Who Wrote The Minute On Education?


Who Wrote The Minute On Education
Thomas Babington Macaulay Minute on Education (1835) by Thomas Babington Macaulay.
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Who wrote the book minute on education?

Minute on Indian Education by Thomas Babington Macaulay – This Day in History.
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Who gave the minute?

Lord Macaulay’s Minute (1835) – Modern India History Notes.
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What was Macaulay’s minute on Indian education?

A ‘Filtered’ Education – Such interventions were limited – the East India Company, as it happened, was never really enamoured with the idea of investing in education. Yet, English education became important when the lower levels of the bureaucracy had to be staffed, creating a demand for babus, or native clerks.

  • The Anglicists, Macaulay included, while vociferous in their advocacy of English, stood for what they described as the “filtration” of education.
  • This meant that only the upper echelons of society would be provided instruction in English, and they, in turn, were expected to educate the natives down the order.

Macaulay’s Minute clearly stated these intentions: education was to “form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect”.

  1. Even then, schools offering instruction in English had already existed in Bengal for a while.
  2. Besides missionary-run schools, it was the so-called vernacular schools – with instruction primarily in Bengali – that offered English classes.
  3. These schools were small, private initiatives, and English lessons were extended to the better performing students, while the majority continued to be schooled in Bengali.

Yet it was the presence of these Anglo-vernacular schools that made officials and scholars, who opposed both the Orientalists and Anglicists, call for more funds to support vernacular education. Till the mid-1830s, such voices were subdued. But once Macaulay’s Minute became a resolution and the more powerful bodies in London weighed in as well, this strand of opinion represented by officials like Frederick Shore, Brian Houghton Hodgson, William Campbell and William Adam, began to make itself heard via anonymous letters in newspapers, and more forcefully, in their reports. Who Wrote The Minute On Education Thomas Babington Macaulay. Credit: Wikimedia Commons
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Who drafted an account minute in 1835 on Indian Education Class 8?

Macaulay’s “Minute Upon Indian Education” – To remove all doubt, however, Macaulay produced and circulated a Minute on the subject. Macaulay argued that support for the publication of books in Sanskrit and Arabic should be withdrawn, support for traditional education should be reduced to funding for the Madrassa at Delhi and the Hindu College at Benares, but students should no longer be paid to study at these establishments.

  1. The money released by these steps should instead go to fund education in Western subjects, with English as the language of instruction.
  2. He summarised his argument To sum up what I have said, I think it is clear that we are not fettered by the Act of Parliament of 1813; that we are not fettered by any pledge expressed or implied; that we are free to employ our funds as we choose; that we ought to employ them in teaching what is best worth knowing; that English is better worth knowing than Sanskrit or Arabic; that the natives are desirous to be taught English, and are not desirous to be taught Sanskrit or Arabic; that neither as the languages of law, nor as the languages of religion, have the Sanskrit and Arabic any peculiar claim to our engagement; that it is possible to make natives of this country thoroughly good English scholars, and that to this end our efforts ought to be directed.

Macaulay’s comparison of Arabic and Sanskrit literature to what was available in English is forceful, colourful, and nowadays often quoted against him. I have conversed both here and at home with men distinguished by their proficiency in the Eastern tongues.

I have never found one among them who could deny that a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia. Honours might be roughly even in works of the imagination, such as poetry, but when we pass from works of imagination to works in which facts are recorded, and general principles investigated, the superiority of the Europeans becomes absolutely immeasurable.” He returned to the comparison later: Whoever knows has ready access to all the vast intellectual wealth, which all the wisest nations of the earth have created and hoarded in the course of ninety generations.

It may be safely said, that the literature now extant in that language is of far greater value than all the literature which three hundred years ago was extant in all the languages of the world together. The question now before us is simply whether, when it is in our power to teach this language, we shall teach languages, by which, by universal confession, there are not books on any subject which deserve to be compared to our own; whether, when we can teach European science, we shall teach systems which, by universal confession, whenever they differ from those of Europe, differ for the worse; and whether, when we can patronise sound Philosophy and true History, we shall countenance, at the public expense, medical doctrines, which would disgrace an English farrier, -Astronomy, which would move laughter in girls at an English boarding school,-History, abounding with kings thirty feet high, and reigns thirty thousand years long,-and Geography, made up of seas of treacle and seas of butter.

  1. Mass education would be (in the fullness of time) by the class of Anglicised Indians the new policy should produce, and by the means of vernacular dialects: In one point I fully agree with the gentlemen to whose general views I am opposed.
  2. I feel with them, that it is impossible for us, with our limited means, to attempt to educate the body of the people.

We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from the Western nomenclature, and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the population.
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Who is the education minute?

Dharmendra Pradhan. He is a member of the Council of Ministers. Dharmendra Pradhan is an Indian politician who is the Minister of Education and the Minister of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship in the Indian government.
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Why is it called a minute?

Etymology – The name “minutes” possibly derives from the Latin phrase minuta scriptura (literally “small writing”) meaning “rough notes”.
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Who is the father of English in India?

On this day in 1835, Lord Macaulay successfully westernised education in India; English was made the official language for the government and courts, and was adopted as the official medium of instruction. – Macaulay v/s traditional languages : Ever wondered why we use UK English in India? Thomas Babington, better known as Lord Macaulay, is the man who brought the English language and British education to India. His highly debatable introduction of the English language and the approach to minimalise the use of traditional languages makes an interesting read.
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Where does the minute come from?

Early Origins of the Miniet family – The surname Miniet was first found in Kent where they held a family seat as Lords of the Manor. The Norman influence of English history dominated after the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The language of the courts was French for the next three centuries and the Norman ambience prevailed.
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What was the aim of Macaulay’s education policy?

Answer: Macaulay’s aim of creating an intermediary class was fulfilled. He did not know it fully that his prophesy would come true one day, especially when he was mentioning the future of English language in the world. The main objective of Macaulay`s policy were as follows.

  1. The policy laid emphasis on promoting European literature and science among the Indians.
  2. As such all funds allocated for the purpose of education should be used on English education only.
  3. On 2 February 1835, British historian and politician Thomas Babington Macaulay presented his ‘Minute on Indian Education’ that sought to establish the need to impart English education to Indian ‘natives’.
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This minute is a very important document for UPSC history. Explanation:
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Who appointed Macaulay minute?

The Lord Macaulay’s Minute, 1835: Re-examining the British Educational Policy | Ajit Mondal > > The Lord Macaulay’s Minute, 1835: Re-examining the British Educational (.) by Ajit Mondal * Development of education system during the British period was determined by the needs of the colonial powers. If we analyse the development, we will find that the colonial interests of the British always shaped the then educational policies of India. European trading companies began their commercial activities in India from 1600 A.D. Gradually the Portuguese, the French, the Dutch and the English settled in some parts and commercial centres of India. Among them the English East India Company was ultimately able to establish their rule in India. Till the 19th century, they did not evolve any definite educational policy (Ramana, 2012, p.81). One should not suppose that there had been no educational system before the coming of the East India Company. When the British came to India and were gradually establishing themselves in Bengal, they met such a system (Ghosh, 1989:2).F.W. Thomas was of the opinion that “Education is no exotic in India. There is no country where the love of learning had so early an origin or has exercised so lasting and powerful an influence” (Thomas, 1891, p.1). The modern system of education came to be established in India during the British period at the cost of the traditional indigenous system. Before the British established a new system of education in India both the Hindus and the Muslims had their own systems of education. The Tols and Madrassas were the highest institutes of learning meant for the specialists. These institutions were not meant for education of an elementary kind. For primary education, there were in the villages, Patsalas and Maktabs where the Gurus and Maulavis imparted knowledge of the three “R”s to the boys of the locality. The East India Company became a ruling power in Bengal in 1765. The Court of Directors refused to take on itself the responsibility for the education of the people of India and decided to leave education to private effort. However some half-hearted efforts were made by the Company’s Government to foster oriental learning. The early attempts for the education of the people were the establishment of Calcutta Madrasa in 1781 and Sanskrit College (1791) at Benares. Development of education system during the British period was always determined by the needs of the colonial powers. The development of modern system of education in India begun with the Charter Act of 1813 which provided through the Section 43 that “a sum of not less than one lac of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the revival and improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India, and for the introduction and promotion of a knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India” (Sharp, 1920, p.22). The Charter Act made it obligatory on the part of the East India Company to spread education in India; it laid the foundation of State System of Education in India. The vagueness of the clause 43 of the Charter Act of 1813 intensified the Oriental and Occidental educational controversy in India. This fund was kept unspent till 1823 due to the controversy. That’s why the recommendations of the Charter Act of 1813 were delayed until 1823 when the Governor General in Council appointed a G.C.P.I. for the Bengal Presidency to look after the development of education in India. As a result of the Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, the spread of education in India was halted until 1835, when Macaulay’s Resolution provided a somewhat clear picture of the British education policy. The Charter was eventually renewed in 1833 for another term of 20 years. It added a Law Member to the Executive Council of the Governor General of Bengal which had hitherto consisted of three members only. Macaulay was appointed as the first Law Member to the Executive Council of the Governor General of Bengal. Lord Macaulay attempted to provide a solution to the dilemma posed by the educational clause in the Charter Act of 1813. In his Minute dated the 2nd of February, 1835 Macaulay wrote: This lakh of rupees is set apart not only for ‘reviving literature in India’, but also ‘for the introduction and promotion of the knowledge of the Sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories’ — words which are alone sufficient to authorize all the changes for which I contend (Sharp and Richey, 1920, Vol.1, pp.107-08). Macaulay also wrote in his Minute, “We must at present do our best to form a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect” His Minute ultimately decided the policy, medium, means and aims of education in India. The colonial interests of the British shaped the then educational policies of India through Macaulay’s Minute. They are —

Ultimately Macaulay in his Minutes of 1835 instituted an education policy in support of the British Raj which denigrated Indian languages and knowledge, established the hegemonic influence of English as medium of colonial ‘instruction’ (not education) in order to “form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern”. Thus a natural consequence of Macaulay’s theory was the development of vernacular languages as secondary to the teaching of English. English education was also seen as an important basis for expanding the British market in India by harnessing English values and tastes. Anglicized Indians would be potential customers of British goods. Acquainted with them by means of their literature and medium of English, the Indian youth would almost cease to regard them as foreigners. Spreading English education provided a positive bond between the rulers and the ruled. In 1833 when the Charter Act was passed, the East India Company was in acute financial crisis. The 1833 Charter opened the lower order Civil Service jobs to English educated Indians. By adopting Downward Filtration Theory, the British Government wanted to make higher classes blind followers of the Government. The educated people educated on British lines through English medium would get higher post in Government services and in return they would use their influence in controlling the masses from going against the Government rule. The Macaulayian system was a systematic effort on the part of the British Government to educate the upper classes of India through the medium of English language. Education of the masses was not the aim of Macaulay. This Minute gave birth of a new class division — English knowing class and English not knowing class among Indians. Lord William Bentinck (1828-1838) endorsed the Minute On the 7th of March 1835 by writing one line beneath it, “I give entire concurrence to the sentiments expressed in the Minute”, He passed the Resolution of March 1835 which was the first declaration of the British Government in the sphere of education in India. Ultimately Bentinck was greatly influenced by the views of Macaulay. Bentinck’s proclamation gave birth to the following results in Indian education: The aims of education in India were determined by the British. The promotion of Western arts and sciences was acknowledged as the avowed object. The printing of oriental works was to be stopped. New grants or stipends to students of oriental institutions were to be stopped in future. The medium of education would be English. This proclamation promised to supply Government with English educated Indian servants cheap but capable at the same time. In line with the Bentinck’s Resolution, 1835, in 1844, Lord Hardinge proclaimed that for services in public offices, preference would be given to those who were educated in English schools. It clearly showed that education was imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join services. The emphasis was on producing good clerks (Kochhar, 1982:7). This proclamation had also far-reaching consequences. It gave rise to two new castes in a caste — ridden country — English —knowing caste and non-English knowing mass of people.

Professor S.N. Mukherji commented that, “The Proclamation marks a turning point in the history of education in India. It was the first declaration of the educational policy, which the British Government wanted to adopt in this country, The barriers of caste, conservatism and religious orthodoxy which had blocked the cultural progress of the country were done away with and new vistas were opened through the study of English for those persons ‘Indian in blood and colour but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellect’.

This brought about the dawn of a cultural renaissance after centuries of confusion and darkness” (Mukherji, 1974: 73-74). The researcher is of the opinion that his analysis was not fully acceptable because Bentinck’s resolution was not at all cultural renaissance but aggression and earlier centuries of India did not belong to dark ages.

It may be, however, said that Bentinck’s declaration tried to put an end to the oriental occidental controversy. This minute influenced British’s educational policy in this country for more than a century. It must be admitted that the new knowledge through Western learning brought India into contact with scientific researches of the West, and developed Indian languages to standards in which a university education became possible.

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Ghosh, S.C. (1989). Education Policy in India since Warren Hastings, Calcutta: Naya Prokash. Ghosh, S.C. (2013). The History of Education in Modern India, 1757-2012. New Delhi: Orient Black Swan Private Limited. Hharp, H. (1920). Selections from Educational Records, Part — I 1781-1839. Calcutta: Bureau of Education, Superintendent Government Printing, India. Kochhar, S.K. (1982). Pivotal Issues in Indian Education, New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Mukerji, S.N. (1974). History of education in India, Baroda, India: Acharya Book Depot. Mukherji, S.N. (1974). History of Education in India (Modern Period), Baroda, India: Acharya Book Depot. Nurullah, S. & Naik, J.P. (1964). A Students’ History of Education in India, London: Macmillan and Company Limited. Nururllah, S. & Naik, J.P. (1943). History of Education in India during the British Period. New York: The MacMillan Company. Sen, J.M. (2010). History of Elementary Education in India, New Delhi: Pacific Publication. Sharp, H. & Richey, J.A. (eds.) 1920. Selections from Educational Records. Vol. I, Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing. Sharp, H. (1920) (Ed.). Selections from Educational Records, Part I (1781-1839). Calcutta: Bureau of Education, Superintendent Government Printing, 1920. (Reprint) Delhi: National Archives of India, 1965. Thomas, F.W. (1891). The History and Prospects of British Education in India, Cambridge: Deighton Bell and Co.

: The Lord Macaulay’s Minute, 1835: Re-examining the British Educational Policy | Ajit Mondal
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Which act was introduced after Macaulay’s minute?

An eighth standard CBSE student is introduced to Lord Macaulay’s ‘educational history’ through a social sciences chapter called ‘Civilising the ‘native’, educating the nation’ in an attempt to introduce the student to education critically. Under one of the sections in the chapter, ‘Grave errors of the east’, the student is introduced to the British scholar Thomas Babington Macaulay.

  • The chapter mentions Macaulay’s disregard for oriental studies and briefly mentions the English Education Act of 1835 that followed his important minute.
  • Following this introduction, there is rarely any assessment of the multidimensional effect that Lord Macaulay’s other identities (parliamentarian, occidental thinker, etc.) had, and still has, on the lives of people who receive education in India.

Thomas Babington Macaulay, a legal member of the Council of India and a British parliamentarian, gave his important minute that changed the entire course of education, in 1835. He addressed the Committee of Public Instruction and based his argument on the basis of the central themes of the Charter Act of 1813. Who Wrote The Minute On Education Representative image. Photo: Jonathan Camuzo/Flickr (CC BY 2.0) Macaulay’s arguments were in direct contradiction to the decisions of the Committee of Public Instruction, appointed by the British Parliament. The committee took major decisions in education before 1835.

  • Macaulay alleged that the committee had not used the scope given by the parliament in the charter in the most efficient ways.
  • He argued that it was a shortsighted interpretation to think that by the promotion of ‘literature’, parliament meant Sanskrit and Arabic Literature but rather emphasised becoming a learned native by studying the poetry of Milton, metaphysics of Locke and the Physics of Newton.

It paved way for a trend of amending an education system in reaction to previous policies.” Macaulay was the first person in the history of the Indian education system who made financial resources the centre of educational activities. He said, “The grants which are made from the public purse for the encouragement of Literature differ in no respect from the grants which are made from the same purse for other objects of real or supposed utility.” He implied that if stipends are given to students of Sanskrit and Arabic from resources of British then it should fetch the British some gain,

The man can be credited with laying foundations for treating education as a ‘sector’. Thus the most important aspect of the development of an individual, education will now have to prove its worth to satisfy its position as an important ‘sector’, whose investment will purely depend on the return, Also read: The Infamous Macaulay Speech That Never Was Public Education still follows the same ‘return’ policy; the requirements of the return being the ‘creation of a class of people who can efficiently do the job’; something that is stressed in the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 as well.

Macaulay had a strong belief in treating things according to their ‘worth’. In the contemporary sense, the word ‘worth’ has transformed into ‘scope’. People now think in terms of which branch of education will land them in a more proximate job. Macaulay assumed it was foolish of the public commission to provide stipends to Arabic and Sanskrit students when a huge cluster was ready to pay willingly to receive English education, making it profitable.

  1. Macaulay then said the famous line, which liberalised the whole of the Indian education sector way before the 1990s.
  2. He said, “On all such subjects (matters related to education), the state of the market is the decisive test.” He commoditised education.
  3. And modern day scenario has proved that ‘market’ is actually the most decisive factor that decides ‘what type of education will be promoted’.

Promotion of English way of education Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru laid down the base in 1950s for the technological boom of the country by increasing the stake of public sector in technological aspect of industrialisation and gave rise to a class of people studying engineering.

These people grew economically stable by the second half of the 1990s and thus associated careers relating to lifestyles (fashion designing, interior designing) were also promoted. While making an argument about replacing Sanskrit and Arabic with English as a medium of communication in school, Macaulay asked with a presumption of knowing the answer, “which language is the best worth knowing?” And then divides his answer into two parts: the first half being the literary inferiority of Eastern writers, he spoke about how he never had met an orientalist who could say “Sanskrit and Arabic poetry could be compared to that of the great European nations”.

And declared in the House that “from the works of imagination to works in which facts are recorded and general principles investigated, the superiority of Europeans becomes absolutely immeasurable”. The second half stressed English being more ‘eloquent’ and ‘polite’.

In summing up his point, he stated that whoever knows English has ready access to vast intellectual wealth collected by all the wisest nations and proved to his contemporaries the incapability of Sanskrit and Arabic in providing the necessary education. Also read: Language Policy: Education in English Must Not Be the Prerogative of Only the Elites Though sometimes this system is advocated in favour of Dalits and OBCs, who claim that they are on the receiving end, but what is evident after around 150 years of its establishment is that the upper castes have been most active participants of the sector.

The participation of Dalits and OBCs in new liberal colleges, like Ashoka University, O.P Jindal, IITs, IIMs, etc., is a point to ponder. The sector does not enable people to break through their systemic social backwardness, because they lack social and economical capital to participate in it.

Therefore, to say that a certain population is being liberated through this English education system would be a claim on loose ends. Macaulay tried to prove that it is completely rational and logical to adopt a foreign language to strengthen your culture, if your own mode of communication is not strong enough,

For certifying this, he recalled the story of British adopting the language of Thucydides and Plato and the language of Cicero and Tacitus, because they believed that everything “worth reading was contained in the writings of ancient Greeks and Romans”. Representational image. Photo: PTI In continuity, Macaulay said that when a nation of high intellectual attainments (Britain) undertakes to superintend, the education of a nation, completely ignorant (Indian Subcontinent), the learners are absolutely to prescribe the course, which is to be taken by the teachers.

  1. He implied that the students of this landmass are incapable of choosing a correct curriculum for their development, as they are not knowledgeable or qualified enough.
  2. And thus, deprived a student of the Indian Subcontinent any share of contribution in what they learned and how they learned while also imposing on students a difficult and unknown curriculum.

As pointed out in NEP 2020 and also in general practice, our education system has till date has been unable to provide students any stake in the education process. While answering his self-made arguments of the Oriental views, Macaulay said that because “Sanskrit and Arabic are Languages in which these sacred books are written” therefore, he added, “that it is a public view that these form ‘Literature’ and hence, must be promoted”.

Like a proper diplomat, he went on, “It is the duty of the British government in India to be not only tolerant but neutral on all religious questions”. More than anything else this disclaiming feels contemporary. Post-independence scenario The Kothari commission was assigned with the job of creating a new national policy on education in 1964.

The commission submitted its report in 1966, and in 1968, with most of its points approved, it became the first education policy of independent India. The idea was to infuse our constitutional values into our education system and to make men and women ‘perfect’ for the job.

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According to the constitutional framework, the curriculum was also designed keeping in mind the neutrality. The advocates of the Hindu past from then to now have the same claim that this secularisation process is actually a distortion of facts, that they are teaching about our golden past but do not give a correct account of how did that past end.

Basically their claim is about the Muslim rulers who they see as invaders. These advocates claim that the history of these rulers have been given a less violent image by the government for the appeasement of people belonging to a particular religious community in order to gain votes in a democratic process. Who Wrote The Minute On Education Representational image. Photo: Reuters/Jayanta Dey A glimpse of this ‘revival’ and ‘promotion’ of literature was evident in 2003, when the Bhandarkar Oriental Institute of Pune was vandalised by 200 goons based on a loose claim of ‘disrespect of Shivaji’ in which the institute was minutely involved (mentioned in the acknowledgement section of the controversial book Shivaji: Hindu King in Islamic India by James W Laine).

  • The goons destroyed important older manuscripts such as the first century CE copy of Mahabharata and a very old copy of Rig Veda used by Max Mueller.
  • Also read: Macaulay Is Very Relevant Today and Helps Dalits, OBCs Join the Global Economy The incident was easily forgotten.
  • But the Narendra Modi government, the second majority government of the NDA, followed the legacy.

One can wonder how easy it is for a government to regulate the curriculum according to its needs. The revival of literature, which Hindu nationalists promise, is not derived directly from Sanskrit texts but rather is a profitable version of the Indological studies of the 19th century, which derives its roots from the same English education system which was promoted by Macaulay.

Macaulay, in a concluding statement, simplified things for the parliament and said “We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern- a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect.

To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from the Western nomenclature, and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the population”.

  1. Macaulay was very futuristic in this attempt and he was very much successful in the same.
  2. This statement marked the culmination of the process of “creation of two bodies” which had been underlying in the whole speech.
  3. The first body was the “Indian penal code ” (which established the framework of instructions for ruling the people in India), and the second was the ‘Indian civil services’ (ICS)(now, Indian Administrative Services).

Also read: Glimmers of Hope and Reform in the National Education Policy Draft These two bodies have till date enabled and executed all the necessary provisions which have made ruling or governing over people an easier task. Members of ICS formed the first bureaucratic class in India.

Mapping the facilities received by the IAS officer, we can clearly see that they are English in taste (until they deny that lifestyle) and Indian in blood who very well use the sciences as instruments of the Western formula known as “development”. William Bentinck, the then governor general of India, came up with a one-line approval of this minute in the parliament and got the English Education Act 1835 passed.

It came into effect in 1859. Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay was bestowed with all the authoritarian claims that can be given to a British intellectual of the highest order. We can see this tendency of formulating policies on the basis of “derived literatures” of the Indian subcontinent.

  • None of our educational reforms have been based on the original interpretations of ancient Indian literature by our own people, which is why the education system has failed in creating a significant role in the lives of the masses.
  • They have refrained us completely from taking into account ground realities like those of the caste system.

The pursuit of knowing the reality remains futile and restricted to a procedural policy, because the intent and motives are always diluted by an English imperial mindset.
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Why were the minute named after Macaulay?

Answer: Because Macaulay is the founder of minute. This is why minute was named after Macaulay.
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Who is the education minister of India in 2022?

Notes. Latest News : Mr Dharmendra Pradhan, Honorable Minister of Education of India will receive th 14th February 2022 Mr Schönenberger Claudius, Professor in France who revolutionize the learning process of Indian History by the launching of Evnseries.com on last Diwali.
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What Spencer said about education?

Herbert Spencer defined the purpose and task of education was to teach everyone how to live completely.
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Who started education in?

Who Invented School Horace Mann is considered as the inventor of the concept of school. He was born in 1796 and later became Secretary of Education in Massachusetts. He was a pioneer in bringing educational reforms into society. He believed that public education where students would follow a curriculum was necessary to impart education in an organized way.
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Who was the author of the minute proposing the introduction of Western education in 1832?

Macaulay’s Minute reviewed – The Minute is based on an idea that English education is not just superior in ‘science’, but would also inculcate superior morals, etc. that were responsible for making the English superior. While the Minute acknowledged the historic role of Sanskrit and Arabic literature in the subcontinent, it also contended that they had limitations.

“A single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia,” Macaulay wrote in the Minute,He envisaged creating “a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect”.A professor of Humanities and Social Sciences at IIT-Madras, in his passage for The Hindu, argued:

I contend, nonetheless, that the Macaulay Minute is both overrated and somewhat misjudged in Indian cultural studies. It is true that it came from a man who was directly charged with the formation of a loyal local herd that would be indebted in serving the colonial administration.

  • He was, after all, a bureaucrat of high standing, obliging the Supreme Council of India for five years.Macaulay here is speaking of a nation’s progress towards a more cosmopolitan outlook, but he is not thereby denigrating its own native cultures and practices.
  • For instance, he speaks very highly of 19th century England and English literature and poetry of course, but also makes the claim that had the English literati not familiarised themselves with ancient Greek and Roman writings, they would never have produced a Shakespeare.

“What the Greek and Latin were to the contemporaries of More and Ascham, our tongue is to the people of India. However, a member of the Program on Liberation Technology at Stanford University and previous contributor to rights-based campaigns in India wrote in his Macaulay’s “Minute on Indian Education” : His characterisation of Indian languages and traditions is openly racist and represents an important danger that any discourse on institutions can get into.

  1. At the surface, it may look like the discourse on institutions today is different, especially with an emphasis in some quarters that societies are different and that each need to develop institutions that suit themselves.
  2. But we only need to scratch beneath the surface to see manifestations of racism and notions of “White man’s burden” that embody the discourse on institutions today.

You can be your own judge of whether Macaulay was an angel or a villain in his ways of shaping of the subcontinent’s history by yourself reading his, Interested in General Knowledge and Current Affairs? to stay informed and know what is happening around the world with our G.K.
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Who among the following wrote a minute on Macaulay’s minute?

Macaulay’s Minute is a historical document in Indian Education. It was prepared under the guidance of Thomas Babington Macaulay in 1835.
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Who among the following was famous for forming the education minute?

Minute on Education (1835) by Thomas Babington Macaulay.
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