Who Was The Chairman Of Second Education Committee?


Who Was The Chairman Of Second Education Committee
Secondary Education Commission – Wikipedia The established the Secondary Education Commission on 23 September 1952 under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmanaswamy Mudaliar. It was called the Mudaliar Commission after him. The commission recommended diversifying the, adding an intermediate level, introducing three-tier undergraduate courses, etc.
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Who was the chairman of 1952_53 Commission?

Secondary Education Commission – In this article get Mudaliar Commission B.Ed. notes. Mudaliar Commission is also known as the Secondary education commission.

  • In 1952 Union Government of India appointed Dr. A Laxman Swami Mudaliar as a chairman of secondary education commission.
  • The aim of this commission was to examine the existing system of secondary education in the country. It aims to suggest measures to improve it.
  • The commission submitted its report in August 1963 on almost all aspects of secondary education.
  • Major recommendations of the commission were
    1. installation of the higher secondary system with diversified courses
    2. three language formula
    3. emphasis on educational and vocational guidance
    4. improvement in the system of examination
    5. improvement in the methods of teaching
  • These recommendations were discussed by the secondary advisory board of education and were accepted by certain modifications.
  • A scheme of higher secondary education was launched all over India.
  • The scope of AICSE was widened and the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) was founded at the center for providing educational guidance and facilities to the states.

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Who started secondary education in India?

The Education System in India – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation In ancient times, India had the Gurukula system of education in which anyone who wished to study went to a teacher’s (Guru) house and requested to be taught. If accepted as a student by the guru, he would then stay at the guru’s place and help in all activities at home.

  • This not only created a strong tie between the teacher and the student, but also taught the student everything about running a house.
  • The guru taught everything the child wanted to learn, from Sanskrit to the holy scriptures and from Mathematics to Metaphysics.
  • The student stayed as long as she wished or until the guru felt that he had taught everything he could teach.

All learning was closely linked to nature and to life, and not confined to memorizing some information. The modern school system was brought to India, including the English language, originally by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in the 1830s. The curriculum was confined to “modern” subjects such as science and mathematics, and subjects like metaphysics and philosophy were considered unnecessary.

Teaching was confined to classrooms and the link with nature was broken, as also the close relationship between the teacher and the student. The Uttar Pradesh (a state in India) Board of High School and Intermediate Education was the first Board set up in India in the year 1921 with jurisdiction over Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior.

In 1929, the Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana, was established. Later, boards were established in some of the states. But eventually, in 1952, the constitution of the board was amended and it was renamed Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).

All schools in Delhi and some other regions came under the Board. It was the function of the Board to decide on things like curriculum, textbooks and examination system for all schools affiliated to it. Today there are thousands of schools affiliated to the Board, both within India and in many other countries from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe.

Universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group of 6-14 was a cherished dream of the new government of the Republic of India. This is evident from the fact that it is incorporated as a directive policy in article 45 of the constitution.

But this objective remains far away even more than half a century later. However, in the recent past, the government appears to have taken a serious note of this lapse and has made primary education a Fundamental Right of every Indian citizen. The pressures of economic growth and the acute scarcity of skilled and trained manpower must certainly have played a role to make the government take such a step.

The expenditure by the Government of India on school education in recent years comes to around 3% of the GDP, which is recognized to be very low. “In recent times, several major announcements were made for developing the poor state of affairs in education sector in India, the most notable ones being the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government.

  1. The announcements are; (a) To progressively increase expenditure on education to around 6 percent of GDP.
  2. B) To support this increase in expenditure on education, and to increase the quality of education, there would be an imposition of an education cess over all central government taxes.
  3. C) To ensure that no one is denied of education due to economic backwardness and poverty.

(d) To make right to education a fundamental right for all children in the age group 6–14 years. (e) To universalize education through its flagship programmes such as Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal.” ()
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How many members are in secondary education commission?

Mudaliar Commission in Brief –

Commission Mudaliar Commission
Known as Secondary Education commission
Appointment Appointed by the Govt. Of India on the recommendation of CABE on 23rd September, 1952
Chairman Dr. Lakshman Swami Mudaliar
Secretary A.N. Basu
Member Secretary Principal Member Secretary, A.N. Basu, Central Institute of Education, Delhi.
Assistant Secretary Dr.S.M. Assistant Dhari, Education Officer, Ministry of Education, along with seven members.
Report Submitted on 29th August, 1953, 15 chapters of about 240 to 250 pages

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Who was the chairman of Indian Education Commission 1964 66?

Need of the Kothari Commission – Kothari Commission 1964-66 was introduced to develop the existing education system. The government observed a lot of defects in the education system and felt a strong need to come up with a commission that would help the education system bloom in the correct way. The following reasons led to the formation of the Kothari commission in India:

  • The Indian education system was not giving appropriate significance to the agriculture system.
  • The academics were divided into a lot of portions.
  • The Indian education system doesn’t hold the idea of National reconstruction.
  • There was no emphasis on providing spiritual or moral; values to enhance the character formation of the students.

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Who was the chairman of 1952/53 commission?

Secondary Education Commission The established the Secondary Education Commission on 23 September 1952 under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmanaswamy Mudaliar. It was called the Mudaliar Commission after him. The commission recommended diversifying the, adding an intermediate level, introducing three-tier undergraduate courses, etc.
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Who introduced secondary education?

History – A form of education for adolescents became necessary in all societies that had an alphabet and engaged in commerce. In Western Europe, formal secondary education can be traced back to the Athenian educational reforms of 320BC. Though their civilisation was eclipsed and they were enslaved, Hellenistic Athenian teachers were valued in the Roman system,

The Roman and Hellenistic schools of rhetoric taught the seven liberal arts and sciences – grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy – which were regarded as a preparation for the study at a tertiary level of theology, law and medicine. Boys would have been prepared to enter these schools by private tutors at home.

Girls would have only received tuition at home. England provides a good case study. When Augustine of Canterbury brought Christianity there in 597, no schools existed. He needed trained priests to conduct church services and boys to sing in the choir. He had to create both the grammar schools that taught Latin, to enable the English to study for the priesthood, and song schools (choir schools) that trained the ‘sons of gentlefolk’ to sing in cathedral choirs.

In the case of Canterbury (597) and Rochester (604), both still exist. Bede in his Ecclesiastical history (732) tells that the Canterbury school taught more than the ‘intended reading and understanding of Latin’, but ‘the rules of metric, astronomy and the computus as well as the works of the saints’ Even at this stage, there was tension, as the church was worried that knowledge of Latin would give the student access to non-Christian texts that it would not wish them to read.

Over the centuries leading to the renaissance and reformation the church was the main provider of secondary education. Various invasions and schisms within the controlling church challenged the focus of the schools, and the curriculum and language of instruction waxed and waned.
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Who is the father of secondary education?

Horace Mann is known to be the Father of Education. Later he was elected to be the Secretary of the newly-created Massachusetts Board of Education in 1837.
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Who was the chairperson of Secondary Education Commission 1948 to 49?

Today, on the birthday of our 2nd President, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, we celebrate Teachers’ Day. He chaired the ‘University Education Commission 1948-49’.
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How many divisions is GES?

Key Strategic Focus Areas within 4-Year Sector Medium-Term Plan – The following organisations and stakeholders are partnering the GES in the implementation of its programmes and activities:

Pre-tertiary education management including Headquarters Divisions, Regional and District directorates Basic Education, comprising Kindergarten, Primary and Junior High Schools Secondary Education comprising SHS and TVET Special and Inclusive Education

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Which committee commission is made especially for secondary education?

That is why it is popularly known as the Mudaliar Commission. It is also popular as the Secondary Education Commission. It recommended introducing a three year secondary and a four-year higher education system.
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Why was the Secondary Education Commission appointed?

When Mudaliar Commission was appointed?a.1950b.1951c.1952d.1953 Answer Verified Hint: After achieving independence, India needed major reforms in the education system. With the growing number of secondary schools in India, India needed to take care of the education especially secondary education.

  1. Complete Answer: The Secondary Education Commission was also known as the Mudaliar Commission.
  2. It was appointed by the government of India to make changes in the present education system.The aims of the commission were to enquire about the problems faced by the secondary education system in India, the objectives, organization and content of the secondary education as well as the relation of the secondary education to the higher and primary education.The Commission recommended to take measures for the relationship between the primary, higher and secondary education system, the aims, organization and content of education and other problems that may be necessary for establishing a sound and reliable secondary education system in the country.Now, let’s look at the given options:Option (a) In 1950, the Constitution of India came into force making India a republic country.

Thus, this answer is incorrect.Option (b) The Mudaliar commission was established in 1951 to look after the concerns of secondary education of India. So, this is the correct answer.Option (c) Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru formed his first government in India and the first Lok Sabha session started in India in 1952.Option (d) The government of India had set up the first backward classes commission headed by Kaka Kalelkar in 1953.
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What is the other name of Kothari Commission 1964 66?

National Education Commission (1964-1966)

Kothari Commission
Agency overview
Formed 14 July 1964
Dissolved 29 June 1966
Jurisdiction Government of India
Headquarters New Delhi
Agency executives
  • Daulat Singh Kothari, Chairman
  • , Secretary
  • J.F. McDougall, Associate secretary
  • A.R. Dawood H.L. Elvin R.A. Gopalswami V.S. Jha P.N. Kirpal M.V. Mathur B.P. Pal Kumari S. Panandikar Roger Revelle K.G. Saiyidain T. Sen Jean Thomas S.A. Shumovsky Sadatoshi Ihara, Members

National Education Commission (1964-1966), popularly known as Kothari Commission, was an ad hoc commission set up by the Government of India to examine all aspects of the educational sector in India, to evolve a general pattern of education and to advise guidelines and policies for the development of education in India.

It was formed on 14 July 1964 under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, then chairman of the University Grants Commission, The terms of reference of the commission was to formulate the general principles and guidelines for the development of education from primary level to the highest and advise the government on a standardized national pattern of education in India.

However, the medical and legal studies were excluded from the purview of the commission. The tenancy of the commission was from 1964 to 1966 and the report was submitted by the commission on 29 June 1966.
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Who was the first chairman of Indian education commission?

Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation The first education commission in India was the Hunter Commission. It was set up on February 3, 1882 under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter, a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy. The Hunter Commissions made the following recommendations with regards to education in India.

Preference be given to people who can read and write when selecting persons to fill the lowest offices in the government

Formation of school districts taking the area of any municipal or rural unit of Local self-Government and establishment of schools placed under their jurisdiction in each district.

District and Municipal Boards were directed to assign specific funds to primary education.

For further reading check the following articles: : Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation
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Who was the first chairman of national education policy?

History – Main article: Since the country’s independence in 1947, the Indian government sponsored a variety of programmes to address the problems of illiteracy in both rural and urban India., India’s first Minister of Education, envisaged strong central government control over education throughout the country, with a uniform educational system.

The Union government established the University Education Commission (1948–1949), the (1952–1953), University Grants Commission and the Kothari Commission (1964–66) to develop proposals to modernise India’s education system. The Resolution on Scientific Policy was adopted by the government of, India’s first Prime Minister.

The Nehru government sponsored the development of high-quality scientific education institutions such as the, In 1961, the Union government formed the (NCERT) as an autonomous organisation that would advise both the Union and state governments on formulating and implementing education policies.
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Who was the first chairman commission?

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was the First Chairman of Planning Commission.
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What is Mudaliar committee?

Mudaliar Committee, 1962 | National Health Portal Of India This committee known as the “Health Survey and Planning Committee”, headed by Dr.A.L. Mudaliar, was appointed to assess the performance in health sector since the submission of Bhore Committee report.

This committee found the conditions in PHCs to be unsatisfactory and suggested that the PHC, already established should be strengthened before new ones are opened Strengthening of sub divisional and district hospitals was also advised. It was emphasised that a PHC should not be made to cater to more than 40,000 population and that the curative, preventive and promotive services should be all provided at the PHC.

The Mudaliar Committee also recommended that an All India Health service should be created to replace the erstwhile Indian Medical service.

Reference :


: Mudaliar Committee, 1962 | National Health Portal Of India
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Who was the first Chairman of Planning Commission in 1950?

History – Rudimentary economic planning, deriving from the sovereign authority of the state, was first initiated in India in 1938 by Congress President Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose,Atul Tiwari, Jawaharlal Nehru who had been persuaded by Meghnad Saha to set up a National Planning Committee.M.

Visvesvaraya had been elected head of the Planning Committee. Meghnad Saha approached him and requested him to step down, putting forward the argument that planning needed a reciprocity between science and politics.M. Visvesvaraya generously agreed and Jawaharlal Nehru was made head of the National Planning Committee.

The so-called ” British Raj ” also formally established the Advisory Planning Board under K.C. Neogy that functioned from 1944 to 1946. Industrialists and economists independently formulated at least three development plans. Some scholars have argued that the introduction of planning as an instrument was intended to transcend the ideological divisions between Mahatma Gandhi and Nehru,

  • Other scholars have argued that the Planning Commission, as a central agency in the context of plural democracy in India, needs to carry out more functions than rudimentary economic planning.
  • After India achieved independence, a formal model of planning was adopted, and accordingly the Planning Commission, reporting directly to the Prime Minister of India, was established on 15 March 1950, with Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru as the Chairman.

Authority for creation of the Planning Commission was not derived from the Constitution of India or statute; it is an arm of the Central Government of India, The first Five-Year Plan was launched in 1951, focusing mainly on development of the agricultural sector.

Two subsequent Five-Year Plans were formulated before 1965, when there was a break because of the Indo-Pakistan conflict. Two successive years of drought, devaluation of the currency, a general rise in prices and erosion of resources disrupted the planning process and after three Annual Plans between 1966 and 1969, the fourth Five-Year Plan was started in 1969.

The Eighth Plan could not take off in 1990 due to the fast changing political situation at the Centre, and the years 1990–91 and 1991–92 were treated as Annual Plans. The Eighth Plan was finally launched in 1992 after the initiation of structural adjustment policies.

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For the first eight Plans the emphasis was on a growing public sector with massive investments in basic and heavy industries, but since the launch of the Ninth Plan in 1997, the emphasis on the public sector has become less pronounced and the current thinking on planning in the country, in general, is that it should increasingly be of an indicative nature.

In 2014, Narendra Modi government decided to wind down the Planning Commission. It was replaced by the newly formed NITI Aayog to better represent the present needs and aspirations of people of India.
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Who is called Father of education?

Horace Mann By David Carleton Known as the “father of American education,” Horace Mann (1796–1859), a major force behind establishing unified school systems, worked to establish a varied curriculum that excluded sectarian instruction. His vision of public education was a precursor to the Supreme Court’s eventual interpretation of the and church-state separation principles in public schools.
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What is secondary education called?

Secondary education, the second stage traditionally found in formal education, beginning about age 11 to 13 and ending usually at age 15 to 18. The dichotomy between elementary education and secondary education has gradually become less marked, not only in curricula but also in organization.
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Who is the first founder of education?

Lord Macaulay was the father and founder of the present education system, as is referred to in the fourth line of the first paragraph.
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Who appointed the commission in 1948?

Radhakrishanan Commission also known as University Education Commission was set up by the Government of India after independence under the chairmanship of Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan on November 4, 1948. Key PointsRadhakrishanan Commission: There was a total of 10 members appointed under this commission.
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Who established Sharif commission?

Commission on National Education, 1959 Introduction: Commission on National Education, 1959 known as the Sharif Commission after its chairman S.M Sharif. Apart from the Chairman, there were ten other members:  Raziuddin Siddiqui (Member, Atomic Energy Commission of Pakistan);  Col.
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Who among the following was Indian member in Sadller Commission of 1917?

Calcutta Commission OR Sadler Commission – (1917-1919) Essential Features of Sadler Commission Report (1917-19): In 1917 the Government of India appointed a Commission to study and report on the problems of Calcutta University. Dr.M.E. Sadler, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds, was appointed its Chairman.

  • The Commission included two Indian members, namely Sir Ashutosh Mukeiji and Dr.
  • Zia-ud-din Ahmad.
  • While the Hunter Commission had reported on problems of secondary education and the University Commission of 1902 mainly on the different aspects of university education, the Sadler Commission reviewed the entire field from school education to university education.

The Sadler Commission held the view that the improvement of secondary education was a necessary condition for the improvement of university education. The Commission reported that an effective synthesis between college and university ‘was still undiscovered when the reform of 1904 had been worked out to conclusion’ and the foundation of a sound university organisation had not been laid down.

  1. Further, it reported that ‘the problems of high school training and organisation were unresolved’.
  2. Although the Commission reported on the conditions of Calcutta University, its recommendations and remarks were more or less applicable to other Indian universities also.
  3. The following were the main recommendations of the Commission: The main objective of the Commission was ‘to inquire into the condition and prospects of the University of Calcutta and to consider the question of a constructive policy in relation to the question it presented’.

The Commission discussed the main weaknesses of Higher Education in Bengal and offered the following recommendations:

All the teaching resources in the city of Calcutta should be organized so that the Calcutta University may become entirely a teaching university. It means that the colleges in Calcutta should be so grouped together that they may discharge the functions of a teaching university.

A separate teaching and residential university should be established at Dacca.

Other universities should be established and the older ones are recognized as teaching and residential. It means that colleges should be so developed that new centres may gradually rise to become universities.

Universities should be freed from excessive official control. The government interference in the academic matters of universities should stop. Its control should be less rigid.

An academic council should be set up in each university to deal with all academic questions for example, those connected with the courses of study, examinations, and conferment of degree and research.

The senate and the syndicate should be replaced by the Court and the Executive Council respectively. This step would improve the administration of the university.

Teaching work and work connected with research should be organised under different departments and each department should have a head.

A full time and salaried Vice-Chancellor should be appointed to be the administrative head of the university.

Faculties, boards of studies, and other statutory bodies should be formed. Faculties should serve as Departments of teaching.

Honours courses should be instituted and they should be distinctly different from the Pass courses.

Tutorials and superior kinds of research work should be organised.

Provisions should be made for imparting instruction in engineering education, medicine, law, agriculture and technology. Thus, university education would cover practical and vocational studies as well as technical and industrial courses.

There was a need for coordinating agency. Hence an inter-University Board should be set up,

  • District Primary Education Programme (DPEP)
  • The Education Commission (1964-6) OR Kothari Commission
  • Secondary Education Commission 1952-1953
  • University Education Commission 1948 Or Radhakrishnan Commission

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