Why Female Education In Rural India Is Low?


Why Female Education In Rural India Is Low
Marginal improvement in rural women’s education, finds NFHS-5 Social, cultural stigmas reasons for lack of improvement The present-day education system has come a long way and age-old traditions have undergone a drastic change. One of the biggest achievements of India was the increase in literacy rate to 74.04 per cent in 2010-11 from 18.3 per cent in 1950-51.

  1. The country has been making great strides in educating children; at the time of Independence, India was largely illiterate (nine per cent women and 27 per cent men were literate).
  2. The goal of providing free and compulsory education to all children up to 14 has, however, been elusive.
  3. The number of people educated increased generously between 2005-06 and 2015-16.

Among girls, the median years of schooling increased to 4.4 years in National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16) from 1.9 years as of the NHFS-3, (2005-06). The median years of schooling among boys increased to 6.9 years in NHFS-4 from 4.9 years in NHFS-3.

  • Over a similar period, the percentage of boys and girls with no schooling reduced to 31 per cent from 42 per cent in girls and 15 per cent from 22 per cent in boys.
  • The status of education in rural areas, especially for women, has not seen a very radical change.
  • Reasons for the same may be attributed to social and cultural stigmas.

Conventions and orthodox continue to smother rural landscape. Poor families tend to educate their sons; girls are married off soon. Most families are reluctant to send their daughters to study in schools or urban areas because they fear they would face sexual violence.

There was an overall improvement in the number of rural women who were educated. Gujarat showed maximum improvement in terms of girls or women having 10 or more mean years of schooling. The percentage increase in the area was six per cent in Manipur and Meghalaya and seven per cent in Kerala. According to NFHS-5 data, the percentage of men and women having 10 years or above mean years of schooling was maximum in rural areas of Kerala, Goa, Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh.

Of the women living in rural areas in the 17 surveyed states, Kerala had the maximumhaving 10 or above mean years of schooling while Tripura had the minimum. Goa and Gujarat had the highest percentage of rural men having 10 or above mean years of schooling.

Only 69 per cent girls and 85 per cent of boys over the age of six had attended school as of NFHS-4 (2015-16). Nearly 33 per cent females finished seven years of schooling or less; 13 percent finished 8-9 years of schooling. Among boys, 35 per cent finished seven years of schooling or less; 16 per cent finished 8-9 years of schooling.

Just 10 per cent girls and 13 per cent boys finished 10-11 years of schooling. Nearly 31 per cent females and 15 per cent boys never went to school. Nearly 14 per cent girls and 20 per cent boys finished at least 12 years of schooling. We are a voice to you; you have been a support to us.
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Why is women’s education in rural India so low?

There are some overwhelming cultural and economic reasons why female children are not receiving the same medical, emotional, and educational attention as their male counterparts. The result is low literacy rate among women in rural areas.
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Why do girls in rural areas not get education?

It is often seen in rural parts that boys are given more priority than girls in imparting education. Sometimes, it also happens that due to lack of money and awareness, poor villagers are not able to provide education to all their children.
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What are some reasons for the low female education in India?

Parental attitude, lack of infrastructure, lack of security, superstations related to girls, socio-economic condition of parents are the major challenges for promoting girls’ education in India.
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What is the main problem of women’s education in India?

To educate girls is to lead the way to prosperity. It is the best way to reduce inequalities and build communities. When we educate girls we also take a step towards reducing poverty. But around the world girl, children face discrimination in various forms.

Girls do not receive adequate nutrition; they have less or no access to healthcare and there is a huge gap in the education for girls. According to a UN report, 132 million girls are currently out of school. Some of the main reasons which act as barriers for girl child education are poverty, gender bias, gender-based violence as well as lack of proper sanitation facilities in schools, etc.

In India as per census, 2011 female literacy rates have increased from 18.33 percent in 1951 to 74.00 percent in 2011. But the problems that girls face to get an education still remain the same.
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What is the biggest challenge to women’s education?

Poverty – Poverty and gender-based preference are two of the main challenges which impact girl child education. Girls are forced to stay at home or engage in daily wage labor to contribute to the income of the house. According to a UN report, every year more than 1.5 million girls in India are married before they turn 18.
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What are the barriers of female education?

Relegation of women to the home; parental perceptions of costs/benefits of educating girls,affecting low income families particularly patriarchy, female seclusion practices and early marriage; fear of cultural loss on emancipation; Page 3 3 double/conflicting demands on girls of traditional and school learning;
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Why do rural areas have less education?

10. Lack of Finances – The general population in the rural areas are hired labourers on farmland or other manual work. The remuneration in these sectors is relatively low. As the finances are low, the rural population finds it burdensome to spend on the education of their children. As a result, a large portion of the youth in the rural sector stay away from school.
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What are 5 factors that influence access to education for girls?

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF 2006) states that the factors influencing girls’ education are household poverty, caste, religion, traditional attitudes towards girls’ education, parental illiteracy, distance of school from their home, poor physical facilities in school, poor quality of education and so on.
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What are two reasons why the poor girls drop out of school?

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Answer: The statement—Poor girls drop out of school because they are not interested in getting an education —is not true. There are several reasons behind it:- (i) In many parts of the country, especially in rural and poor areas, there are neither proper schools nor teachers who teach them on a regular basis. (ii) There is no transport facility. If a school happens to be far from people’s home, parents show unwillingness to send their girls to school. (iii) Many families are very poor. They are unable to bear the cost of educating all their children. In such a situation boys get preference and girls are forced to stay indoors.

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What are the challenges of female students?

Archive 2022, Volume 7 2021, Volume 6 2020, Volume 5 2019, Volume 4 2018, Volume 3 2017, Volume 2 2016, Volume 1 Special Issues Challenges of Female Students Academic Achievement: The Case of Debre Markos University Advances in Applied Sciences Volume 4, Issue 2, April 2019, Pages: 64-71 Received: Oct.15, 2018; Accepted: Dec.28, 2018; Published: Jun.12, 2019 Views Downloads Author Genanew Jemberu Engida, Department of Civic and Ethical Studies, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia Abstract Females have their own contribution in economic, political and social aspects of a country.

Educated females are taking a lion share in a country’s development. In Ethiopia female students’ participation at university level is growing time to time. But, the numbers of female students who graduate from the universities are low compared with male students because of different challenges. This study was conducted with the objectives of to investigate the challenges of female students’ academic achievement in the case of Debre Markos University.

To meet this objective the researcher employed on qualitative research approach with case study design method. The participants selected by using non probability sampling technique specifically purposive sampling. The data sources were primary data. Semi-structured interview and FGDs were used as a tool for collecting primary data.

  1. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis methods.
  2. The findings from the study revealed that female students are facing different challenges.
  3. Such as, institutional challenges like lack of special support, problem of academic advisor, lack of orientation, low facilities, instructors lack of teaching skills, crowded classroom, drastic life change, sexual harassment and personal challenges such as, poor socialization, lack of interest, low self-confidence, stress, poor study habit, lack of money, gender related problem, low follows up, poor language ability, lack of commitment.

The study has concluded that female students are faced with many institutional and personal challenges. Based on the conclusion, recommendations are forwarded in line with the major finding of the study. Keywords Education, Challenges, Academic Achievement To cite this article Genanew Jemberu Engida, Challenges of Female Students Academic Achievement: The Case of Debre Markos University, Advances in Applied Sciences,

  • Volume 4, Issue 2, April 2019, pp.64-71.
  • Doi: 10.11648/j.aas.20190402.15 Copyright Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
  • This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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References Abraha Asfaw, “Gender Inequalities in Tertiary Education in Ethiopia” Mediating the Transition to University through the Development of Adaptive Competencies, 2012. American Psychological Association Work Group of the Board of Educational Affairs, “Learner- Centered Psychological Principles” Guidelines for School Reform and Redesign, American Psychological Association, Washington, 1997.

Astin, H.S., “Women and Achievement: Occupational Entry and Persistence”. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association, 1993. Banks, A.J. and McGee Banks A. C, “Multicultural Education Issues and Prospects,” (3rded).U.S.A. John Wiley and sons. Inc, 1997. Brock, T, “Young Adults and Higher Education: Barriers and Breakthroughs to Success”.

Future of Children, Vol.20 (1), Princeton, pp.109-132., 2010. Craft, Maurice, “Cultural Diversity and Teacher Education in Craft Maurice”. Teacher Education in Pluralistic Society. An International Review, Washington D.C.; Falmer Press, 1996. DMU, “Brief History of Debre Markos University”.2007.

  1. Dobson, “Effects of academic anxiety on the performance of students with and without learning disabilities and how students can cope with anxiety at school”, 2012.
  2. Grevatt, William K, “Student Success Program.
  3. Hamilton, Ontario” Mohawk College of Applied Arts and Technology (ED 367 396), 1992.
  4. Matang and Kashora, “Obligations for Women in Tertiary Education”, A Case Study of Women’s University in Africa.

International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol.2 No.15, 2012. Mohammadi, “Students‟ coping with Stress at high school level particularly at 11 th & 12 grade”, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 30, 395-401, 2011. Steel et al, “An Exploratory Study of Concerns of Mature Students and the Coping Strategiesused to Manage these Adverse Experiences, Nurse Education Today”: 25 (7), pp 573-581, 2005.
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Why is educational opportunities so low in rural areas?

Lack of materials – When we study in more privileged areas, we use laptops or tablets because the internet and electricity are easily available to us. Information can be obtained with just a click of the mouse. However, things operate differently in rural areas.

Some schools have a “computer lab”, but not like the fancy ones we have. Their “computer labs” are equipped with two or three old donated computers that are extremely slow because of poor connection or the sheer age of the computer. In such conditions, with little or no access to electricity and the internet, most of the information has to be derived from physical textbooks.

Students may not have enough money to purchase books. Schools may also not have a large variety of books available. This limits the extent of knowledge that the students can learn.
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Why do rural areas have less education?

10. Lack of Finances – The general population in the rural areas are hired labourers on farmland or other manual work. The remuneration in these sectors is relatively low. As the finances are low, the rural population finds it burdensome to spend on the education of their children. As a result, a large portion of the youth in the rural sector stay away from school.
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Why is education lower in rural areas?

5 Planning Considerations of Education in Rural Areas – Implementing a good education system cannot be done with the snap of a finger. There are many things wrong with the current systems in place that need help but are not as easy to fix. Rural areas tend to have these common characteristics,

Poverty Effect

Some Governments like Myanmar have put in efforts to promote education by making primary and secondary education compulsory and free. Supplies like textbooks and uniforms are also provided, however the dropout rates are still high. Research shows that the average dropout rate for children living below the poverty level is 23.2%.

  1. Why? One main factor that children stop coming to school is to help their families work and earn some money.
  2. Because of that, they are unable to attend school regularly and miss out on important lessons, causing them to lag behind other students, eventually leading them to drop out.
  3. Not forgetting the other factors like family.

Most parents have low education levels, low socioeconomic status, and low expectations for educational attainment. This shows that parents may not actively encourage their children to pursue education and graduate from school.

Physical factors

Physical factors cover a trifecta, physical distance students have to walk to get to school, impact of natural disasters and infrastructure of the school itself. Studies have shown that long distances and time taken to travel to school has a negative effect on education participation and graduation.

  • Natural disasters on the other hand have a much larger effect on schooling.
  • In 2010, a monsoon destroyed 11,000 schools in Pakistan.
  • The remaining schools were used as community shelters while repairs to infrastructure and schools were slow and delayed, causing severe disruption to education.
  • The destruction of schools is not the only factor, roads and transport may become inaccessible for travelling, households will have a much tighter budget which leads to cutting down on basics like education and health.
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Higher absenteeism rates and poor academic performance are also seen after rural areas experience climate shocks due to trauma or sickness (from malnutrition in droughts or diarrhea in floods). The infrastructures of schools are also another problem, especially those in extreme poverty stricken areas.

Classrooms could just be a room filled with benches and a black board. Thin walls unprotected from termites, leaking roofs easily damaged by rain and there is a good chance that the rooms also lack windows and doors. Schools also do not have enough resources like tables or chairs which leads to overcrowding in classrooms.

Looking at these images may give you a good idea of the poor conditions the children have to study in.

Insufficient qualified teachers

One consideration for education in rural areas is the teachers. Good and qualified teachers in the rural areas tend to move out to urban areas for more career development opportunities and a higher paycheck. This leaves the rural areas with under qualified educators that are unable to impart knowledge on the children in an effective manner.

However, schools will still employ unqualified and under qualified teachers due to the severe shortage, but this will result in low quality education and poor academic outcomes. Teachers themselves may also have high absenteeism rates from long travel distances to remote schools amongst other reasons.

Substitute teachers will have to step in or classes will merge, leading to overcrowding or an unproductive learning session at school.

Content and curriculum

Other than an educator’s ability to teach students, another consideration for education in rural areas would be the content and curriculum. Many schools have a shortage of learning resources such as textbooks and reading materials like dictionaries, which limits the extent of knowledge a child is able to learn.

Lack of technology

How does anyone obtain information nowadays? Via the wonderful internet. Anything can be found online due to the modern advances of technology. Technology has vastly improved many education systems around the world. Reports have stated that “access to technology is important for education, not only because there is a plethora of technology-based resources for learning, but also to teach students the basic computer skills that are important for many careers”.

  1. These rural areas on the other hand, have limited to no access to the internet or broadband.
  2. With access to the internet, it will greatly improve the quality of education by unlocking the doors to unlimited information, knowledge and educational resources.
  3. Teachers can also use materials found online for more interactive classes that cover a wide range of learning.

Some schools in rural areas do have computers for students to learn with, but it would often be an extremely old pre-loved donated computer with slow connection. There are so little computers that 50 students could be sharing one computer, can you even imagine how chaotic it would be trying to view a tiny screen with 50 other students? After identifying the many problems and challenges that the education system in rural areas face, what can we do to start fixing it?
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Why is the percentage of female workers low and lower still in urban areas Class 12?

Answer: – The percentage of female workforce in the rural areas is nearly 30 % while it is only 14 % in the urban areas. This depicts that as compared to the urban women more rural women accounts for higher share in the female workforce. While on the one hand, the rural women are less educated, unskilled and low productive, on the other hand, urban women being more educated and more skilled and productive have higher probability to get employment.

As in the agricultural and allied activities, high degree of skills and specialisations is not required, so, rural women engage themselves to support their family on farms.

As poverty in the rural areas is more widespread than in the urban areas, so, the rural women engage themselves in low productive jobs just to support the livelihood of their families.

As the urban families usually earn comparatively higher income than the rural families and, further, poverty in the urban areas is not as widespread as that of in the rural areas, so, there is lesser need for female members to get themselves employed.

The decision to take up jobs by the female members rests on the family’s decision rather than her individual decision.

Although female literacy in India is improving, yet it has to get much better before urban female accounts for higher share in the total female workforce.

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