If these issues have already been ruled out, the cause is a behavioral one.

Communicating through smells is normal in the animal world. If you’ve ever walked a dog, you know they spend half the time sniffing around, looking for the perfect place to mark. Cats are territorial as well but have different ideas about managing territory. Cats have a unique social structure. They see themselves as equal to other cats.

They don’t like to share territory, and, when forced to, they don’t have a system like dogs for determining who’s in charge. Cats aren’t well equipped to handle confrontation. When confrontation or change happens, they can get stressed. “Spraying,” or urine marking, is their way of telling other cats or new people to back off without a direct confrontation.

  • Threatened
  • An urge to mate and is trying to attract other cats
  • Stressed
  • Discomfort from a medical issue

In some cases of inappropriate peeing, there’s an issue with the litter box that forces your cat to do their business elsewhere. Look for these signs to tell the difference between a litter box problem and feline urine marking:

  • A cat that’s spraying will have their tail straight up in the air and project their rear toward the target. The tail may shake or quiver.
  • A cat that’s spraying will usually only mark with urine and will still use the litter box regularly. It’s rare for a cat to mark with stool.
  • A cat that has a litter box problem will leave their excrement on the floor or other horizontal surface. A cat that’s spraying will usually leave their urine on a vertical surface, like a wall.

Cats don’t like change. They can give a frosty reception to anyone from a visitor to a new baby, and may be aggravated when a new pet is brought into the home. That’s because they aren’t equipped to deal with confrontation. Since cats see each other as equals and don’t follow a hierarchy like dogs do, they usually move around the house independently of one another — that includes eating, perching, and visiting the litter box.

This doesn’t mean it will be a conflict-free zone. Conflict between cats often goes unnoticed by cat owners, because it comes in subtle ways before it escalates. Cat conflict style could be described as passive-aggressive. They may stare at each other silently or block each other from food dishes before escalating to spraying, hissing, and fighting.

You might notice your cat losing weight if they don’t have access to the food bowl. Since cats spray to mark their territory, keeping the conflict level low is in everyone’s best interests. Recent studies have shown that cats who spray could also be experiencing long-term stress.

  • Spread resources like food, water, and litter boxes around the house to make sure each cat has access.
  • Be sure to have one litter box per cat, plus one extra.
  • Have different areas for your cats to perch, each with space for only one cat.
  • You may need to separate your cats by creating individual spaces for them. Closed doors and baby gates can come in handy.
  • Spread the love. Set aside time to play and cuddle with each of your cats so they all feel equally loved.
  • Reduce anxiety by using a pheromone diffuser. These are commonly sold at pet stores.
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Urine marking in intact cats. An intact cat is a cat that hasn’t been spayed or neutered. These cats have a higher tendency to mark, due to the hormones they make. Neutering will decrease the odor and motivation to spray, but feline urine marking still happens in up to 10% of neutered cats.

Spraying caused by conflict with outdoor cats. Indoor cats can get upset when they see an outdoor cat. They can get more agitated if the outdoor cat begins spraying nearby. If that happens, your cat may start to mark their territory by spraying inside the house. If this is the case, close the curtains or block any view your cat might have of the outdoor cat.

Using a pheromone diffuser will help your cat relax and reduce their anxiety. Try speaking to the neighbor who owns the cat or setting up remote deterrents that emit sound. Does gender matter when it comes to cat spraying? Both male and female cats can spray.

  1. Clean soiled areas using mild-fragrance soap. You may need an enzymatic cleaner as well. Strong-smelling cleaners could cause your cat to mark again.
  2. Make soiled areas inaccessible. This will block your cat from marking the same area again.
  3. Keep items that smell foreign to your cat out of reach to discourage spraying.

What does F1 and F2 mean in cats?

Buying a Cat S or Cat N Insurance Write-Off Car Explained

The F1 cat is the largest hybrid offspring of a serval-to-domestic mating. An F2 cat has at least one parent that is an F1. An F2 cat may not be quite as large as the F1 but will still retain many of the other characteristics of an F1.

Can cats Unbond?

Owners are often very sentimental and will anthropomorphize these cats and say they’re bonded to make themselves feel better, but then when we see them attacking one another in a foster home or not spending time together at all, we know we can safely unbond them.

What does cat mean in code?

Introduction If you have worked in Linux, you surely have seen a code snippet that uses the cat command. Cat is short for concatenate. This command displays the contents of one or more files without having to open the file for editing. In this article, learn how to use the cat command in Linux. Prerequisites

A system running Linux Access to a terminal window / command line

How do you read cat expressions?

A cat who is feeling good will have relaxed open eyes, ears facing forward, relaxed muzzle, and loose and curved whiskers. Pain in a cat is shown by squinty eyes, ears flat and rotated outward, muzzle tension, and whiskers staring and pushed forward.

What is Na K level in cats?

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne Werribee, Victoria, Australia The classic electrolyte pattern of primary hypoadrenocorticism comprises hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia and hyperkalaemia. These abnormalities primarily reflect aldosterone deficiency, with impaired renal conservation of sodium (Na + ) and excretion of potassium (K + ) ions and depletion of the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume 5-6,

  1. The normal serum sodium:potassium (Na + :K + ) ratio in dogs and cats lies between 27:1 and 40:1 6,
  2. A low ratio (below 27:1) can be a valuable clue to the possibility of primary hypoadrenocorticism, especially if the ratio is greatly diminished 6,12,
  3. However, a low ratio is neither pathognomonic of primary hypoadrenocorticism nor invariably present in affected animals.

In primary hypoadrenocorticism, insufficient aldosterone is secreted by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortices. Aldosterone secretion is normally directly stimulated by hyperkalaemia and by angiotensin II which is produced in response to volume depletion.

  1. Aldosterone stimulates Na + reabsorption and secretion of K + and hydrogen (H + ) ions in the distal nephrons.
  2. Its chief action is to increase the number of open Na + channels in the luminal membranes of epithelial cells lining the distal tubules and collecting ducts.
  3. Sodium reabsorption via these channels generates electronegativity in the tubular lumen to promote K + secretion.

Electronegativity is dissipated by either passive reabsorption of chloride (Cl – ) ions or by secretion of K + or H +, Aldosterone also increases the number and activity of Na + -K + -ATPase pumps in the basolateral membranes of the tubular cells; this permits an increased intracellular K + concentration to produce a chemical concentration gradient promoting K + secretion into the tubular lumen 3,

High distal tubular flow rates also enhance K + secretion by maintaining this concentration gradient between the tubular cells and the luminal fluid 3,12, Aldosterone also promotes K + secretion by increasing the number of open K + channels in the luminal membranes of the tubular cells 3, In primary hypoadrenocorticism, hyponatraemia and hypochloraemia are chiefly a consequence of loss of Na + and Cl – into urine 5-6,

Sodium loss leads to ECF volume depletion and often profound dehydration if fluid intake is inadequate 6, Volume depletion is a strong non-osmotic stimulus for release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin). Impaired excretion of water loads due to ADH release may exacerbate the hyponatraemia by diluting ECF Na +5,

Volume depletion also causes a decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and distal tubular flow rates and so contributes to both impaired water excretion and K + retention 5, Hyperkalaemia may also result from a shift in K + from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. This shift is enhanced by both aldosterone deficiency and by metabolic acidosis 6,

Not all dogs and cats with primary hypoadrenocorticism have these electrolyte abnormalities 3, 5-6, 12-13, Primary hypoadrenocorticism has a typically insidious onset and gradual course unless concurrent illness or other stress triggers an acute crisis by increasing the demand for mineralocorticoids 6-7,

  • Electrolyte levels may be normal or only hyponatraemia may be detectable early in the disease (when only glucocorticoid deficiency may be present) or if sampling occurs during a quiescent phase when clinical signs are minimal or absent 5-6,
  • Potassium balance may be preserved if Na + intake is sufficient to maintain normal ECF volume and flow rates within the renal distal tubules 3,
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Hyponatraemia developing in animals with glucocorticoid deficiency prior to the onset of mineralocorticoid deficiency is thought to result from volume depletion, activation of ADH, water retention and hence dilution of ECF Na +5-6, In these circumstances, hyponatraemia is not accompanied by hyperkalaemia 6,

  1. Electrolyte abnormalities are not anticipated in other forms of hypoadrenocorticism.
  2. In secondary hypoadrenocorticism, decreased pituitary secretion of ACTH chiefly affects the glucocorticoid-secreting zonae fasciculata and reticularis of the adrenal cortices rather than the mineralocorticoid-secreting zona glomerulosa.

Only rarely do these animals develop dilutional hyponatraemia as described above 6, Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroid therapy after long term administration is also expected to cause only glucocorticoid deficiency, with no effect on electrolytes.

  1. Overdosage of hyperadrenocorticoid dogs with o,p’-DDD (mitotane) may occasionally cause necrosis of all three adrenocortical layers to result in both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid deficiency but usually the zona glomerulosa is spared and electrolyte levels remain normal 6,
  2. Whereas electrolyte abnormalities and a low Na + :K + ratio in primary hypoadrenocorticism primarily reflect aldosterone deficiency, comparable electrolyte patterns may develop in non-adrenal disorders (particularly renal and gastrointestinal disease) despite normal to increased plasma aldosterone concentrations 1, 4, 8-11, 14, 16-18,

Clinical signs in some of these disorders may mimic hypoadrenocorticism. The decline in the Na + :K + ratio may reflect hyponatraemia alone, hyperkalaemia alone or concurrent hyponatraemia and hyperkalaemia 12-13, In a retrospective study of 34 dogs with Na + :K + ratios lower than 24:1, hyperkalaemia was invariably present but not all dogs had hyponatraemia 12,

In this study, renal or urinary tract disease was the most common underlying disorder (41%) and only 24% of affected dogs had primary hypoadrenocorticism. Hypoadrenocorticism was the most common cause of a ratio less than 15:1. Electrolyte patterns suggestive of primary hypoadrenocorticism and Na + :K + ratios as low as 14:1 have been documented in dogs with primary gastrointestinal disease.4, 8, 11 Trichuriasis has been the most common underlying disorder 4, 8, 11 but other conditions have included combined trichuriasis and ancylostomiasis 4, combined trichuriasis and ascariasis 12, combined trichuriasis and enteric salmonellosis, combined trichuriasis and gastric torsion, and perforating duodenal ulcers 4,

Comparable electrolyte patterns have also been observed in dogs with gastroenteric signs referable to parvoviral or canine distemper virus infection and in dogs with severe malabsorption syndromes 6, A slight decrease in the Na + :K + ratio in association with mild hyponatraemia and normokalaemia has also been described in a dog with lymphocytic gastritis 17,

Severe loss of fluids (whether isotonic or hypotonic) in vomitus and/or diarrhoea is expected to cause depletion of ECF volume, a decline in GFR and distal tubular flow rates, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) (to promote renal Na + and water retention) and non-osmotic stimulation of ADH release (to promote renal water retention).

Although direct loss of Na + in gastroenteric fluids or decreased Na + intake due to inappetence or anorexia may contribute, hyponatraemia chiefly results from dilution of ECF Na + by retained water. This dilution is compounded by increased water consumption due to stimulation of thirst 4-5, 8, 11,

Hyperkalaemia may develop if hypovolaemia and hyponatraemia persist. Hyperkalaemia is thought to be largely attributable to decreased renal excretion of K + due to volume depletion and decreased distal tubular flow rates 3, In hypovolaemic states, resorption of Na + and hence water by proximal renal tubules is enhanced, leading to reduced luminal delivery of fluid to the distal nephron.

Low distal tubular flow rates reduce the concentration gradient which normally promotes K + secretion into the tubular lumen. If the concentration of Na + in the lumina of distal tubules becomes very low, decreased uptake of Na + into distal tubular cells may diminish the electrochemical gradient required for movement of K + ions into the lumen, thereby exacerbating the hyperkalaemia 1, 3, 10,

  • Metabolic acidosis arising from loss of bicarbonate (HCO3 ) ions in diarrhoea may also promote hyperkalaemia via translocation of intracellular K + into the ECF 4,8, 11,
  • Decreased urinary excretion of K + is the usual mechanism responsible for hyperkalaemia in small animals 3,
  • Common non-adrenal causes include urethral obstruction, anuric or oliguric renal failure (especially acute renal failure but also terminal chronic renal failure) and bladder 6 rupture with uroperitoneum 2-3,

Affected animals are expected to have renal azotaemia and they may also have hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia, hypovolaemia, metabolic acidosis and a low Na + :K + ratio 2-3, 12, 17, Both hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis may contribute to hyperkalaemia, the former by reducing GFR and hence distal tubular flow rates and the latter by promoting translocation of intracellular K+ into the ECF 3,

  1. Hyponatraemia and hypochloraemia may largely reflect decreased dietary intake and gastrointestinal losses (especially via vomiting).
  2. However, in uroperitoneum, loss of fluid into the peritoneal cavity causes a reduced effective circulating volume, stimulation of RAAS, non-osmotic ADH release and stimulation of thirst so that dilution of ECF Na + and Cl – ions by retained water occurs 2,5,

There have been multiple reports of hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia and low Na + :K + ratios in dogs with body cavity effusions. Examples have included idiopathic and experimentally induced chylothorax 16-17, pleural effusion associated with partial lung lobe torsion 18 or metastatic mammary neoplasia 12, abdominal effusion associated with congestive heart failure, pancreatitis or haemangiosarcoma 12 and ascites secondary to peliosis hepatis and portal hypertension 9,

  1. In some of these cases, electrolyte disturbances only emerged after repeated drainage of fluid 16,
  2. Almost all reported cases of electrolyte disorders associated with body cavity effusions have involved dogs.
  3. However, hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia and a decreased Na + :K + ratio below 25:1 have been recently described in four cats with peritoneal effusions 1,

One cat had peritoneal carcinomatosis and another feline infectious peritonitis; the cause of effusion was not established in the two other cats. Development of hyponatraemia in some animals with cavity effusions may be explained simply by direct loss of isotonic fluid into the cavity 12, 16, 18,

Sodium loss into the subcutis and into a pleural effusion was postulated as the cause of hyponatraemia and hypovolaemia in a dog with a cutaneous/subcutaneous lymphangiosarcoma and suspected intrathoracic spread, with hyponatraemia being compounded by repeated drainage of fluid from both sites and by reduced Na + intake due to inappetence 10,

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However, many animals with body cavity effusions have a decreased effective circulating volume despite an increased total ECF volume 1,5, Decreased effective circulating volume would be expected to cause non-osmotic secretion of ADH, activation of RAAS and stimulation of thirst.

Dilution of ECF Na + by retained water would therefore be expected to contribute to hyponatraemia 1,5, Consistent with retention of water, elevated plasma aldosterone and renin concentrations and decreased urine fractional excretion of Na + were demonstrated in the dog with peliosis and ascites 9, Similarly, an elevated serum aldosterone concentration was documented in one cat with a peritoneal effusion and two cats with peritoneal effusions were shown to be producing concentrated urine 1,

Irrespective of the mechanism responsible for hyponatraemia, development of hyperkalaemia in animals with body cavity effusions is thought to chiefly reflect impaired renal K + excretion due to hypovolaemia anddecreased distal tubular flow rates 1,3, 5, 10, 16.

  • An, inappropriately low urine fractional excretion of K + despite an appropriate increase in aldosterone concentration and appropriate renal Na + retention was demonstrated in a dog with pleural effusion due to lung lobe torsion 18 and a dog with chylothorax 16,
  • Repetitive episodes of external haemorrhage may cause hyponatraemia by direct Na + loss.

Daily phlebotomy over 14 consecutive days caused severe hyponatraemia in dogs fed low salt diets 15, Affected dogs had impaired renal concentrating ability which was thought to be referable to hypo-osmolality, impaired ADH release and depletion of Na + and Cl – from the renal medullary interstitium 15,

  • Some phlebotomised dogs also developed hyperkalaemia with impaired renal K + excretion 15, probably as a consequence of hypovolaemia and reduced distal tubular flow rates.
  • Etoacidotic diabetes mellitus is another potential cause of hyperkalaemia, hyponatraemia, hypovolaemia and a low Na + :K + ratio in dogs 12,

Hyponatraemia in diabetes chiefly results from excessive urinary loss of Na + due to glycosuric osmotic diuresis 6, Hyperosmolality due to hyperglycaemia may contribute to hyponatraemia by causing water to shift from intracellular to extracellular compartments 5-6,

  1. Gastrointestinal loss of Na + and reduced Na + intake may also contribute.
  2. Insulin deficiency and hyperosmolality may both promote hyperkalaemia 3,12 but ketoacidosis usually does not 3,
  3. However, most diabetic patients have total body depletion of K + because of urinary loss, loss of muscle mass, anorexia and vomiting, and hypokalaemia is more commonly detected than hyperkalaemia 3,

Metabolic acidosis, prerenal azotaemia, hyperphosphataemia, hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia and a low Na + :K + ratio (as low as 14:1) despite normal adrenocortical function have been documented in three greyhound bitches presenting in late pregnancy with lethargy, muscle weakness, depression and vomiting.

  1. Two of these dogs had evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage but the gastrointestinal signs in all three were either of delayed onset or considered too mild to afford an explanation for the severity of the electrolyte changes.
  2. One bitch was found to have a uterine tear.
  3. A satisfactory explanation for the electrolyte pattern was not identified but the authors speculated that, as in women, progesterone may competitively inhibit aldosterone in bitches during pregnancy 14,

Low Na + :K + ratios associated with hyperkalaemia alone or with both hyperkalaemia and hyponatraemia have also been observed in individual dogs with mushroom poisoning, a behavioural disorder and a thyroid carcinoma 12, The mechanisms responsible for the electrolyte disorders in these animals were not established.

  • Pyometra and pancreatitis have also been diagnosed in individual dogs with low Na + :K + ratios, severe hyponatraemia, milder hyperkalaemia and severe polyuria and polydipsia 12,
  • Renal Na + loss and dilutional hyponatraemia were suspected to have contributed to the electrolyte abnormalities 12,
  • Ultimately, accurate distinction of primary hypoadrenocorticism from other conditions causing hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia and/or a low Na + :K + ratio requires an ACTH stimulation test, with assays of pre and post-ACTH serum cortisol and/or plasma aldosterone 1, 4, 7-8, 10, 16-17,

Animals with non-adrenal disorders may have normal to elevated baseline levels of cortisol and aldosterone and are expected to have a normal to exaggerated response of these hormones to ACTH 1, 4, 8, 10-11, 14, 16-18 References 1. Bissett SA, Lamb M, Ward CR.

  1. Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia associated with peritoneal effusion in four cats.
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  3. Burrows CF, Bovee KC.
  4. Metabolic changes due to experimentally induced rupture of the canine urinary bladder.
  5. Am J Vet Res 1974; 35:1083-1088.3.
  6. DiBartola SP, De Morais HA.
  7. Disorders of potassium.

Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia. In : DiBartola SP. Fluid Therapy in Small Animal Practice.2nd edn. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 2000:83-107.4. DiBartola SP, Johnson SE, Davenport DJ et al. Clinicopathologic findings resembling hypoadrenocorticism in dogs with primary gastrointestinal disease.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985; 187:60-63.5. DiBartola SP. Disorders of sodium and water. Hyponatremia and hypernatremia. In : DiBartola SP. Fluid Therapy in Small Animal Practice.2nd edn. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 2000:45-72.6. Feldman EC and Nelson RW. Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease). In : Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction.2nd edn.

WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1996:266-306.7. Golden DL, Lothrop CD. A retrospective study of aldosterone secretion in normal and adrenopathic dogs. J Vet Intern Med 1988; 2:121-125.8. Graves TK, Schall WD, Refsal K, Nachreiner RF. Basal and ACTH-stimulated plasma aldosterone concentrations are normal or increased in dogs with trichuriasis-associated pseudohypoadrenocorticism.

J Vet Intern Med 1994; 8:287-289.9. Kitchell BE, Fan TM, Kordick D et al. Peliosis hepatis in a dog infected with Bartonella henselae. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 216:519-523.10. Lamb WA, Muir P. Lymphangiosarcoma associated with hyponatraemia and hyperkalaemia in a dog. J Sm Anim Pract 1994; 35:374-376.11. Malik R, Hunt GB, Hinchliffe JM, Church DB.

Severe whipworm infection in the dog. J Sm Anim Pract 1990; 31:185-188.12. Roth LR, Tyler RD. Evaluation of low sodium:potassium ratios in dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest 1999; 11:60-64.13. Sadek D, Schaer M. Atypical Addison’s disease in the dog: a retrospective survey of 14 cases.

  1. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1996; 32:159-163.14.
  2. Schaer M, Halling KB, Collins KE, Grant DC.
  3. Combined hyponatremia and hyperkalemia mimicking acute hypoadrenocorticism in three pregnant dogs.
  4. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 218:897-899.15.
  5. Tyler RD, Qualls CW, Heald RD et al,
  6. Renal concentrating ability in dehydrated hyponatremic dogs.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987; 191:1095-1100.16. Willard MD, Fossum TW, Torrance A, Lippert A. Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia associated with idiopathic or experimentally induced chylothorax in four dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991; 199:353-358.17. Willard MD, Refsal K, Thacker E.

Why is cat c and kitten k?

Why is kitty spelled with a K if cat is spelled with a C? Because the root words are different, or at least come to us from different directions. Kitten comes from ‘kitoun’ – the middle english word, which came from the Anglo-French ‘Kitoun’ and earlier Chitoun. Cat however, comes straight from Latin – Catta/Cattus.