How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution?


How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution
12 Schedules Schedules of Indian Constitution – 12 Schedules of India. There are 12 Schedules in the Constitution of India. One of the first mentions of Schedules was made in the Government of India Act, 1935 where it included 10 Schedules.

What are the 12 schedules of India?

List Of 12 Schedules Of the Indian Constitution

Schedule Articles Covered
Third Schedule Article 75 Article 84 Article 99 Article 124 Article 146 Article 173 Article 188 Article 219
Fourth Schedule Article 4 Article 80
Fifth Schedule Article 244
Sixth Schedule Article 244 Article 275

Which is the second highest constitutional office in India?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The vice president of India is the second highest constitutional office in the government of India after the president, In accordance with Article 63 of the Constitution of India, the vice president discharges the functions of the president when a contingency arises due to the resignation, removal, death, impeachment or the inability of the president to discharge their functions.

They are also the ex officio chairperson of the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India, The vice president is elected by an electoral college consisting of all members of both houses of the Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote via a secret ballot conducted by the Election Commission of India,

Once elected the vice president continues in office for a five-year term, but can continue in office irrespective of the expiry of the term, until a successor assumes office. They can be removed by a resolution passed by an effective majority in the Rajya Sabha.

  • They are responsible for the protection of the rights and privileges of the members of the Council of States.
  • They also decide whether a bill introduced in the Rajya Sabha is a financial bill.
  • There have been 14 vice presidents since the inception of the post in 1950.
  • The first vice president of India, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, took oath at Rashtrapati Bhavan on 13 May 1952.

He later served as the president. Following the death of Zakir Husain in 1969, Varahagiri Venkata Giri resigned from the post of vice president to contest the presidential election and got elected. Out of 14 vice presidents, six of them later went on to become the president.

Which is the lengthiest amendment of the Indian Constitution?

Which was the lengthiest amendment to the Constitution of In Option 3 : 42 nd Amendment Free 15 Questions 15 Marks 9 Mins The correct answer is 42 d Amendment, Key Points

Constitution (42nd) Amendment Act, 1976 was the lengthiest amendment that brought the most widespread changes to the Constitution in its history. It is also called the Mini-Constitution and Constitution of Indira Gandhi. The 42nd Amendment is regarded as the most controversial constitutional amendment in history. It attempted to reduce the power of the Supreme Court and High Courts to pronounce the constitutional validity of laws. It laid down the Fundamental Duties of Indian citizens to the nation.

Key Points

Constitution adopted on – 26 Nov 1949. Preamble passed on – 22 Jan1947. National flag adopted on – 22 July 1947. Constitution came into force – 26 Jan 1950. National Song adopted on – 24 Jan 1950

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What is 11th schedule india?

What are 11th and 12th schedules? Answer at BYJU’S IAS 11th Schedule contains the provisions that specify the powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats. This schedule was added by the 73rd Amendment Act of 1992. It has 29 matters.

  1. Agriculture, including agricultural extension.
  2. Land improvement, implementation of land reforms, land consolidation and soil conservation.
  3. Minor irrigation, water management and watershed development.
  4. Animal husbandry, dairying and poultry.
  5. Fisheries.
  6. Social forestry and farm forestry.
  7. Minor forest produces.
  8. Small scale industries, including food processing industries.
  9. Khadi, village and cottage industries.
  10. Rural housing.
  11. Drinking water.
  12. Fuel and fodder.
  13. Roads, culverts, bridges, ferries, waterways and other means of communication.
  14. Rural electrification, including distribution of electricity.
  15. Non-conventional energy sources.
  16. Poverty alleviation programme.
  17. Education, including primary and secondary schools.
  18. Technical training and vocational education.
  19. Adult and non-formal education.
  20. Libraries.
  21. Cultural activities
  22. Markets and fairs.
  23. Health and sanitation, including hospitals, primary health centres and dispensaries.
  24. Family welfare.
  25. Women and child development.
  26. Social welfare, including welfare of the handicapped and mentally retarded.
  27. Welfare of the weaker sections, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
  28. Public distribution system.
  29. Maintenance of community assets.

12th Schedule of the Indian Constitution deals with the provisions that specify the powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities. This schedule was added by the 74th Amendment Act of 1992. It has 18 matters.

  1. Urban planning including town planning.
  2. Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings.
  3. Planning for economic and social development.
  4. Roads and bridges.
  5. Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes.
  6. Public health, sanitation conservancy and solid waste management.
  7. Fire services.
  8. Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects.
  9. Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and mentally retarded.
  10. Slum improvement and upgradation.
  11. Urban poverty alleviation.
  12. Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds.
  13. Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects.
  14. Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation grounds; and electric crematoriums.
  15. Cattle pounds; prevention of cruelty to animals.
  16. Vital statistics include registration of births and deaths.
  17. Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences.
  18. Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries.

Further Reading:

, : What are 11th and 12th schedules? Answer at BYJU’S IAS

How many schedules are there in total?

Schedules of Indian Constitution – 12 Schedules of India. There are 12 Schedules in the Constitution of India.

Which is the 1 longest Constitution in the world?

The Constitution of India was legally adopted on 26th January 1950. The document provides guidelines to the government to work in accordance with its principles. The Indian Constitution is the longest written constitution in the World.

Which is the largest active Constitution in the world?

A constitution is the aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed. When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to embody a written constitution ; if they are encompassed in a single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a codified constitution,

The Constitution of the United Kingdom is a notable example of an uncodified constitution ; it is instead written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases, or treaties. Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign countries to companies and unincorporated associations,

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A treaty that establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted. Within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom.

  • Some constitutions, especially codified constitutions, also act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a state’s rulers cannot cross, such as fundamental rights,
  • The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any country in the world, with 146,385 words in its English-language version, while the Constitution of Monaco is the shortest written constitution with 3,814 words.

The Constitution of San Marino might be the world’s oldest active written constitution, since some of its core documents have been in operation since 1600, while the Constitution of the United States is the oldest active codified constitution. The historical life expectancy of a constitution since 1789 is approximately 19 years.

Which is the shortest Constitution in world?

Which country has the smallest constitution in the world? Monaco The planet’s second-smallest nation by area (after Vatican City), has the world’s shortest constitution. Adopted in 1962 during the reign of Prince Rainier III, the governing document of Monaco currently clocks in at 3,814 words, according to the Comparative Constitutions Project (CCP).

  1. Hope it helps.
  2. Which country has the smallest constitution in the world? Smallest Constitution in the World There are many countries in the world that have a small constitution.
  3. However, the country with the smallest constitution in the world is Japan.
  4. The constitution of Japan is also known as the “Constitution of Japan” or “Postwar Constitution.” Features of the Japanese Constitution The Japanese Constitution has the following features: 1.

Length: The Japanese Constitution is the shortest constitution in the world, with only 4,000 words.2. Concept: It is a modern and democratic constitution that was adopted on November 3, 1946.3. Content: It consists of a Preamble and 103 articles divided into 11 chapters.4.

  1. Amendments: The Japanese Constitution has not been amended since its adoption.5.
  2. Fundamental Rights: The Constitution of Japan guarantees fundamental human rights such as the freedom of speech, religion, assembly, and association.6.
  3. Separation of Powers: The Constitution of Japan provides for a system of separation of powers between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government.7.

Emperor: The Constitution of Japan recognizes the Emperor as the symbol of the State and the unity of the people. Conclusion In conclusion, the Constitution of Japan is the smallest constitution in the world with only 4,000 words. Despite its small size, it is a modern and democratic constitution that guarantees fundamental human rights and provides for a system of separation of powers.

Which state has the longest constitution?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In the United States, each state has its own written constitution. They are much longer than the United States Constitution, which only contains 4,543 words. State constitutions are all longer than 8,000 words because they are more detailed regarding the day-to-day relationships between government and the people.

  1. The shortest is the Constitution of Vermont, adopted in 1793 and currently 8,295 words long.
  2. The longest was Alabama ‘s sixth constitution, ratified in 1901, about 345,000 words long, but rewritten in 2022.
  3. Both the federal and state constitutions are organic texts : they are the fundamental blueprints for the legal and political organizations of the United States and the states, respectively.

The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (part of the Bill of Rights ) provides that “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” The Guarantee Clause of Article 4 of the Constitution states that “The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government,” These two provisions indicate states did not surrender their wide latitude to adopt a constitution, the fundamental documents of state law, when the U.S.

  1. Constitution was adopted.
  2. Typically state constitutions address a wide array of issues deemed by the states to be of sufficient importance to be included in the constitution rather than in an ordinary statute.
  3. Often modeled after the federal Constitution, they outline the structure of the state government and typically establish a bill of rights, an executive branch headed by a governor (and often one or more other officials, such as a lieutenant governor and state attorney general ), a state legislature, and state courts, including a state supreme court (a few states have two high courts, one for civil cases, the other for criminal cases).

They also provide general governmental framework for what each branch is supposed to do and how it should go about doing it. Additionally, many other provisions may be included. Many state constitutions, unlike the federal constitution, also begin with an invocation of God,

Some states allow amendments to the constitution by initiative, Many states have had several constitutions over the course of their history. The territories of the United States are “organized” and, thus, self-governing if the United States Congress has passed an Organic Act, Two of the 14 territories without commonwealth status — Guam and the United States Virgin Islands — are organized, but haven’t adopted their own constitutions.

One unorganized territory, American Samoa, has its own constitution. The remaining 13 unorganized territories have no permanent populations and are either under direct control of the U.S. Government or operate as military bases. The commonwealths of Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) do not have organic acts but operate under local constitutions.

Who has the second longest constitution?

13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution

  • Leada Gore | [email protected]
  • 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution
  • If you sat down and tried to read the constitution of the State of Alabama, it would take you more than two days – and that’s assuming you didn’t take any breaks.

How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution

  1. Leada Gore | [email protected]
  2. 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution
  3. If you sat down and tried to read the constitution of the State of Alabama, it would take you more than two days – and that’s assuming you didn’t take any breaks.

Alabama’s Constitution is some 388,882 words long and it’s believed to be the longest such document in the world. Its massive length is due in part to its 892 amendments that cover everything from bingo and mosquito control to how to deal with dead farm animals and prostitution.

The problem dates back 1901 when the current constitution was passed. That document stripped local communities of any right to home rule, meaning they have to look to their legislative delegations to make changes. Each of those laws gets added on to the state constitution and before you know it, you end up with a massive document.

It’s hard to get your mind around just how massive the constitution is, so here are some visuals you can use to compare. Leada Gore | [email protected] 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution 181,253 words – The New Testament of the Bible. At 593,493 words, the Old Testament does trump the Alabama Constitution, however. How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution

  • Leada Gore | [email protected]
  • 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution
  • 7,400 words – US Constitution, including amendments

How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution

  1. Leada Gore | [email protected]
  2. 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution
  3. 269,338 words – The first three Harry Potter books – Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets and Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban combined.

How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution

  • Leada Gore | [email protected]
  • 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution
  • 113,274 words – George Orwell’s “Animal Farm,” Charles Dickens “A Christmas Carol,” John Steinbeck’s “Of Mice and Men,” and Richard Matheson’s “I am Legend” combined.

How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution

  1. Leada Gore | [email protected]
  2. 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution
  3. 272 words – Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address
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How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution Leada Gore | [email protected] 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution 3,600 words – The original Magna Carta, one of the earliest documents outlining the rights of an individual and an inspiration for the formation of the U.S. How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution Leada Gore | [email protected] 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution 36,000 words – The average length of a state constitution in the U.S. Leada Gore | [email protected] 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution 81,666 words – The length of the second-longest state constitution in the U.S. It belong s to Texas.

  • Leada Gore | [email protected]
  • 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution
  • For the record, Alabama’s constitution is longer than the constitutions of Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware and Florida combined.

Leada Gore | [email protected] 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution 117,369 words – The Constitution of India. It’s considered the longest written constitution for any sovereign country in the world. It’s less than half the size of Alabama’s constitution. For comparison, India is home to 1.3 billion people; Alabama’s population is 4.8 million.

  1. Leada Gore | [email protected]
  2. 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution
  3. 1,667 words – Martin Luther King’s historic “I have a dream speech.”

Leada Gore | [email protected] 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution 8,445 words – The length of President William Henry Harrison’s 1841 inaugural address. It’s the longest presidential and took one hour and 45 minutes for Harrison to deliver on what was a cold, wet day in Washington, D.C. Harrison caught a cold shortly after and died on April 4, 1841 after about a month in office.

  • Leada Gore | [email protected]
  • 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution
  • 99,121 words – Harper Lee’s “To Kill a Mockingbird.”

Leada Gore | [email protected] 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution Does it matter? Yes. As said: “If you want clarity, efficiency, and effectiveness, it does matter. If you want responsibility and accountability, Alabama’s constitution is indeed a problem.” : 13 things shorter than Alabama’s Constitution

Which country has the lengthiest constitution in India?

The Indian Constitution is the world’s longest written constitution, with 146,385 words in its English-language version, whereas the Monaco Constitution is the world’s shortest written constitution, with 3,814 words.

Who declares 6th schedule in India?

—(1) The District Council of an autonomous district may make regulations for the regulation and control of money-lending or trading within the district by persons other than Scheduled Tribes resident in the district.

What is first schedule India?

Schedule 1 of the Indian constitution contains the list of states and union territories and their extent and territorial jurisdictions. The aspirants preparing for UPSC must be aware of the contents of each Schedule of the constitution and important amendments to the Schedules.

What is fifth schedule India?

(a) prohibit or restrict the transfer of land by or among members of the Scheduled Tribes in such area; (b) regulate the allotment of land to members of the Scheduled Tribes in such area; (c) regulate the carrying on of business as money-lender by persons who lend money to members of the Scheduled Tribes in such area.

What are the 3 forms of schedule?

Three types of online appointment schedules: which one should I choose? The first choice to make when setting up your new SuperSaaS schedule is which type of online appointment schedule you will select on the New Schedule page. SuperSaaS offers three types of schedule to cater for different uses, situations or businesses. How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution Click to enlarge and play video

If you have trouble viewing this video, you can also find it on The three schedule types are known as the,, and, In some ways, they overlap in what they can do, and for some applications more than one will work. You will get the best experience if you know which schedule type is appropriate for your situation.

Why do we have schedules?

Benefits of Scheduling – Scheduled tasks help you to accomplish more every day despite distractions and inconveniences. The top benefits of scheduling are:

  1. Structure and Discipline A schedule establishes a predictable routine that reduces stress and improves efficiency. It makes decision-making easier, eliminates uncertainties, and builds healthy habits to manage your time and energy better. It can be a part of productivity planning and goal management.
  2. Better Productivity Scheduling enables you to prioritize important tasks and identify potential time wasters. Since you can’t add hours to the day, a schedule helps you use the time you have to do the right things better, faster and increase productivity.
  3. Spare Time A good schedule is a difference between being constantly overwhelmed and having extra time for your well-being. As you get better at scheduling, you’ll discover time-saving techniques and productivity hacks that translate to:
    • Finishing work earlier than expected
    • More time for problem-solving
    • Adequate breaks for meals and exercise
    • Better pace to accomplish scheduled tasks
  4. Delegation Scheduling can help you hand over tasks to better-qualified or more experienced team members. For example, a business owner can save time by outsourcing accounting and IT services instead of spending valuable time on these tasks.
  5. Fewer Mistakes Human error can lead to costly mistakes, particularly in manual tasks like reading documents and data capture. Suppose you schedule these activities and give ample time and tools to complete them. In that case, you reduce mistakes and spend less time correcting or redoing tasks and improve the quality of work
  6. Task Ownership A schedule is a commitment to productivity where each team member agrees to do their share. Each person becomes responsible for their scheduled tasks, which fosters collaboration and a sense of accomplishment.
  7. Contingency Planning Creating a schedule involves anticipating the unexpected. A simple example is sick days and time-off requests. Organize your work tasks to accommodate these needs to avoid interfering with your overall business goals.
  8. Progress Tracking A schedule makes your goals tangible because you assign time to each task. For example, if you dedicate two hours to updating your business inventory, you can cross that out of your list and move on to the next task. You can also review your tasks after every few months to see if you’re still on track or need to adjust your business growth objectives and schedule accordingly.
  9. Fewer Conflicts Scheduling ensures that every team member knows their role, from arrival time to work locations, overtime rates, and procedures for requesting time off. You also reduce the chances of double-scheduling or over-scheduling.
  10. Cost Savings Good scheduling means you get more mileage from your time and team because everyone is much more productive. But it also means that you’ll spend less on paying overtime because all scheduled tasks happen in their allocated time.

How do you read a schedule?

You just read the number before the colon (the hour) and then the number after the colon (the minutes).

Which country has the strongest constitution?

Everybody knows India is the biggest democracy in the world. But it also has the largest constitution in the world as well. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign state in the world, at 145,000 words.

Which country have the best constitution?

Which country has biggest constitution in the world? The country with the biggest constitution in the world is India. The Indian Constitution has 448 articles, 12 schedules, and 97 amendments, making it the longest written constitution in the world. History of the Indian Constitution – The Indian Constitution was adopted on November 26, 1949, and came into effect on January 26, 1950.

  • The Constituent Assembly, consisting of 389 members, was responsible for drafting the constitution.
  • Features of the Indian Constitution – The Indian Constitution is a written constitution and is considered the supreme law of the land.
  • It is divided into several parts, including the Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, and Fundamental Duties.

– The Constitution provides for a federal system of government, with powers being divided between the central government and the state governments. – The Constitution also provides for an independent judiciary and a parliamentary system of government.

  • Amendments to the Constitution require a two-thirds majority in both houses of parliament.
  • Significance of the Indian Constitution – The Indian Constitution is considered a landmark document in the history of constitutional law and has influenced the constitutions of several other countries.
  • It provides for the protection of individual rights and freedoms and promotes the principles of democracy, secularism, and social justice.
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– The Constitution has also been instrumental in shaping India’s political, social, and economic landscape. In conclusion, the Indian Constitution is the biggest constitution in the world, with its detailed provisions and comprehensive coverage of various aspects of governance.

Its significance lies in its role in shaping India’s democratic and constitutional framework, as well as its influence on the constitutions of several other countries. Which country has biggest constitution in the world? India Everyone knows India is the world’s largest democracy. But did you know it also has the world’s largest constitution? At 145,000 words, it is the longest written constitution of any sovereign state in the world.

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Is Magna Carta a constitution?

The Magna Carta was a charter of rights agreed to by King John of England in 1215, and was Europe’s first written constitution, Prior to the implementation of the Magna Carta, English monarchs were considered above the law of the land and ruled with relatively absolute power.

Ing John was pressured into agreeing to the Magna Carta to make peace in England, as barons from the north and east of England rebelled against his rule and demanded protection from the king’s unbridled power. The Magna Carta created a legal system by which the king had to abide, instilling protections for the clergy and nobility.

The Magna Carta was the basis for English common law, and thereby indirectly also had influence on American law. The Founding Fathers of the United States particularly admired the charter’s rebellious nature against the English throne. The writers of the Bill of Rights and state constitutions were inspired by concepts born in the Magna Carta: that a government should be constitutional, that the law of the land should apply to everyone, and that certain rights and liberties were so fundamental that their violation was an abuse of governmental authority.

  1. Although the Magna Carta was primarily meant to protect the powerful Church and wealthy nobility in medieval feudal England, it introduced legal concepts that persisted over time and came to be found in American law.
  2. Notably, its protections were given widely to all free men who held land, as opposed to solely the Church and nobility.

It assured them protection from illegal imprisonment, forming the basis for the concept of a habeas corpus petition. It also promised them all access to swift justice – an early promise of due process, It guaranteed that they could not be imprisoned, outlawed, exiled, or have their possessions or land confiscated without the lawful judgment of their social equals, paving the way for trial by a jury of one’s peers,

What is Indian 8th schedule?

Schedule 8 of the Indian Constitution – 22 Official Languages – Initially, there were 14 official languages. Now, there are 22 official languages in the 8th schedule of the Indian constitution. Check the list of languages below:

Language Spoken in Indian State of Year of Recognition
Assamese Assam 1950
Bengali West Bengal 1950
Gujarati Gujarat 1950
Hindi North India 1950
Kashmiri Jammu & Kashmir 1950
Kannada Karnataka 1950
Malayalam Kerala 1950
Marathi Maharashtra 1950
Odia Odisha 1950
Punjabi Punjab 1950
Sanskrit Karnataka (Shivamogga District) 1950
Tamil Tamil Nadu 1950
Telugu Andhra Pradesh, Telangana 1950
Urdu Jammu & Kashmir, Telangana and Uttar Pradesh 1950
Sindhi Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh 1967
Konkani Goa 1992
Manipuri Manipur 1992
Nepali Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh 1992
Bodo Assam and Meghalaya 2004
Dogri Jammu and Himachal Pradesh 2004
Maithili Bihar and Jharkhand 2004
Santhali West Bengal, Jharkhand and Odisha 2004

For more details on the scheduled languages in India, aspirants can refer to the Indian Ministry of Home Affairs’ Department of Official Language Website (

What is India 9th schedule?

What is the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution? –

  • The Ninth Schedule contains a list of central and state laws which cannot be challenged in courts.
  • The Schedule became a part of the Constitution in 1951 by the First Constitutional (Amendment) Act, It was created by the new Article 31B, which along with 31A was brought to protect laws related to agrarian reform and for abolishing the Zamindari system.
  • Article 31B also has retrospective operation i.e. if laws are inserted in the Ninth Schedule after they are declared unconstitutional, they are considered to have been in the Schedule since their commencement, and thus valid.
  • In I R Coelho v State of Tamil Nadu, 2007, the Supreme Court ruled that the laws placed under Ninth Schedule can be challenged on the ground of violating the basic structure of the Constitution.

Related links – Supreme Court’s Maratha Quota Verdict References

  1. The Indian Express│ Jharkhand’s new quota Bill
  2. The Indian Express│What is Ninth Schedule?

How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution How Many Schedules In Indian Constitution

What is seventh schedule India?

Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India Schedule to the Constitution of India

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Related topics

The constitutional provisions in India on the subject of distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States are defined primarily under its articles 245 and 246. The Seventh Schedule to the specifies the allocation of powers and functions between the Union and the State legislatures.

  • It embodies three lists; namely, the, the, and the,
  • The Union list enumerates a total of 97 subjects over which the power of the Union parliament extends.
  • Similarly, the State list enumerates a total of 66 subjects for state legislation.
  • The schedule also spells out a Concurrent list embodying a total of 47 subjects on which both the Union parliament and the state legislatures are empowered to legislate, though this is subject to the other provisions of the constitution that give precedence to the union legislation over that of the states.

In addition to demarcating the subjects of Union legislation from those of the states, Article 248 of the constitution also envisages residual powers not contemplated in either of the Union or State lists for the Union. It provides, “The Union Parliament has exclusive power to make any law with respect to any matter not enumerated in the Concurrent List or the State List.” Additionally, the constitution also empowers the Union parliament via clause 4 of the Article 246 to legislate for the on all subjects, including those enumerated in the State list.