How Is Food Transported In Plants?

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How Is Food Transported In Plants
CBSE-Life Processes-NCERT Solutions Class X ScienceNCERT Solutions for Life Processes NCERT IN-TEXT QUESTIONS SOLVED Q1. Why is diffusion insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of multicellular organisms like humans? Ans. In multicellular organisms all the cells may not be in direct contact with the surrounding environment.

Hence diffusion will not meet all the requirements of all the cells. Q2. What criteria do we use to decide whether something is alive? Ans. Movement in response to external stimuli, breathing, growth etc. Q3. What are outside raw materials used for by an organism? Ans. Outside raw materials are used for maintenance and sustenance of life by an organism.

Q4. What processes would you consider essential for maintaining life? Ans. All processes that perform the maintenance function of living organisms are called life processes. All life processes are essential for maintaining life. Q5. What are the differences between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition?

Autotrophic Nutrition Heterotrophic Nutrition
1. Food is made from inorganic components. Food is obtained from organic components
2. Chlorophyll and sunlight is required. Chlorophyll and sunlight is not required.
3. Photosynthesis or chemosynthesis takes place. These processes do not occur.
4. It occurs in green plants and some bacteria. It occurs in animals and insectivorous plants.

Q6. Where do plants get each of the raw materials required for photosynthesis? Ans. For photosynthesis plants obtain the following raw materials:

  • (i) Water: Roots absorb it from the soil.
  • (ii) Carbondioxide: Stomata in leaves allow the carbon dioxide gas to enter into the plant.
  • (iii) Chlorophyll: It is already present in the leaves.
  • (iv) Sunlight: From the sun.

Q7. What is the role of acid in our stomach? Ans. Acid (HCl) present in our stomach makes the medium acidic so as to facilitate the action of the enzyme pepsin and it kills the bacteria ingested with food. Q8. What is the function of digestive enzymes? Ans.

Digestive enzymes act on the complex food to break them into simpler components. Q9. How is the small intestine designed to absorb the digested food? Ans. Small intestine has finger like projection in the inner lining which increases the surface area for absorption of food. These finger like projections are called villi.

The villi are richly supplied with blood vessels which take the absorbed food to each and every cell of the body. Q10. What advantages over an aquatic organism does a terrestrial organism have with regard to obtaining oxygen for respiration? Ans. Aquatic organism takes in the oxygen dissolved in water which is in less percentage than the oxygen present in air. Q12. How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings? Ans. Oxygen is carried by haemoglobin present in the RBC of the blood, carbon dioxide is soluble in water and hence is transported by the blood in dissolved form. Q13. How are lungs designed in human beings to maximise the area for exchange of gases? Ans.

In human beings lungs have the tubes called bronchioles which divide into smaller tubes and terminate into balloon like structures called alveoli. The alveoli provide large surface area where the exchange of gases can take place. Q14. What are the components of transport system in human beings? What are the functions of these components? Ans.

In human beings the transport system consists of the following: (i) Heart: It acts as a pumping organ. (ii) Blood: It is the transport medium. It is made up of: (a) Plasma–It carries food molecules, nitrogenous wastes, salts, carbon dioxide, hormones proteins etc.

  1. (b) RBC–Consists of haemoglobin and transports oxygen.
  2. (c) WBC–Helps to fight infection.
  3. (d) Platelets–Helps in the clotting of blood.
  • (iii) Blood vessels:
  • (a) Arteries–Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to each and every cell.
  • (b) Veins–Bring de-oxygenated blood to heart for purification.

Q15. Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds? Ans. Mammals and birds need large amount of energy for their life processes and hence the oxygenated blood can help them to obtain this energy by breaking down the food.

Q16. What are the components of the transport system in highly organised plants? Ans. The components of the transport system are xylem. and phloem in highly organized plants. Q17. How are water and minerals transported in plants? Ans. Water and minerals are transported in plants with the help of xylem tissue.

Roots absorb the water from the soil by actively taking up ions, creates the difference in the concentration of these ions between the root and the soil. Water enters the root cells. The water moves up creating a column of water that is steadily pushed upwards in vessels and tracheids of the roots, stem and leaves, and are interconnected to form a continuous system of water-conducting channels reaching all parts of the plant.

The water loss by leaves through stomata is called transpiration. It creates a suction pull, which pulls water from the xylem cells of roots. Q18. How is food transported in plants? Ans. The transport of food in plants is called translocation. It takes place with the help of a conducting tissue called phloem.

Phloem transports glucose, amino acids and other substances from leaves to root, shoot, fruits and seeds. Sieve tube and companion cells help in transporting the food in upward and downward directions. Sucrose like materials are transported using energy from ATP and osmotic pressure, which is caused due to water.

  1. This pressure moves the material in the phloem to tissues which have less pressure.
  2. This pressure helps in the movement of material in plants. Q19.
  3. Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons. Ans.
  4. Structure of nephrons: It consists of a Bowman’s capsule in which glomerulus is present (cluster of capillaries).

The afferent artery brings the impure blood to nephron. The cup shaped structure (Bowman’s capsule) form a tubular part of nephron which leads to collecting duct. (i) Filtration: The renal artery or afferent artery is wider and slowly it becomes a narrow tube in the glomerulus.

  1. Due to difference in the width, pressure difference is caused and water with dissolved impurities are squeezed out from the tube.
  2. It is collected in the Bowman’s capsule which is cup like structure and passes into the tube.
  3. Ii) Reabsorbtion: The above filtrate passes through the tubule where the major amount of water, glucose, amino acids are selectively reabsorbed by the capillaries which are surrounding the tubule.

(iii) Urine formation: The water and impurities which is not reabsorbed is sent to a collecting duct. This filtrate contains more of dissolved nitrogenous wastes i.e. urea and hence it is termed as urine. From here the urine enters the ureter and is collected in urinary bladder. Q20. What are the methods used by plants to get rid of excretory products? Ans. Wastes excreted from plants are:

  1. (i) Gaseous wastes–through stomata pores CO2 is given out during respiration and O 2 is given out during photosynthesis.
  2. (ii) Liquid wastes (water)–through stomata pores by transpiration.
  3. (iii) Other wastes–are stored in leaves dead cells and the leaves fall off.
  4. Some other waste products are stored as resins and gums in old xylem of the plant and other wastes are also thrown out from nodes into the soil.

Q21. How is the amount of urine produced regulated? Ans. The amount of urine produced depends on how much excess water there is in the body and how much of dissolved waste there is to be excreted. On a hot day, when we sweat and lose a lot of body water and salts, most of the water and salts in kidney will be reabsorbed into the blood from the filtrate in the tubule.

  • (a) nutrition.
  • (b) respiration.
  • (c) excretion.
  • (d) transportation.
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Q2. The xylem in plants are responsible for

  1. (a) transport of water.
  2. (b) transport of food.
  3. (c) transport of amino acids.
  4. (d) transport of oxygen.

Ans. (a) transport of water. Q3. The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires

  • (a) carbon dioxide and water.
  • (b) chlorophyll.
  • (c) sunlight.
  • (d) all of the above.

Ans. (d) All of the above. Q4. The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes place in (a) cytoplasm. (b) chloroplast. (c) mitochondria. (d) nucleus. Q5. How are fats digested in our bodies? Where does this process take place? Ans. Fats are digested in the small intestine.

The secretion of liver, called bile, breaks down the large globules of fat into smaller globules. This is called emulsification of fats. The bile also makes the medium alkaline so that the pancreatic enzyme containing lipase further digest fats to form fatty acids. The alkaline medium is required for pancreatic enzyme to act on lipase.

Q6. What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food? Ans. Saliva contains enzymes, salivary amylase and is released in our mouth. It breaks down starch into sugar (complex carbohvdrates into simpler ones). Q7. What are the necessary’ conditions for autotrophic nutrition and what are its byproducts? Ans.

For autotrophic nutrition to take place the conditions necessary are light, carbon dioxide and water should reach a cell which contains chlorophyll in it. Water first splits to release oxygen and hydrogen. This process is photolysis of water. Hydrogen then combines with carbon dioxide to form glucose. The byproduct of the autotrophic nutrition is oxygen which is released through stomata.

Q8. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Name some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration.

Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration
1. Takes place in presence of oxygen. Takes place in absence of oxygen.
2. Its end products are carbon dioxide and water. Its end products are ethanol and carbon dioxide.
3. More energy is released. Less energy is released.
4. It takes place in cytoplasm and mitochondria. It takes place only in the cytoplasm.
5. Complete oxidation of glucose takes place. Incomplete oxidation of glucose takes place.

Some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration are—yeast and bacteria. Q9. How are the alveoli designed to maximise the exchange of gases? Ans. The alveoli are present at the terminal of bronchioles. They are balloon shaped structures which increases the surface area for the exchange of gases and are richly supplied with blood vessels to take the oxygen to different cells.

Q10. What would be the consequences of a deficiency of haemoglobin in our bodies? Ans. Haemoglobin is a red pigment present in our blood which carries oxygen to all the parts of the body. If there is deficiency of haemoglobin then amount of oxygen reaching our body cells will decrease. Which may lead to release of less energy in our body, leading to a disease called anaemia.

Breathlessness, tiredness and weakness are the symptoms of anaemia. Q11. Describe double circulation in human beings. Why is it necessary? Ans. The heart of human beings consist of two sides right and left. The right side of the heart receives de-oxygenated blood from the cells and tissues and sends it further for purification to lungs.

The left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from lungs which is pumped further and sent to all the parts of the body through blood vessels. This is called double circulation. The energy demand of human beings is too large and hence it is necessary for the separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to meet this energy demand.

Q12. What are the differences between the transport of materials in xydem and phloem?

Transport in Xylem Transport In Phloem
1. Water and mineral salts are transported. Food in aqueous form is translocated.
2. The transport is generally passive. The transport is active.
3. Vessels and tracheids are dead cells. Sieve tubes and companion cells are living cells.

Q13. Compare the functioning of alveoli in the lungs and nephrons in the kidneys with respect to their structure and functioning.

Alveoli Nephron
1. It is the structural and functional unit of lungs. It is the structural and functional unit of kidneys.
2. It is thin walled, has a large surface area and is richly supplied with blood vessels. It is thin walled, has a large surface area and is richly supplied with blood vessels.
3. It removes carbon dioxide from the blood. It removes nitrogenous wastes from the blood.

CBSE-Life Processes-NCERT Solutions

What transports food in plants biology?

Vascular tissues are those tissue that is responsible for the transport of food, minerals, and water throughout the plant. Plants have two primary vascular tissues, the xylem, and the phloem.

How is the product transported in a plant?

FAQs – 1. Why is plant transport important? Plant transportation is required to circulate water, critical nutrients, excretory products, and gases inside the plants for a variety of reasons.2. What affects in transportation in plants? Water, nutrients, and photosynthates are transported throughout the plant thanks to the structure of plant roots, stems, and leaves.

How water and nutrients are carried in plants is influenced by water potential, evapotranspiration, and stomatal control.3. What is translocation? Translocation refers to the movement of food in plants. It is carried out with the aid of phloem, a conducting tissue.5. How does translocation occur in plants? Translocation occurs when water pressure builds as it enters the plant, forcing water and dissolved elements to travel upward via the phloem from the leaves to the remainder of the plant, where they can be stored or converted into energy.4.

What is the function of the xylem and phloem? Xylem transports water and mineral salts from the roots to various regions of the plant. Phloem tissue is responsible for food transport/translocation in higher plants. We hope you enjoyed studying this lesson and learned something cool about Transport in Plants ! Join our Discord community to get any questions you may have answered and to engage with other students just like you! Don’t forget to download our App to experience our fun, VR classrooms – we promise, it makes studying much more fun! 😎

How is food transported in phloem?

Hint: Phloem is a kind of transporting vascular tissue which acts as a mode of transport of sugars from source tissues to sink tissues. Phloem also helps in transportation of various proteins like mRNA and other proteins. Complete answer: The one word to denote transportation of food via Phloem is “Translocation”.

  • Sucrose and amino acids are transported by Phloem up and down through the plant.
  • The process of translocation involves transportation of food into sieve tubes from where food can travel upward or downward to all the parts of the plant.
  • The food can also transport to roots.
  • Translocation happens when energy is utilized from the ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) that provides osmotic pressure required for movement of food upward or downward through the plant.
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Osmotic pressure changes the level of water between the part to which food is to be transported and the water outside that part of the plant. When there is a difference between the amount of water present, the food travels inside the part of the plant when water inside that part is less than the water outside that part of the plant and vice-versa.

  1. ATP is the organic molecule which helps in undertaking all processes and cellular mechanisms in living beings.
  2. The elements that slow down the process of Translocation are: • Chilling of petiole through which food is transported from leaf rightward.
  3. Lack of oxygen reduces the rate of translocation.
  4. Illing of phloem cells also depresses the process of Translocation in phloem.

Note: Four main elements of Phloem are sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma cells. In plants, phloem transports food from leaves to rest of the parts of the plant.

How is food transported around a plant?

Phloem, with its set of companion cells, sieve tubes, fibres and parenchyma, transports food materials from the leaves to different parts of the plant. This activity is called translocation.

How is food transported?

Transporting food involves different modes of transportation. These include road, water, air, and rail. But among these methods, trucking is the most common method, making up the majority (70.5%) of food transportation in the United States.

What transports food in a leaf?

Phloem is the vascular tissue which transports food from leaves to the other parts of the plant. Phloem is composed of various specialized cells called sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem fibers and phloem parenchyma cells.

What is transport in plants a level biology?

Phloem –

Phloem tissue transports organic substances in plants, These organic substances include sugars, such as sucrose, and some mineral ions, which travel as the dissolved form of sap. They go to storage organs and growing areas of the plant. The process is known as translocation, Transport is multidirectional.

Phloem tissue consists of living sieve tube elements that each have a companion cell, Sieve tube elements do not have organelles because they form the tube that transports the organic substances. Instead, the companion cells contain the organelles to carry out metabolic reactions.

Companion cells help with ATP (energy) production, This is to aid in active processes.

Links through plasmodesmata, The cytoplasm in the sieve tube elements and companion cells are linked by gaps (known as plasmodesmata) between cells walls. This allows communication and flow of substances.

A-level Biology – The Phloem →What is the Phloem in A-Level Biology? The Phloem in A-Level Biology is a type of tissue in plants that is responsible for transporting food and nutrients from the leaves to other parts of the plant. →What is the function of the Phloem in A-Level Biology? The function of the Phloem in A-Level Biology is to transport food and nutrients from the leaves to other parts of the plant.

This is done through a process known as translocation. →How does the Phloem transport food in A-Level Biology? The Phloem in A-Level Biology transports food through a process known as translocation. This involves the movement of sugars and other nutrients from the source, such as the leaves, to the sink, such as the roots or developing fruits and seeds.

→What are the components of the Phloem in A-Level Biology? The components of the Phloem in A-Level Biology include the sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma. The sieve elements are the main conducting cells, while the companion cells are responsible for metabolic support and regulation.

  1. The phloem parenchyma are storage cells that store food and nutrients.
  2. What is translocation in the Phloem in A-Level Biology? Translocation in the Phloem in A-Level Biology is the process of moving food and nutrients from the source, such as the leaves, to the sink, such as the roots or developing fruits and seeds.

This process involves the movement of sugars and other nutrients through the Phloem tissue. →Why is the Phloem important in A-Level Biology? The Phloem in A-Level Biology is important because it plays a crucial role in the transport of food and nutrients throughout the plant. How Is Food Transported In Plants Applicable to all exam boards – instructions will be sent to your inbox

What is transport in plants short notes?

Transport in plants refers to the process of carrying water, minerals, and nutrients across various parts of the plant body. This transport includes carrying of food from leaves to other parts and the minerals and water absorbed by the other parts to the leaves, which are referred to as the kitchen of the plants.

What is the active transport in plants?

Active Transport in Plants – Like humans and animals, plants also require transport systems which are mainly involved in the transport of materials, such as water, minerals, and necessary nutrients to all parts of the plant for its survival. Active transport is a mode of transportation in plants, which uses stored energy to move the particles against the concentration gradient.

How is food transported in xylem and phloem?

The transport of food in plants is called translocation. It takes place with the help of a conducting tissue called phloem. CBSE-Life Processes-NCERT Solutions.

Transport in Xylem Transport In Phloem
1. Water and mineral salts are transported. Food in aqueous form is translocated.

What transports food xylem or phloem?

Phloem and Xylem: Difference in a Plant’s Vascular System Phloem and xylem: Difference in a plant’s vascular system, explained Components of the plant vascular system. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. NARRATOR: In animals nutrients circulate throughout the body using the bloodstream.

  1. In plants a network of tissues and fibers called the vascular system carries out this task.
  2. The vascular system is comprised of two main types of tissue: the xylem and the phloem.
  3. The xylem distributes water and dissolved minerals upward through the plant, from the roots to the leaves.
  4. The phloem carries food downward from the leaves to the roots.

Xylem cells constitute the major part of a mature woody stem or root. They are stacked end to end in the center of the plant, forming a vertical column that conducts water and minerals absorbed by the roots upward through the stem to the leaves. Phloem cells form a similar chain on the outer edges of the xylem, transporting food synthesized by the leaves downward through the stem.

How does phloem transport?

Details of the Pressure Flow Model for Phloem Transport – Photosynthates, such as sucrose, are produced in the mesophyll cells (a type of parenchyma cell) of photosynthesizing leaves. Sugars are actively transported from source cells into the sieve-tube companion cells, which are associated with the sieve-tube elements in the vascular bundles.

  1. This active transport of sugar into the companion cells occurs via a proton-sucrose symporter ; the companion cells use an ATP-powered proton pump to create an electrochemical gradient outside of the cell.
  2. The cotransport of a proton with sucrose allows movement of sucrose against its concentration gradient into the companion cells.

occurs. From the companion cells, the sugar diffuses into the phloem sieve-tube elements through the plasmodesmata that link the companion cell to the sieve tube elements. Phloem sieve-tube elements have reduced cytoplasmic contents, and are connected by a sieve plate with pores that allow for pressure-driven bulk flow, or translocation, of phloem sap. How Is Food Transported In Plants Phloem is comprised of cells called sieve-tube elements. Phloem sap travels through perforations called sieve tube plates. Neighboring companion cells carry out metabolic functions for the sieve-tube elements and provide them with energy. Lateral sieve areas connect the sieve-tube elements to the companion cells.

Image credit: OpenStax Biology. The presence of high concentrations of sugar in the sieve tube elements drastically reduces Ψs, which causes water to move by osmosis from xylem into the phloem cells. This movement of water into the sieve tube cells cause Ψp to increase, increasing both the turgor pressure in the phloem and the total water potential in the phloem at the source.

This increase in water potential drives the bulk flow of phloem from source to sink. Unloading at the sink end of the phloem tube can occur either by diffusion, if the concentration of sucrose is lower at the sink than in the phloem, or by active transport, if the concentration of sucrose is higher at the sink than in the phloem.

  1. If the sink is an area of active growth, such as a new leaf or a reproductive structure, then the sucrose concentration in the sink cells is usually lower than in the phloem sieve-tube elements because the sink sucrose is rapidly metabolized for growth.
  2. If the sink is an area of storage where sugar is converted to starch, such as a root or bulb, then the sugar concentration in the sink is usually lower than in the phloem sieve-tube elements because the sink sucrose is rapidly converted to starch for storage.
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But if the sink is an area of storage where the sugar is stored as sucrose, such as a sugar beet or sugar cane, then the sink may have a higher concentration of sugar than the phloem sieve-tube cells. In this situation, active transport by a proton-sucrose antiporter is used to transport sugar from the companion cells into storage vacuoles in the storage cells. How Is Food Transported In Plants Sucrose is actively transported from source cells into companion cells and then into the sieve-tube elements. This reduces the water potential, which causes water to enter the phloem from the xylem. The resulting positive pressure forces the sucrose-water mixture down toward the roots, where sucrose is unloaded.

Which vessel transports food?

Xylem vessels – transport water and minerals (pronounced: zi-lem) from the roots to the stem and leaves. Phloem vessels – transport food materials (mainly sucrose and amino acids) made by the plant from photosynthesising leaves to non-photosynthesising regions in the roots and stem (pronounced: flow-em)

How do goods get transported?

The four primary modes of transportation in logistics are shipments by truck, ship, train and plane — also known as road, maritime, rail and air shipments. While each of these modes of transportation has unique benefits, knowing which method is right for your business requires careful consideration.

Where does food transport occur?

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  • Food and other organic substances (e.g., some plant hormones and even messenger RNAs) manufactured in the cells of the plant are transported in the phloem, Sugars (usually sucrose ), amino acids and other organic molecules enter the sieve elements through plasmodesmata connecting them to adjacent companion cells, Once within the sieve elements, these molecules can be transported either up or down to any region of the plant moving at rates as high as 110 μm per second. Two demonstrations:

    Girdling, Girdling is removing a band of bark from the circumference of the tree. Girdling removes the phloem, but not the xylem. If a tree is girdled in summer, it continues to live for a time. There is, however, no increase in the weight of the roots, and the bark just above the girdled region accumulates carbohydrates. Unless a special graft is made to bridge the gap, the tree eventually dies as its roots starve.

    How Is Food Transported In Plants Figure 16.2.2.0: Girdling, also called ring barking or ring-barking, is the process of completely removing a strip of bark (consisting of Secondary Phloem tissue, cork cambium, and cork) around a tree’s outer circumference, causing its death. Here girdling occurs by deliberate human action to give new habitats to species of dead woods (Lille, North of France, Parc de la Cidatelle (Bois de Boulogne).

    The pictures below are autoradiographs showing that the products of photosynthesis are transported in the phloem.

    How Is Food Transported In Plants Figure 16.2.2.1 Products of photosynthesis transported in phloem courtesy of R.S. Gage and S. Aronoff A cucumber leaf was supplied with radioactive water ( 3 HOH) and allowed to carry on photosynthesis for 30 minutes. Then slices were cut from the petiole of the leaf and covered with a photographic emulsion.

    Radioactive products of photosynthesis darkened the emulsion where it was in contact with the phloem (upper left in both photos), but not where it was in contact with the xylem vessels (center). In the photomicrograph on the left, the microscope is focused on the tissue in order to show the cells clearly; on the right, the microscope has been focused on the photographic emulsion.

    Some fruits, such as the pumpkin, receive over 0.5 gram of food each day through the phloem. Because the fluid is fairly dilute, this requires a substantial flow. In fact, the use of radioactive tracers shows that substances can travel through as much as 100 cm of phloem in an hour.

    What is the name of the cells that transport food in plants?

    Phloem: Phloem tissues in plants helps in the conduction food made in the leaves to all other parts of the plant. Phloem is composed of various specialized cells called sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem fibers, and phloem parenchyma cells.

    What transports food and nutrients in plants?

    Phloem – The phloem is responsible for translocation of nutrients and sugar like carbohydrates, produced by the leaves to areas of the plant that are metabolically active. It is made up of living cells. The cells walls of these cells form small holes at the ends of the cells known as sieve plates. Also Read:

    What system transports food?

    The Circulatory System (also known as part of the Cardiovascular System) – The circulatory system, which is part of the “cardiovascular” system, is one of the eleven organ systems of the human body. Its main function is to transport nutrients to cells and wastes from cells (Figure 3.4.1).

    This system consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels. The heart pumps the blood, and the blood is the transportation fluid. The transportation route to all tissues is a highly intricate blood-vessel network, comprised of arteries, veins, and capillaries. Nutrients absorbed in the small intestine travel mainly to the liver through the hepatic portal vein.

    From the liver, nutrients travel upward through the inferior vena cava blood vessel to the heart. The heart forcefully pumps the nutrient-rich blood first to the lungs to pick up some oxygen and then to all other cells in the body. Arteries become smaller and smaller on their way to cells so that by the time blood reaches a cell, the artery’s diameter is extremely small and the vessel is now called a capillary. How Is Food Transported In Plants Figure 2.4.2 : The Circulatory System: The circulatory system transports nutrients to all cells and carries wastes out.

    What transports food to every cell?

    Your circulatory system, which consists of your heart, blood and blood vessels, are responsible for transporting nutrients to the cells of your body.