What Does Nasa Stand For?


What Does Nasa Stand For

What is NASA original name?

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a long tradition of turning to accomplished citizens for advice and guidance on major program and policy issues before the agency. This tradition originates with NASA’s predecessor organization, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA).

What does the NASA stand for?

What Is NASA? – NASA Solar System Exploration NASA stands for National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA is a United States government agency that is responsible for science and technology related to air and space. The Space Age started in 1957 with the launch of the Soviet satellite Sputnik. The NASA logo is painted on the outside of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center in Florida, where spacecraft are prepared for launch. Credits: NASA

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  • What Does NASA Do?

Many people know something about NASA’s work. But most probably have no idea about how many different things the agency does. Astronauts in orbit conduct scientific research. Satellites help scientists learn more about Earth. Space probes study the solar system, and beyond.

  • New developments improve air travel and other aspects of flight.
  • NASA is also beginning a new program to send humans to explore beyond the moon to Mars.
  • In addition to those major missions, NASA does many other things.
  • The agency shares what it learns, so that its information can make life better for people all over the world.

For example, companies can use NASA discoveries to create new “spin-off” products. NASA’s Education Office helps teachers to prepare the students who will be the engineers, scientists, astronauts and other NASA workers of the future. They will be the adventurers who will continue the exploration of the solar system and universe in the years to come.

  1. Contests and Things to Do With NASA
  2. What Does NASA Do?
  3. Missions
  4. NASA Education Office
  5. Who Works for NASA?

NASA’s Headquarters is in Washington, D.C. The agency has nine centers, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and seven test and research facilities located in several states around the country. More than 18,000 people work for NASA. Many more people work with the agency as government contractors. NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida launches spacecraft around the Earth and beyond. Each center is responsible for working on various parts of NASA’s missions. Credits: NASA

  • NASA Centers and Facilities
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  • Career Corner for Students
  • What Has NASA Done?

When NASA started, it began a program of human spaceflight. The Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programs helped NASA learn about flying in space and resulted in the first human landing on the moon in 1969. Currently, NASA has astronauts living and working on the International Space Station.

NASA’s robotic space probes have visited every planet in the solar system and several other celestial bodies. Telescopes have allowed scientists to look at the far reaches of space. Satellites have revealed a wealth of data about Earth, resulting in valuable information such as a better understanding of weather patterns.

NASA has helped develop and test a variety of cutting-edge aircraft. These aircraft include planes that have set new records. Among other benefits, these tests have helped engineers improve air transportation. NASA technology has contributed to many items used in everyday life, from smoke detectors to medical tests. The Apollo 11 mission marked the first time human beings walked on the moon. Credits: NASA

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: What Is NASA? – NASA Solar System Exploration

Is NASA a part of the military?

Like father, like son: Space Force Guardian follows father’s footsteps 5 Differences Between the U.S. Space Force and NASA Feb1, 2023 – The United States government has had two official space organizations since 2019: NASA and the U.S. Space Force. Both agencies are dedicated to enhancing the nation’s understanding and knowledge about the new frontier, but they each have a very different focus.

  • And both groups launch and operate space vehicles—sometimes from the same bases—and share other resources, so it might be tempting to assume that the Space Force is simply NASA in different uniforms.
  • The obvious difference is that NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) is a civilian agency, and the Space Force is the youngest branch of the military.

While NASA is exploring far-off new worlds and looking outward to the final frontier, the Space Force is on a mission to defend freedom and guarding the existing frontier. Observation vs. Reconnaissance NASA and Space Force missions can look identical from the outside.

  1. Both operate what they call “overhead sensing capabilities,” or surveillance satellites—which may be similar in size and shape, and include the same sort of sensors.
  2. These satellites observe in visible, infrared, or other frequencies to create high-resolution maps of the terrain below.
  3. The difference isn’t what they do, but what’s done with them.

“Even if they had the exact same sensors on them, the difference between a Space Force and NASA satellite is their purpose,” says Lieutenant Colonel Gerrit Dalman of 25th Space Range Squadron, a test and training operation of the Space Force. “Rather than broadly observing to answer science objectives, Space Force satellites look predominantly at our adversaries to answer very specific questions.” “Even if they had the exact same sensors on them, the difference between a Space Force and NASA satellite is their purpose.” look at forests, oceans, and other terrain features, tracking the movement of and the changing patterns of and ice cover; the Space Force is interested in specific sites in particular countries.

  1. For example, use infrared sensors to detect the heat plume of a missile launch, alerting operators to both strategic and tactical rockets.
  2. Space Force surveillance and reconnaissance satellites inform strategic decisions, provide early warning of threats, and help the other services find their targets,” says Lt Col Dalman.

Planetary Defense vs. National Defense Planetary defense belongs to NASA. “This involves protecting ourselves from dangerous objects that could fall through the atmosphere and cause catastrophes, not fighting battles in space,” says Lt Col Dalman—like the (the giant asteroid that obliterated the dinosaurs).

  1. Although NASA is certainly the lead agency in these efforts, its Planetary Defense Coordination Office works with a variety of partners, including the Space Force and FEMA.
  2. The Space Force contributes by sharing surveillance data with NASA to find and track potential asteroid threats.
  3. But actually tackling an apocalyptic-style scenario would, says Dalman, be an “inherently international and interagency challenge” that would likely involve partners around the world.

Both NASA and the Space Force have space as their primary responsibility, but the Space Force military mission extends into cyberspace as well. In other words, the distinction is the natural environment versus the digital one. Space operations critically depend on secure communications.

On land or sea, you might be able to fall back to signal flags or verbal communications, but in space nobody can hear you shouting orders, making digital systems a key vulnerability. “Our primary job is to protect our national interests as well as our allies from the bad guys being able to hack into our systems,” Senior Master Sergeant Rajab Y.

Kigembe says of his unit, the 65th Cyberspace Squadron—and there is a lot to protect. In addition to the command and control systems common to all military organizations, the Space Force monitors everything from the integrity of GPS satellite navigation signals to the database keeping track of all objects in orbit, all tempting targets for potential enemies.

  1. SMSgt Kigembe says they pride themselves on being the military’s first truly digital force powered by data.
  2. I know that sounds like a catchphrase, but a digital force means we’re in the 21st century and cyber is the way forward,” he adds.
  3. NASA has been pushing space settlement and space-based industrial projects for years, and has produced many useful,

Similarly, the Space Force often creates or grows new markets with military requirements and protection. “There is a back and forth between the military making new space ventures less risky and national security benefiting from the corresponding industrial and commercial developments,” says Lt Col Dalman.

“Military necessity often leads to innovations that have civilian applications.” He also notes that, like other arms of the military, the Space Force will sometimes operate in extreme locations where they have to conduct surveys, install navigational aids, and build basic infrastructure, that can later become the foundation of civil activities.

In their case, they may also advance technology in the process. “Military necessity often leads to innovations that have, open new markets, establish standards and norms, and drive down the cost of advancing technologies,” says Lt Col Dalman. A prime example is GPS satellite navigation, an everyday technology originally developed for military purposes, and enabled by a constellation of satellites now managed by the Space Force.

Ready on the Day vs. Always Ready NASA is famous for high-profile missions requiring years of preparation. Few things can match the energy of a liftoff countdown on launch day, when the news crews watch eagerly and everyone focuses intently. The Space Force has its share of planned operations too. The highly classified is launched and flown much like a manned space shuttle.

Its latest mission was a record-breaking 908 days and completed a number of intended experiments. Still, the Space Force has to be ready for action 24/7, because attacks—physical or cyber—can come at any time. To ensure constant preparedness, new personnel receive intensive physical training on top of their existing technical background.

  1. We put them on what are called operations floors, where all the nitty, gritty, and cool stuff happens,” says SMSgt Kigembe.
  2. We don’t put anyone there unless they’re ready—and we’ve never had a person that wasn’t ready to sit on the house floor.” He says preparedness comes from constant training, and a continual drive to improve that training.

The Space Force may be a young service, but it is learning fast. “Are we always ready?” says SMSgt Kigembe. “Yes, we are.” What Does Nasa Stand For Ready to protect our everyday lives with a career in the space domain? We can’t wait to see what you do. What Does Nasa Stand For What Does Nasa Stand For Sign up and never miss out on what we’re up to. : Like father, like son: Space Force Guardian follows father’s footsteps

Why was NASA originally created?

Forged in response to early Soviet space achievements, NASA was built on the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), and other government organizations, as the locus of U.S. civil aerospace research and development.

Did NASA have another name?

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), independent U.S. governmental agency established in 1958 for the research and development of vehicles and activities for the exploration of space within and outside Earth ‘s atmosphere, The organization is composed of four mission directorates: Aeronautics Research, for the development of advanced aviation technologies; Science, dealing with programs for understanding the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe, the solar system, and Earth; Space Technology, for the development of space science and exploration technologies; and Human Exploration and Operations, concerning the management of crewed space missions, including those to the International Space Station, as well as operations related to launch services, space transportation, and space communications for both crewed and robotic exploration programs. What Does Nasa Stand For Britannica Quiz Figure Out the Acronyms ASAP Vocabulary Quiz NASA was created largely in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik in 1957. It was organized around the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), which had been created by Congress in 1915.

NASA’s organization was well under way by the early years of Pres. John F. Kennedy ‘s administration when he proposed that the United States put a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s. To that end, the Apollo program was designed, and in 1969 the U.S. astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first person on the Moon.

All told, during nine Apollo missions, 24 astronauts (all Americans) went to the Moon, and 12 of them walked on it. Later, uncrewed programs—such as Viking, Mariner, Voyager, and Galileo —explored other bodies of the solar system. NASA was also responsible for the development and launching of a number of satellites with Earth applications, such as Landsat, a series of satellites designed to collect information on natural resources and other Earth features; communications satellites ; and weather satellites.

  • It also planned and developed the space shuttle, a reusable vehicle capable of carrying out missions that could not be conducted with conventional spacecraft,
  • As part of the Artemis space program, launched in 2017, NASA aims to return humans to the Moon by 2025, with the goal of establishing a sustainable presence there and on other planets.

The program also seeks to land the first woman and first person of colour on the Moon, and that woman may be Jessica Meir, The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Erik Gregersen,

Who found NASA?

NASA: 60 Years & Counting – Beginnings Does this scenario sound familiar? Technological advances in other countries have become a major concern to the United States government. Lagging behind would put America not only at a technical disadvantage, but also an economic and perhaps even military one.

To focus U.S. technological research, Congress and the President create a new federal agency. The creation of NASA following the Soviet Union’s 1957 launch of Sputnik? Yes, certainly. But it had happened before. Even though Americans had flown the first airplane in 1903, by the beginning of World War I in 1914, the United States lagged behind Europe in airplane technology.

In order to catch up, Congress founded the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics on March 3, 1915, as an independent government agency reporting directly to the President. For 40 years, the NACA (with each individual letter always pronounced, never as an acronym like “NASA”) conducted aeronautical research that was ultimately transferred to the nascent aerospace industry, which led the U.S.

Economy into the late 20th century. In the 1950s, as pilots were taking experimental vehicles like the X-15 faster and higher than ever before, to the edge of space, NACA engineers began thinking about sending humans into space. NACA developed a plan that called for a blunt-body spacecraft that would reenter with a heat shield, a worldwide tracking network, and dual controls that would gradually give the pilot of the craft greater control.

NASA opened for business on Oct.1, 1958, with T. Keith Glennan, president of Case Institute of Technology in Ohio, as its first administrator. NACA director Hugh Dryden served as the first deputy administrator, and NACA veteran Robert Gilruth ultimately headed the Space Task Group and the Mercury program before becoming the director of NASA’s Manned Spacecraft Center (now the Johnson Space Center) in Houston. What Does Nasa Stand For President Dwight Eisenhower (center) presents commissions to T. Keith Glennan (left) and Hugh L. Dryden (right), NASA’s first administrator and deputy administrator respectively. In July 1958, Eisenhower had signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, creating the agency, which opened for business on Oct.1, 1958. Image Credit: NASA

Which country is NASA located in?

United States of America : National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA headquarters, in Washington, D.C., exercises management over the NASA Field Centers, establishes management policies, and analyzes all phases of the ISS program.

Is NASA private?

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How did Earth get its name NASA?

Namesake – The name Earth is at least 1,000 years old. All of the planets, except for Earth, were named after Greek and Roman gods and goddesses. However, the name Earth is a Germanic word, which simply means “the ground.” Potential for Life

Did Russia go to space first?

12 April 1961: The Soviet Union achieve a clear triumph in the space race. Aboard the Vostok 1, Yuri Gagarin makes a single orbit around the Earth and becomes the first man to reach space. He remained in space for one hour and forty-eight minutes before landing in Saratov Oblast, west Russia.

Who created the space?

Cosmology – Relativity theory leads to the cosmological question of what shape the universe is, and where space came from. It appears that space was created in the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since. The overall shape of space is not known, but space is known to be expanding very rapidly due to the cosmic inflation,

What galaxy is Earth in?

Beyond Our Solar System We call our galaxy the Milky Way because it appeared to ancient observers to be a milky band of light – like a cosmic roadway – stretching across the dark sky. Our Sun is one of at least 100 billion stars in the Milky Way, a spiral galaxy about 100,000 light-years across. Most of the stars in our galaxy are thought to host their own families of planets. Thousands of these so far, with thousands more candidates detected and awaiting confirmation. Many of these newly discovered planetary systems are quite different from our own.

  1. All of the stars in the Milky Way orbit a supermassive black hole at the galaxy’s center, which is estimated to be four million times as massive as our Sun.
  2. Fortunately, it is a safe distance from Earth, at around 28,000 light-years away.
  3. Our galaxy is one of the billions in the universe, each having millions, or more frequently billions, of stars of its own.
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Everything you need to know about the universe. : Beyond Our Solar System

Is NASA only us?

Other than extremely rare exceptions, you must be a U.S. citizen in order to work for NASA as a civil service employee. If you are not a U.S. citizen, you may wish to consider opportunities with one of our International Space Partners: Agencia Espacial Brasileira (AEB) Italian Space Agency.

When did NASA go away?

Space Shuttle Atlantis welcome home ceremony after last mission Space Shuttle Atlantis begins the last mission of the Space Shuttle program. Space Shuttle Atlantis touches down for the final time, July 21, 2011, at the end of STS-135, Empty status board in the Vehicle Assembly Building Penultimate launch of Atlantis The retirement of NASA ‘s Space Shuttle fleet took place from March to July 2011. Discovery was the first of the three active Space Shuttles to be retired, completing its final mission on March 9, 2011; Endeavour did so on June 1.

  1. The final shuttle mission was completed with the landing of Atlantis on July 21, 2011, closing the 30-year Space Shuttle program,
  2. The Shuttle was presented to the public in 1972 as a “space truck” which would, among other things, be used to build a United States space station in low Earth orbit in the early 1990s and then be replaced by a new vehicle.

When the concept of the U.S. space station evolved into that of the International Space Station, which suffered from long delays and design changes before it could be completed, the service life of the Space Shuttle fleet was extended several times until 2011 when it was finally retired.

  • After the Columbia loss in 2003, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report showed that STS was risky/unsafe, and due to the expense to make Shuttle safe, in 2004, President G.W.
  • Bush announced (along with the VSE policy) that Shuttle would be retired in 2010 (after completing the ISS assembly).

In/by 2010 the Shuttle was formally scheduled for retirement with Atlantis being taken out of service first after STS-132 in May of that year, but the program was once again extended when the two final planned missions were delayed until 2011. Later, one additional mission was added for Atlantis for July 2011, extending the program further.

How many NASA are there in the world?

NASA Shared Services Center (Mississippi) – The NASA Shared Services Center, located on the grounds of NASA’s Stennis Space Center, is an innovative, public-private partnership among NASA, the states of Mississippi and Louisiana, and Computer Sciences Corporation.

  1. The center provides consistent, high-quality support services in the areas of financial management, human resources, information technology and procurement to the agency.
  2. Richard E.
  3. Arbuthnot currently serves as Executive Director.
  4. As a shared services organization, the NSSC provides cost savings for the agency through consolidation, standardization and automation of select business processes.

Projected annual savings are estimated at $6 million per year after stabilization of the NSSC. This allows NASA to refocus efficiencies gained and its resources on agency core missions. Following Hurricane Katrina, Administrator Michael D. Griffin reaffirmed NASA’s commitment to locate the NSSC in Mississippi, and on March 1, 2006, the NSSC opened for business.

  • One year later, in March 2007, the NSSC was selected first runner-up for the Best New Shared Services Organization Excellence Award.
  • The award, established by the Shared Services and Outsourcing Network, a division of the International Quality and Productivity Center, is recognized nationally as the highest accolade for shared services organizations.

Employing nearly 330 civil servants and service provider associates with numbers to approach 470 in the future, the NSSC takes pride in its highly skilled, highly educated professional workforce.

Who is Elon Musk of NASA?

Elon Musk Business magnate (born 1971) Elon Musk Musk in 2022 Born Elon Reeve Musk ( 1971-06-28 ) June 28, 1971 (age 52), Transvaal, South Africa Citizenship

  • South Africa
  • Canada
  • United States

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  • Founder, CEO, and chief engineer of
  • CEO and product architect of
  • Owner and CTO of
  • President of the
  • Founder of,, and
  • Co-founder of,,, and (part of )


  • ​ ​ ( m.2000; div.2008) ​
  • ​ ​ ( m.2010; div.2012) ​ ​ ​ ( m.2013; div.2016) ​

Partner (2018–2021) Children11 Parents


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Elon Reeve Musk ( ; born June 28, 1971) is a and investor. Musk is the founder, chairman, CEO and chief technology officer of ;, CEO, product architect and former chairman of ; owner, chairman and CTO of ; founder of ; co-founder of and ; and president of the Musk Foundation.

He is the wealthiest person in the world, with an estimated net worth of US$226 billion as of September 2023, according to the, and $249 billion according to, primarily from his ownership stakes in both Tesla and SpaceX. Musk was born in, South Africa, and briefly attended the before immigrating to Canada at age 18, acquiring citizenship through his Canadian-born mother.

Two years later, he at in Kingston, Ontario. Musk later transferred to the, and received bachelor’s degrees in economics and physics there. He moved to California in 1995 to attend, However, Musk dropped out after two days and, with his brother, co-founded online software company,

The startup was acquired by for $307 million in 1999, and with $12 million of the money he made, that same year Musk co-founded, a,X.com merged with in 2000 to form, In 2002, acquired PayPal for $1.5 billion, and that same year, with $100 million of the money he made, Musk founded SpaceX, a services company.

In 2004, he became an early investor in manufacturer Tesla Motors, Inc. (now Tesla, Inc.). He became its chairman and product architect, assuming the position of CEO in 2008. In 2006, Musk helped create, a solar-energy company that was acquired by Tesla in 2016 and became,

  1. In 2013, he proposed a high-speed transportation system.
  2. In 2015, he co-founded OpenAI, a nonprofit research company.
  3. The following year, Musk co-founded Neuralink—a company developing —and the Boring Company, a tunnel construction company.
  4. In 2022, he for $44 billion.
  5. He subsequently merged the company into newly created and rebranded the service as X the following year.

In March 2023, he founded, an artificial-intelligence company. that have made him a polarizing figure. He has been criticized for making unscientific and misleading statements, including that of spreading, and promoting, His has been similarly controversial, including laying off a large number of employees, an increase in on the platform and changes to were criticized.

Who runs NASA right now?

NASA is led by Administrator Bill Nelson, who became the agency’s 14th administrator on May 3, 2021.

Who runs the NASA?

References –

  1. ^ NASA Strategic Management Handbook
  2. ^ “Chapter 2-Roles and Responsibilities”,
  3. ^ “T. Keith Glennan biography”, NASA. August 4, 2006. Archived from the original on July 8, 2008, Retrieved July 5, 2008,
  4. ^ “Daniel S. Goldin biography”, NASA. March 12, 2004. Archived from the original on June 15, 2008, Retrieved July 5, 2008,
  5. ^ “James C. Fletcher biography”, NASA. Archived from the original on July 6, 2008, Retrieved July 5, 2008,
  6. ^ “President Biden Announces his Intent to Nominate Bill Nelson for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration”, The White House, March 19, 2021, Retrieved March 19, 2021,
  7. ^ “List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA”, NASA, Archived from the original on May 21, 2008, Retrieved July 4, 2008,
  8. ^ “Designation of Officers of the National Aeronautics And Space Administration To Act as Administrator”, Federal Register, January 22, 2009, Retrieved October 30, 2016,
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Administrators and deputy administrators of NASA

What was NASA called in 1958?

The Birth of NASA: November 3, 1957–October 1, 1958 President Eisenhower spoke on television on November 7 as Sputnik I and Sputnik II orbited Earth. He displayed a missile nose cone recovered after a suborbital flight on a Jupiter-C rocket a few days before.

  • Eisenhower’s prepared statement focused on improving science and technology education, and he announced the appointment of Dr. James R.
  • Illian, Jr., the president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, as his Special Assistant for Science and Technology.
  • Illian’s appointment was interpreted in Congress as a determination to put a civilian spin on the growing debate over the future course of U.S.

space exploration.32 Eisenhower confirmed this conviction during a November 13 speech on technical education in Oklahoma City, in which he spoke publicly of a civilian space agency for the first time. On Monday, November 25, the Senate Preparedness Subcommittee hearings commenced.

These hearings kept Lyndon Johnson and the missile and space issues in the public eye for several weeks. Seventy-three witnesses provided their assessments of the state of U.S. missile technology and interpretations of the events leading up to Sputnik. John Hagen told Johnson that Project Vanguard could have beat Sputnik I into orbit if it had been afforded a higher priority.33 He reported that he had asked for higher priority in 1955 but never received a response.34 Donald Quarles testified that, in retrospect, the job of launching an IGY satellite should have been given to the Army in 1955.

He hastened to add, however, that “aking the missile program as a whole and comparing their program with our own, I estimate that as of today our program is ahead.” He told subcommittee chair Johnson that the United States was ahead in electronics, but it was hard to say which country was ahead in missiles.

It was true, he said, that the Russians had a more powerful rocket engine, but “one would be even there cautious about the statement that they were ahead of us in rocket engines.” He reported that since Sputnik I, there had been no acceleration of U.S. rocket programs—none was necessary. Johnson interpreted this as complacency on the part of the Pentagon and the Eisenhower White House.

“The net of it is, “he drawled, “that the American people can have adequate defense and eat their cake too—and even have whipped cream on it.” 35 The subcommittee did not explore specifically how the United States should organize to explore space, but this complex and contentious issue was a subtext.

  • As the hearings continued into early December, the Eisenhower administration transferred to the White House the Science Advisory Committee of the Defense Department’s Office of Defense Mobilization.
  • It became the nucleus of the new President’s Science Advisory Committee (PSAC), which was constituted in part to consider how best to organize the U.S.

space effort. Five new members were added, including James Doolittle, chair of the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA), which was created in 1916 to be the civilian government organization performing research into aviation. The push to organize a national space program received new impetus on December 6, when the Vanguard TV-3 rocket climbed about a yard above its Florida launch pad before falling back and exploding.

  • The mission was to have been the first all-up test of the new Vanguard rocket.
  • TV-3 carried a one- and-seven-tenths-kilogram (three-and-a-quarter-pound) test satellite derided by Soviet leader Khrushchev as an “orange.” 36 On December 30, James Killian wrote a memorandum to Eisenhower in which he noted that many scientists held “deeply felt convictions” opposing Defense Department control of the space program because they felt it would limit space research strictly to military objectives and would tar all U.S.

space activity as military in nature. He then offered some organizational alternatives for space that he believed would provide “the means for non-military basic space research while at the same time taking advantage of the immense resources of the military missile and recon satellite programs.” Killian proposed a Defense Departmentoperated “central space laboratory with a very broad charter,” which he likened to the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

He wrote that the administration might also “encourage NACA to extend its space research and provide it with the necessary funds to do so.” 37, 38 The ABMA’s Explorer satellite program continued in its backup role following the Vanguard TV-3’s failure in December. Range restrictions prevented simultaneous Vanguard and Explorer launch preparations.

The ABMA’s opportunity arrived on January 26 when the backup to the ill-fated TV-3 vehicle, the Vanguard TV-3BU, had to “stand down” pending a second stage engine replacement. This gave the Huntsville team until about February 1 to make a launch attempt.

  • The first attempt on January 30 was scrubbed because of unfavorable winds.
  • The jet stream shifted north the next day, however.
  • At 10:48 p.m.
  • Eastern time on January 31, 1958, Explorer I lifted off on top of a Jupiter-C.
  • At 12:51 a.m.
  • On February 1, a successful orbit was confirmed.
  • Explorer I’s success encouraged supporters of a crash effort to recoup lost U.S.

prestige by launching an automated probe to the Moon. The proposal, first discussed in Barcelona the morning after Sputnik, came up for discussion in the February 4, 1958, Legislative Leadership Meeting at the White House—an opportunity for Republican congressional leaders and the Eisenhower administration to compare notes.

  1. Interestingly, despite his problems with the Sputniks, Eisenhower remained cold to reaping the prestige benefits of a Moon shot.
  2. The meeting minutes state that Eisenhower was “firmly of the opinion that the rule of reason had to be applied to these Space projects—that we couldn’t pour unlimited funds into these costly projects where there was nothing of early value to the Nation’s security.

n the present situation, the President mused, he would rather have a good Redstone than be able to hit the moon, for we didn’t have any enemies on the moon!” When Senator William Knowland pointed out the prestige value of being first to hit the Moon, Eisenhower relented partly, saying that if a rocket now available could do the job, work should go ahead.

The President stressed, however, that he “didn’t want to rush into an all-out effort on each of these possible glamor performances without a full appreciation of their great cost.” 39 Meanwhile, Congress discussed alternatives for organizing the U.S. space program. House Majority Leader John McCormack, a Massachusetts Democrat, called for a presidentially appointed National Science Council, while another faction sought to put the space program under control of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC).

Democratic Senators John McClellan of Arkansas and Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota called for the establishment of a Department of Science and Technology headed by a Cabinet-level secretary, a proposal Eisenhower opposed.40 Although making the NACA the nucleus of a civilian space program did not at first find supporters in Congress, it soon became the favorite option of the PSAC.

On February 4, the Purcell Panel was established to consider organizational alternatives for space. The panel was named for Nobel Laureate Edward Purcell, who was appointed to the PSAC in December when it transferred to the White House. On February 21, S. Paul Johnston, director of the Institute for Aeronautical Sciences and a participant in the panel, summed up the issue of space program organization as one of “exploration” versus “control.” The latter, he said, was a military function.

He cited four possible organizational alternatives:

Establish a new government agency. This would, he wrote, take too much time.

Assign the space program to the AEC. In political terms, this proposal was well supported in Congress, but the AEC had no experience in the space field, and its new responsibilities would constitute a distraction from its vital atomic energy roles. Johnston dubbed the alternative “the least practical.”

Establish the NACA as the controlling agency. Johnston pointed out that “xtending interests into space technology would seem to be a logical evolutionary step from its research activities of the past 40-odd years.”

Assign space to the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Defense Department. ARPA was created on February 7, 1958. “ARPA could take on the job with a minimum of additional legislation,” wrote Johnston, “but military interests might outweigh the purely scientific and civil aspects., It would be difficult to avoid security restrictions, and participation in international programs of a purely scientific nature might thereby be hampered.” 41

On February 6, the Senate formed an ad hoc Special Committee on Space and Astronautics chaired by Lyndon Johnson. On March 5, the same day Vanguard 1 reached orbit, the House of Representatives established the ad hoc Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration with House Majority Leader John McCormack as chair. Also on March 5, the President’s Advisory Committee on Government Organization chair Nelson Rockefeller, James Killian, and Bureau of the Budget Director Percival Brundage recommended to Eisenhower that “leadership of the civil space effort be lodged in a strengthened and redesignated National Advisory Committee for Astronautics.” 42 Eisenhower immediately authorized their proposal and assigned the Bureau of the Budget to draft the required legislation. In a speech to a joint session of Congress on April 2, Eisenhower called for a NACA-based civilian National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). He also handed down a directive ordering the NACA and the Defense Department to begin arranging the transfer of nonmilitary Department of Defense space assets to the NACA. On April 14, Lyndon Johnson and New Hampshire Republican Styles Bridges introduced the Senate version of the NASA bill (S-3609), and John McCormack introduced the House version (HR-11881). Hearings commenced the following day. On May 1, James Van Allen announced that radiation detectors aboard Explorer I and Explorer III (launched March 26) had been swamped by high radiation levels at certain points in their orbits. This pointed to the existence of powerful radiation belts surrounding Earth. The detection of the Van Allen Belts was the first major space discovery. Supporters of Eisenhower’s methodical approach to space exploration capitalized on the find, pointing out that the Soviet Union’s two heavy Sputniks had accomplished no equivalent scientific feat. In fact, the Soviets had not launched a new satellite since Sputnik II in November. On May 5, NACA chair James A. Doolittle testified to the House Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration that the U.S. civilian space program had “two focused objectives—gaining scientific data using automated probes and sending into space craft that will carry men on voyages of exploration.” Branding an early Moon shot a “stunt,” Doolittle added that “n our programming we should keep our eyes focused on these objectives. The fact that the Russians may accomplish some specific objectives in their space programs first should not in itself be permitted to divert us from our own designated objectives.” 43 Korolev’s team had not stopped work since Sputnik II. On May 15, Korolev finally launched the conical, 1,330-kilogram (2,926-pound) Object-D satellite. Academician Sedov declared, “The new Sputnik,, could easily carry a man with a stock of food and supplementary equipment.” 44 The sheer size of the satellite triggered new recriminations and new calls for action. Aviation Week editor-in-chief Robert Hotz again articulated well the mood in the U.S. space community: Successful launching of the 3000-lb Soviet Sputnik III should dispel most of the wishful thinking that has hung over the U.S. space policy since the fiery plunge of Sputnik II into the Caribbean, It proves once again that the Soviets’ early Sputniks were no lucky accidents. It proves that the Soviet space program is a well-organized, consistent effort that is attempting to progress in significant increments rather than simply shooting for some spectacular, international propaganda stunt. It also indicates that the Soviet program has solid and consistent support not subject to the ups and downs of top level policy changes or political whims of the moment., We are still debating in Congress the advisability of establishing a National Aeronautics and Space Agency. We hope Sputnik III will shake some of the Congressional nitpickers out of their lofty perches and prod them into action on this vital measure.45 Hotz soon got his wish. The House NASA bill passed on June 2, with the Senate version following on June 16. The most important conflict between the bills was the structure and composition of a committee advising the agency’s director. The House bill—which Eisenhower favored—made provision for a relatively weak seventeen-member advisory committee, while the Senate bill had a strong seven-member policy board. A bipartisan nineteen-member blue ribbon panel chaired by Johnson produced a joint version that retained the strong policy board. President Eisenhower continued his opposition to the policy board on the grounds that it would usurp presidential authority. Eisenhower and Johnson met at the White House on July 7 to break the impasse. Johnson suggested that the president serve as chair of the policy board, and Eisenhower agreed.46 The blue ribbon panel met for the final time on July 15, changing the policy board’s name to the National Aeronautics and Space Council. Congress passed the final version of the bill on July 16, and President Eisenhower signed it into law on July 29, 1958. The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Public Law 85568) stated that the NACA would become NASA after ninety days unless the transition was proclaimed sooner by the NASA administrator. On August 8, Eisenhower nominated T. Keith Glennan, the president of the Case Institute of Technology in Cleveland, Ohio, to be NASA’s first administrator. He nominated NACA Director Hugh Dryden as deputy administrator. The Senate confirmed the nominations with little debate on August 14. On August 19, the Department of Defense and NASA agreed to transfer nonmilitary space projects, but they deferred the actual transfers until after NASA was in place. Glennan and Dryden were sworn in on August 20. On August 17, the United States attempted its first Moon shot, an ARPA lunar orbiter on a Thor missile with an Able-1 upper stage. The Air Force Thor first stage exploded after seventy-seven seconds, destroying the thirty-eight-kilogram (eighty-four-pound) probe. On September 4, Eisenhower appointed his fellow National Aeronautics and Space Council members. These included Glennan, Detlov Bronk, and James Doolittle. Glennan proclaimed NASA ready to succeed the NACA on September 25. On October 1, 1958, NASA officially opened for business with five facilities inherited from the NACA: Lewis Research Center in Ohio, Langley Research Center and the Wallops rocket test range in Virginia, and Ames Research Center and the Muroc aircraft test range in California. That same day, Eisenhower issued an executive order transferring space projects and appropriations from other space programs to NASA. These gave NASA 8,240 staff (8,000 from the NACA) and a budget of approximately $340 million.

When was NASA name changed?

The AERL was renamed the Lewis Research Center and became part of the new National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958. In 1999, NASA Lewis was renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

What was NASA called in the 50s?

Oct.1, 1958 – NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) became NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).

Who created NACA?

One museum, two locations Visit us in Washington, DC and Chantilly, VA to explore hundreds of the world’s most significant objects in aviation and space history. Free timed-entry passes are required for the Museum in DC. Visit National Air and Space Museum in DC Udvar-Hazy Center in VA Plan a field trip Plan a group visit At the museum and online Discover our exhibitions and participate in programs both in person or virtually.

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Give Become a member Wall of Honor Ways to give Host an Event Early History of NACA March 3, 2015 | 1 – 2:30pm National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC Free Before there was NASA, there was the NACA. On March 3, 1915, Congress established the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, or N-A-C-A, “to separate the real from the imagined and make known the overlooked and unexpected” in the quest for flight.

  • In 1958, the NACA’s staff, research facilities, and know-how were transitioned to the new NASA.
  • This What’s New in Aerospace? program is presented as part of the NACA Centenary, a symposium by the National Air and Space Museum, and the NASA History Program Office in commemoration of the aerospace research and development that has occurred in the 100 years since the NACA was established.

Moderated by Stephen Garber from NASA Headquarters, this program will explore the early history of the NACA and includes the following presentations:

Bringing Aerodynamics – and Aeronautical Engineering – to the American University; Presenter: Deborah G. Douglas, MIT Museum NACA, Naval Aviation and MIT: Establishing the Practice of Aeronautical Engineering; Presenter: John Tylko, MIT Transplanting Göttingen to the Tidewater: The NACA and German Aerodynamics, 1919-1926; Presenter: Richard P. Hallion, Florida Polytechnic University The War, the NACA and the Convention: Laying the Ideological Foundation for Federal Regulation during the Wilson Administration; Presenter: Sean Seyer, University of Kansas

For more information about the symposium, including other sessions and presentations, visit the NACA Centenary: A Symposium on 100 Years of Aerospace Research and Development website. This program is made possible through the generous support of Boeing. In this photo taken on March 15, 1929, a quartet of NACA staff conduct tests on airfoils in the Variable Density Tunnel, which, in 1985, was declared a National Historic Landmark. How to attend Support the Museum We rely on the generous support of donors, sponsors, members, and other benefactors to share the history and impact of aviation and spaceflight, educate the public, and inspire future generations. With your help, we can continue to preserve and safeguard the world’s most comprehensive collection of artifacts representing the great achievements of flight and space exploration. Donate Now Become a Member About Newsroom Support Get Involved Contact Host an Event Stay up to date on the latest stories and events with our newsletter 202-633-2214 “> Free Timed-Entry Passes Required 703-572-4118 “> Privacy Terms of Use