Who Started Pre Primary Education In India?


Who Started Pre Primary Education In India
India’s unsung ECCE pioneers EducationWorld March 2020 | Expert Comment In an era when educationists — including early childhood educators — are rightly encouraged to think and act ‘glocal’, i.e, global and local, it’s equally important to realise that at the formative age of 0-6 years, education rooted in a child’s mother tongue and local culture has a lasting impact on the cognitive and socio-emotional development of youngest children.

Therefore, while it’s important to know about the seminal contributions of European early childhood educators such as Friedrich Froebel, Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner, it’s equally important for ECCE (early childhood care and education) providers in India to be aware of the education philosophy and work of indigenous pioneers who drew upon best practices from around the world and adapted them to local conditions.

Four pioneer Indians who made a significant impact on early childhood education and from whom all educators need to learn are: Gijubhai Badheka (1885-1939), Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), Tarabai Modak (1892-1973), Anutai Wagh (1910-1992) and Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948).

  • A creative disruptor, Gijubhai introduced several innovative child-friendly practices into ECCE.
  • Among them: teachers greeting children instead of the other way round; encouraging child-crafted plays/concerts; according children respect and freedom to voice their opinions; banning corporal punishment in schools and educating parents about its negative consequences.

Another great ECCE educator was Tarabai Modak, a social worker of Maharashtra. Inspired by Gijubhai’s experiments in early childhood education, she began working with him in Bal Mandir, a preschool in Bhavnagar. Together they also started India’s first training college for pre-primary teachers, way back in 1925.

Sadly almost a century later, India does not have a formal early childhood teacher training programme similar to the B.Ed study programme. In 1936, following criticism that ECCE being provided was for “rich children”, Tarabai started the Shishu Vihar Kendra in Bombay. In 1945, she moved to Bordi, a tribal area of Maharashtra, where she founded a Gram Bal Shiksha Kendra (pre-primary).

Indeed Tarabai Modak should be credited with having pioneered the concept of balwadis — preschools for youngest children. In Bordi, she experimented with two types of preschools — central and angan balwadis. Central balwadis were run for five hours with children brought from their homes to preschools.

Conversely, angan balwadis were conducted in courtyards of homes by teachers who sang ballads and conceptualised games to teach children hygiene, language etc. Together with Anutai Wagh, she developed an indigenous curriculum using low-cost teaching aids. The idea of anganwadis promoted under the ICDS scheme has been drawn largely from Tarabai’s work.

Another great stalwart of pre-independence India’s cultural renaissance who was an ECCE proponent, was poet-writer Rabindranath Tagore, also a great admirer of Dr. Maria Montessori’s ECCE philosophy and pedagogy. In 1929 when the first International Montessori Congress was organised in Denmark, Tagore travelled to that country to attend it where he also met the famous Swiss educationist Jean Piaget.

In 1940 when Dr. Montessori visited India, Tagore welcomed her warmly and learning from her, began propagating education for youngest children through music and play. Moreover, almost a century ago, he introduced drama and arts as compulsory subjects in preschool. Even Mahatma Gandhi, who successfully masterminded India’s freedom movement, drew up a detailed vision for Indian education in 1937 — Nai Talim (basic education).

But it was later in 1944 that he became aware of the importance of early childhood education. “Real education begins from conception, as the mother begins to take responsibility for her child. It is very clear that if this new education is to be effective, its foundation must go deeper, it must begin not with the children but the parents and the community,” he said.

In his explanation of Nai Talim, he defined ‘pre-basic education’ for children below seven years of age, as “the development of all their faculties, conducted by school teachers in cooperation with the parents and the community in schools, in the home and in the village.” The plain truth is that immersive pedagogies such as experiential learning, exploration and discovery through the playway method which are being introduced as contemporary, were already being practised by India’s ECCE pioneers much before independence, albeit in small corners of the country.

For educators, particularly ECCE teachers, it would be useful to revisit these early pioneers and incorporate their work and teaching in contemporary preschools. Swati Popat Vats I recommend that all ECCE professionals read Divasvapna: An Educator’s Reverie (1931) by Gijubhai Badheka, A Parrot’s Training (1918) by Rabindranath Tagore, Kosbadcha tekadivarun (2008) by Anutai Wagh and Basic education (1940) by Mahatma Gandhi.
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Who is the founder of pre primary education?

India – Pre Primary Education. – Primary School India The pre primary education in India is also known as Kindergarten. Kindergarten, a term created by Mr Friedrich Frobel in 1837, which means “children’s garden”. Various types of Pre primary schools are now available in India, and more and more children are now attending preschool, indicating a rise in the need for education of kids.

  • Pre-primary education is considered to be very important for the child as it is the first step towards entering the world of knowledge as well as a healthy and purposeful life.
  • Pre-primary education helps children become more independent and confident as well as promote the all round development of the children.

This overall increase raises questions such as whether this demand has increased everywhere. Are all children attending pre-schools if they are available? Which types of preschools do children belonging to different socio-economic groups attend? There are many factors which combine in this vast education sector, compiling a neat amount of plus points for the growth of Preschool education in India.

  • To ensure the quality of preschool education it is important to provide well qualified and trained teachers for pre primary schools.
  • Facilities and Amenities are important and must provide safe, healthy and suitable environment for young children.
  • Free food distributed in pre primary schools plays an important role in helping the poorest sections of society and curbing nutritional problems.

These schemes should be well maintained and expanded. Pre schools are diverse all around the world, with a variety of different institutions that have been developed for children ranging from the ages of two to seven, depending on the country concerned.

  • The preschool tutelage in India is divided into two stages- junior kindergarten (Jr.
  • G) and senior kindergarten (Sr. KG). The Jr.
  • G class would comprise of children three to four years of age, and Sr.
  • G class would comprise of children aged four to five years.
  • A child enters Class 1 of Primary School once he is done with the Sr.

KG. Kindergarten plays an important part of regular schools; as well it is part of separate private chain. This versatility is because education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state, and local.

  • Children belonging to low income groups in society, particularly girls, depend on public preprimary schools, whereas those belonging to higher socio-economic groups are more likely to attend private pre schools.
  • Education of children between 3-6 years old is not a fundamental right, thus it is not in the thick light.

Because of this preschool education is suffering from inadequate coverage and poor quality which benefits very few children. The importance of pre-primary schooling has been recognized by educational policy and programmes in India and it has also been a constitutional commitment as a part of the directive principle of the constitution.

  1. All in all the pre primary education scene in the country is on a boom, yet with mixed reactions as there are still many loopholes to be filled in various fields.
  2. Richa Sharma, is a author who likes to write about,
  3. If you would like to know more about preschool, kindergarten, Pre School Franchisee you can see http://www.littlemillennium.com/.

: India – Pre Primary Education. – Primary School India
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In which year pre primary education started in India?

India – Preprimary Primary Education Basic Principles: While “primary education provides the fundamentals of all formal learning” (Sharma 1997), preprimary learning may be called the foundation for both education and personal development. Little information exists on formal preprimary education in rural India, although the family and community function as a broader arena for holistic learning.

In urban communities, the level of preprimary education corresponds directly to the factors of class and wealth. Only the rich and educated opt for kindergarten and Montessori schools, which abound in affluent neighborhoods, while poor, neglected, underprivileged children languish in the streets of Indian cities.

At least in terms of national priorities, primary education takes as a model a humanistic pedagogy, emphasizing the needs of the child over all means and methods of education. Neerja Sharma succinctly writes: The buildings, school administration, teachers and personnel, syllabi and textbooks, furniture and uniforms exist because children need education.

This truism has been recognized in the Program of Action of the National Policy on Education (1986) that states under its Implementation Strategies: The country’s faith in its future generations will be exemplified in the system of elementary education, which will get geared around the centrality of the child (11).

(1997) A 1988 governmental reform of the primary curriculum set forth the principles that were to govern this type of education. Students were entitled to a “broad and balanced curriculum” including such diverse subjects as religious education, science, and technology.

  • In addition, the standards for students’ academic achievement were to be raised, and assessment methods were to serve “formative purposes” (Venkataiah 2000).
  • The implementation of these goals is somewhat confounded by the diversity of India’s population and the complexity of its governance.
  • In practice, primary education is a dilemma-ridden field where teachers, schools, communities, and states muddle through a rugged terrain without consensus.

As a result, local, regional, and political influences override the foundational issues in pedagogical discourse. In particular, zealous religious groups have been divisive.S. Venkataiah, a leader in primary and secondary education in India, argues that the legal force and the professional support, even the very goals, of the 1988 reform act created a problem of manageability: “One of the paradoxes was that there would have been no manageability problem without the principles embodied in the curriculum required by the 1988 Act” (2000).

  1. Venkataiah identifies three types of problems that arose for those charged with managing the curriculum at the school level: curriculum time allocation, teacher expertise, and resources in primary schools.
  2. A further problem with meeting the expansive goals of the nationally determined curriculum of primary schools has been many teachers’ shallow approach to education.
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“The dominating difficulty in the purpose of primary schools is the fact that ‘knowing’ is rated more highly than ‘teaching,’ despite the importance of the latter and its equally intimate connection with ‘learning,”‘ writes Venkataiah (2000). Venkataiah adds: The agency responsible for the National Curriculum advised the Government that the statutory curriculum would have to be slimmed down; the agency responsible for the national inspection arrangement reported that those schools that had nearly covered the statutory curriculum had done so only by encouraging superficial learning in their pupils.

2000) Initiatives: Universalization of the entire educational system has been the main goal of government since independence. Formal and nonformal primary education, however, have been the main challenge to this goal. Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) is fraught with systemic and socioeconomic factors that call for massive public education and advocacy.

A total-literacy campaign is underway despite numerous barriers. Even provision of textbooks in poverty-ridden areas is a challenge. A comprehensive program seeks to target “i) teachers and all those involved in education of children; ii) students and parents of students, particularly non-literate parents; and iii) community opinion leaders” (Government of India 2001).

  1. Residential education of girls, especially from broken homes and poor families, has lately received planners’ attention.
  2. A program named after Mahatma Gandhi’s wife, the Kasturba Gandhi Shiksha Yojana, has been funded with Rs.2,500 million (rupees).
  3. Other financial incentives and scholarships for poor girls have been provided.

All such programs, as recorded in the NPE-1986, “pay special attention to increasing girls’ enrollment, improving educational outcomes, strengthening community involvement, and improving teaching and learning materials and providing in-service teacher training” (Government of India 2001).

  1. The status of some of these initiatives is discussed below.
  2. Operation Blackboard: According to the government of India, the number of primary schools that have been transformed under this initiative with central assistance is 523,000.
  3. The main purpose of this program is to improve the environment in schools by providing basic facilities.

Decentralization: According to the government of India, the management of elementary education, as envisioned by the NPE, has emphasized direct community involvement in the form of Village Education Committees (VECs). The 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments provide for decentralization of the local self-government institutions, called Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs).

PRIs have thus become pivotal in the delivery of education in rural and urban communities. The oppressed groups—women, Scheduled Castes and Tribes, and minorities—have especially found PRIs very helpful. This approach is essentially grass-roots educational policy and delivery. Decentralization has been reinforced during the Eighth Five-Year Plan.

The VECs, District Primary Education Program, and Lok Jumbish have been chiefly instrumental in this process. A Special Orientation Program for Primary Teachers has further reinforced support to primary level teachers. During 1992 to 1993 and 1995 to 1996, Rs.8,163 million were allocated; the outlay for 1996 to 1997 was Rs.2,910 million.

  • More recent data is not available.
  • Mobilizing the village community to take responsibility for ensuring quality education for every child is the core strategy of both the Shiksha Karmi Project and Lok Jumbish and in their efforts to universalize and improve primary education.
  • Community involvement has been crucial for the success of these projects.

Shiksha Karmi Project: The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency has assisted in the implementation of the Shiksha Karmi Project. The project aims at universalization and qualitative improvement of primary education in the remote and economically disadvantaged villages of Rajasthan with a focus on girls.

  1. The Shiksha Karmi Project has constituted VECs in 2,000 villages to promote community involvement in primary education and encourage village-level planning.
  2. The role of the VEC is to mobilize resources for maintenance, repair, and construction of school infrastructures.
  3. The VEC also helps in determining the school calendar and school-daytimings in consultation with the local community and Shiksha Karmis (educational workers).

Shiksha Karmis are frequently used as substitutes to compensate for teacher absenteeism. In addition to the more formal courtyard schools ( Angan Pathshalas ), the Shiksha Karmi Project also runs nonformal classes called Prehar Pathshalas (schools of convenient timings).

  • For girls’ education, Angan Pathshalas are run in three blocks.
  • As of 2001 the program covered over 150,000 students in 1,785 schools and 3,520 Prehar Pathshalas, involving over 4,271 Shiksha Karmis.
  • Lok Jumbish Project: Lok Jumbish is extended to 75 blocks covering a population of approximately 12 million in Rajastahan.

The project involves government agencies, teachers, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and elected representatives to promote universalization of primary education. The seven guiding principles of Lok Jumbish are (a) a process rather than a product approach, (b) partnerships, (c) decentralized functioning, (d) participatory learning, (e) integration with the mainstream education system, (f) flexibility of management, and (g) multiple levels of leadership.

to provide all children with access to primary education either in the formal system or through the non-formal education (NFE) program; to reduce differences in enrollment, dropout rates, and learning achievement among gender and social groups to less than 5 percent; to reduce overall primary dropout rates for all students to less than 10 percent; to raise average achievement levels by at least 25 percent over measured baseline levels; and to ensure achievements of basic literacy and numeric competencies and a minimum of 40 percent achievement levels in other competencies by all primary school children.

The Government of India finances 85 percent of the project cost as a grant to the DPEP State Implementation Societies, and state governments provide the rest. As of 2001, the International Development Agency (IDA) of the World Bank had approved credit amounting to $260 million and $425 million under Phase I and Phase II of DPEP, respectively.

The European Union is providing a grant of 150 million euros. The ODA (of the United Kingdom) is extending a grant of $80.21 million, and a grant from the Netherlands amounts to $25.8 million. DPEP has been implemented in phases in different states beginning with 42 districts in the states of Assam, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, and Madhya Pradesh.

In the second phase, the program was launched in 80 districts of Orissa, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, and in Phase I States. The main projects are summarized below to exemplify varied governmental objectives. Bihar Education Project: The Bihar Education Project, launched in 1991, emphasized participatory planning to uplift the deprived sections of society, such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and women.

  1. A midterm review highlighted major achievements including (a) a strong Mahila Samakhya component; (b) organization of VECs and community involvement in program implementation at grassroots levels; and (c) nonformal education through NGOs.
  2. Uttar Pradesh Basic Education Program: The government of Uttar Pradesh launched the World Bank project Education for All in June 1993.

The project, operating in 12 districts as of 2001, is planned to expand its coverage to 15 districts under DPEP Phase II. It has an outlay of Rs.7,288 million spread over 7 years. The IDA would provide a credit of $163.1 million, and the state government’s share would be approximately 13 percent of the total project cost.

About 40,000 teachers have been trained. Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project: The Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project (APPEP), implemented in the south-central state of Andhra Pradesh, adopts a two-pronged strategy of improving classroom transaction by training teachers and giving a fillip to school construction activities.

The Andhra Pradesh area has a female literacy rate of just 34 percent. The project has trained an estimated 80,000 teachers in 23 districts, and more than 3,000 teaching centers have become operational. The project is assisted by the UK’s ODA with an estimated outlay of Rs.1,000 million in the Eighth Five-Year Plan.

National Program of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (School Meal Program): Providing a free, nutritious cooked meal of 100 grams of food grains per school day to all children in classes I-V is an ambitious program in a country of 1 billion people. The program was launched in 1997 to 1998 to support UEE in achieving its goal of increasing enrollment, retention, and attendance in primary classes.

In 1997 to 1998 the program covered nearly 110 million children in primary classes. Reportedly school enrollment and rates of retention have increased. : India – Preprimary Primary Education
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Who is the father of preschool education?

Friedrich Froebel, Froebel also spelled Fröbel, in full Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel, (born April 21, 1782, Oberweissbach, Thuringia, Ernestine Saxony —died June 21, 1852, Marienthal, near Bad Liebenstein, Thuringia), German educator who was founder of the kindergarten and one of the most
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What is pre-primary in India?

Pre Primary Education –

Pre-primary education in India generally starts at the age of 3 and goes on till the age of 6, which comprises kindergartens or playschools. These schools have varying names for different levels of classes, beginning from – Pre-Nursery, Nursery, KG, LKG (Lower Kindergarten), and UKG (Upper Kindergarten).

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    When did LKG started in India?

    Who Started Pre Primary Education In India File photo of kindergarten students at a school in Chennai | Express CHENNAI/THANJAVUR: The State government will discontinue kindergarten (LKG and UKG) classes in State-run schools from the coming academic year, said officials from the school education department.

    They said several reasons, including shortage of teachers and space, necessitated the decision. LKG and UKG classes were introduced in government schools in 2019 to improve elementary-level enrolment. About 2,500 existing teachers in elementary and middle schools were deputed to these classes. “Kindergarten has now been shifted to Integrated Child Development Services.

    Parents can admit their children in anganwadis and shift them to government schools later. Teachers deputed to these classes have been diverted to their previous roles,” said a school education department official. Educationists, however, say the move would cause problems.

    1. Indergarten was introduced to increase the admission at government schools and retain students till the higher secondary level.
    2. But parents would now have to send children to private institutions.
    3. It is known that shifting them back to government schools is tough,” said P Jayachandran, an educationist.

    Meanwhile in Thanjavur, members of parent-teacher associations staged a protest in front of the Panagal buildings on Tuesday over the State government’s decision. The protesters said enrolment in government schools had been steady after the introduction of LKG and UKG as children from poor families too could receive pre-primary education.
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    In which state was the first pre-primary school opened in India?

    The national government is urging other states to follow Punjab’s programme after 160,000 children aged three to six were enrolled in classes. –

    • The popularity of pre-primary education in India is growing fast – thanks to the huge success of a scheme launched in November.
    • Punjab became the first state to start free pre-primary classes in every school and now the national government is encouraging other states to do the same.
    • About 160,000 children aged from three to six have been enrolled in 12,955 primary schools across Punjab, which has trained nearly 25,000 teachers to look after them.
    • In Amritsar alone, more than 11,000 children – mostly from rural areas – have joined pre-primary classes at 874 government schools.

    “There has been a change in the attitude of people – as almost everyone wants to send his or her child to school. I have seen a lot of enthusiasm among the residents of the district,” said Manpreet Kaur, District Coordinator for Padho Punjab. Who Started Pre Primary Education In India The choice for Indian parents has often been between government daycares and private preschools, a 2017 study said ( Preethi Nallu / Theirworld)

    1. Now 101 schools in Karnataka state are to test whether opening pre-primary classes improves the enrolment rate in Class 1 at primary school.
    2. Many schools offer informal preschool education – but the state government has given official permission for these schools to take part in the experiment.
    3. “We want to check if there is evidence that strength in government schools improves after this measure,” said Shalini Rajneesh, Principal Secretary of the Primary and Secondary Education Department.
    4. Theirworld has been campaigning for every country to provide two years of free, quality pre-primary education to every child – and to spend 10% of its education budget on pre-primary.
    5. Preschool helps children aged three to five with cognitive and social skills such as early reading and mathematics, and social interaction.
    6. Lack of access to these can have a lifelong impact on a child’s physical and mental health, learning, behaviour and ability to reach his or her full potential.

    The of 14,000 children last year found that four in 10 sampled four-year-olds were attending a preschool programme. But it said the choice was mainly between government “nutrition and daycare centres” and private preschools. The study called for better regulation and for pre-primary education to be available to every child under the Right to Education Act 2009.

    Punjab’s pre-primary classes run for three hours each day. An education department official : “Toys and other child-friendly stuff, including see-saws, are kept for the children so that they feel at home. “Teachers teach alphabets, words, numbers etc to the tiny tots while playing. They also narrate stories to the kids.” Punjab Education Secretary Krishan Kumar said the pre-primary classes “will help the government schools in a big way in the future and strengthen the foundation of the education system in these schools”.

    Theirworld’s #5for5 campaign and our work on early childhood development is supported by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation. : Indian state encouraged by success of pre-primary classes in every school
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    Who is the founder of child to child practice?

    History of Child to child approach 1978 David Morley and Dr Hugh Hawes, respectively a paediatrician and professor at the Institute of Child Health and an educationist at the Institute of Education, conceived the idea of children working together with other children to bring about change.
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    Why is pre-primary important?

    Importance of Pre-primary Education for Children – Higher Education Digest Rohan Parikh has a BSc in Economics from Wharton Business School, an MBA from INSEAD, and a Master’s in Education from Johns Hopkins Univerity. Currently serving as the has served as the Director of the Apurva Natvar Parikh Group (ANPG) which has interests in Real Estate, Education & Hospitality.

    He has more than 18 years of experience in Real Estate in Mumbai and Sri Lanka, having developed Mumbai’s first major SRA development as well as residential complexes in Sri Lanka’s capital, Sri Lanka, as well developing The Fern Hotel and The Acres Club in Mumbai’s Chembur neighbourhood. Pre-primary education or learning in the early years is critical for all students.

    Especially since recent research has shown us that a majority of brain growth and development takes place while children are very young, in fact between the ages of zero and five years! This means that we as parents, educators, and policymakers must take advantage of these formative years and ensure that our toddlers are engaged in meaningful play and learning so that we are setting them up for success.

    • Very simply, you can think of pre-primary learning as the base of an iceberg – it is what supports and anchors the tip of the iceberg.
    • Learning in the early years lays a foundation for students’ future learning and opportunities – academic as well as social.
    • In terms of academic learning, children are exposed to two of the most important building blocks of learning in pre-primary, namely – numeracy and literacy.

    Most academic learning going forward will require students to make use of their numeracy and literacy skills. For example, in pre-primary students will learn how to count which enables them to learn more complex concepts like multiplication and calculus later in their lives.

    However, if one’s counting is weak, understanding what multiplication is about or how to do it becomes infinitely harder. Students with weak foundations therefore often get left behind or have to spend much more time and energy because they are left playing catch up! Similarly, language and literacy skills affect how effectively students can read and communicate.

    And this extends far beyond learning in a Hindi or English class because for almost every subject that students learn they must be able to read, process and ask questions in their language of instruction. In fact, we see increasingly that reading and clear communication are critical to achieving success in the modern world.

    More interestingly, pre-primary schooling also has a big impact on students’ social development and the building of their social-emotional skills. Being and learning in new and unfamiliar environments as well as meeting, learning and interacting with fellow students and teachers prepares students to socialize.

    It also puts toddlers in situations in which they learn how to manage their emotions, cooperate and share, exercise self-control and start to be independent! In fact, researchers around the world agree that effective learning in the early years can dramatically affect students’ success in school going forward! So the next time you peep into a pre-primary classroom and see students and teachers playing, painting, enjoying themselves or learning in ways that seem untraditional to us and you find yourself wondering whether schooling in pre-primary really is important, remind yourself of the many, life changing and long lasting benefits you just read about.
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    Why is pre-primary education required?

    10. Prepares for school – Pre-primary education plays a critical role in preparing your child for kindergarten and beyond. Social readiness and emotional preparedness combined with pre-reading / writing skills and a basic understanding of mathematical concepts help him succeed in kindergarten and beyond.
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    What is another word for pre-primary education?

    Pre-school Synonyms – WordHippo Thesaurus. What is another word for pre-school?

    daycare kindergarten
    nursery playschool
    preschool child care
    day care day nursery
    infant school prekindergarten

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    Who started school first in India?

    The Education System in India – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation In ancient times, India had the Gurukula system of education in which anyone who wished to study went to a teacher’s (Guru) house and requested to be taught. If accepted as a student by the guru, he would then stay at the guru’s place and help in all activities at home.

    1. This not only created a strong tie between the teacher and the student, but also taught the student everything about running a house.
    2. The guru taught everything the child wanted to learn, from Sanskrit to the holy scriptures and from Mathematics to Metaphysics.
    3. The student stayed as long as she wished or until the guru felt that he had taught everything he could teach.

    All learning was closely linked to nature and to life, and not confined to memorizing some information. The modern school system was brought to India, including the English language, originally by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in the 1830s. The curriculum was confined to “modern” subjects such as science and mathematics, and subjects like metaphysics and philosophy were considered unnecessary.

    Teaching was confined to classrooms and the link with nature was broken, as also the close relationship between the teacher and the student. The Uttar Pradesh (a state in India) Board of High School and Intermediate Education was the first Board set up in India in the year 1921 with jurisdiction over Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior.

    In 1929, the Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana, was established. Later, boards were established in some of the states. But eventually, in 1952, the constitution of the board was amended and it was renamed Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).

    • All schools in Delhi and some other regions came under the Board.
    • It was the function of the Board to decide on things like curriculum, textbooks and examination system for all schools affiliated to it.
    • Today there are thousands of schools affiliated to the Board, both within India and in many other countries from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe.

    Universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group of 6-14 was a cherished dream of the new government of the Republic of India. This is evident from the fact that it is incorporated as a directive policy in article 45 of the constitution.

    But this objective remains far away even more than half a century later. However, in the recent past, the government appears to have taken a serious note of this lapse and has made primary education a Fundamental Right of every Indian citizen. The pressures of economic growth and the acute scarcity of skilled and trained manpower must certainly have played a role to make the government take such a step.

    The expenditure by the Government of India on school education in recent years comes to around 3% of the GDP, which is recognized to be very low. “In recent times, several major announcements were made for developing the poor state of affairs in education sector in India, the most notable ones being the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government.

    The announcements are; (a) To progressively increase expenditure on education to around 6 percent of GDP. (b) To support this increase in expenditure on education, and to increase the quality of education, there would be an imposition of an education cess over all central government taxes. (c) To ensure that no one is denied of education due to economic backwardness and poverty.

    (d) To make right to education a fundamental right for all children in the age group 6–14 years. (e) To universalize education through its flagship programmes such as Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal.” ()
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    Which is the period of pre childhood?

    The early moments matter and are essential for every child to reach their full potential. – The early moments of a child’s life matter – and their impact can last a lifetime. The process of a baby’s brain development begins during pregnancy and is influenced by a pregnant woman’s health, nutrition and environment.

    After birth, a baby’s brain continues to develop rapidly, impacting his or her physical, intellectual and emotional well-being, learning potential and subsequently, earning capacity and success in adulthood. The early years (0 to 8 years) are the most extraordinary period of growth and development in a child’s lifetime.

    The foundations of all learning are laid during these years. Getting the foundations right carries huge future benefits: better learning in school and higher educational attainment, which results in major social and economic gains for society. Research shows that good quality early learning and early childhood development (ECD) programmes help to reduce the chances of dropout and repetition and improves outcomes at all levels of education.

    The goal for ECD is that all young children, especially the most vulnerable, from conception to age of school entry, achieve their developmental potential, including in humanitarian settings The early childhood period encompasses several quite distinct phases: from ‘conception to birth’ and from ‘birth to 3 years’, with emphasis on the first 1,000 days (from conception to 24 months), followed by the ‘preschool and pre-primary years (3 years to 5 or 6 years, or the age of school entry).

    While the definition also includes 6 to 8 years of age, the focus of this programme guidance is on the earlier years up to school entry. These are not precise phases, but they are useful categories to ensure policy development and programming responses to the specific sensitive periods along the developmental trajectory.

    An outcome defining a child’s status – being adequately nourished, physically healthy, mentally alert, emotionally sound, socially competent and ready to learn and A process – comprehensive and closely linked cross-sectoral interventions achieving the outcome. The basic ingredients of optimal development for a child are nutrition and health, hygiene, protection and responsive stimulation, which together constitute ‘nurturing care’. Healthy early childhood development is important for all children.

    UNICEF supports training of frontline workers to engage and counsel parents on providing nurturing care, responsive feeding, early stimulation and support for children’s learning at home, besides training them to deliver quality early childhood education.

    It supports community and health facility follow-ups of small and sick new-borns after their discharge from special new-born care units, enables access to safe drinking water and sanitation and provides support to strengthen early childhood development monitoring and assessment mechanisms. UNICEF is supporting the Government of India in addressing all the challenges that affect ECD programmes through a comprehensive framework, delivered by a well-equipped system, with a robust oversight, accountability and redressal.

    UNICEF focuses on supporting essential services for young children on quality health, nutrition; early learning; early screening/intervention as well as promoting parental/family support. Investing in ECD one of the most cost-efficient and powerful strategies to achieve fair and sustainable development The inclusion of Early Childhood Development for the first time on the global development agenda represents a unique opportunity to galvanise efforts around it.

    • There is the invaluable evidence gained from the remarkable advances in neuroscience that show that a child’s development (including development of the brain) is fundamentally shaped by their environment in the earliest years of their life.
    • The development of a child’s brain depends on environmental stimulation, especially on the quality of care and interaction that the child receives.

    A baby who is hugged cooed to, comforted and visually stimulated has an essential advantage. Children who are nurtured and well cared for are more likely to fully develop cognitive, language, emotional and social skills; to grow up healthier, and to have higher self-esteem.
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    What age did primary school start?

    Most children begin primary school at the start of the school year in which they reach school age ( 5 years old ). All schools must provide for the admission of children from the September following their fourth birthday. A school year runs from September to the following August.
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    Is pre primary LKG?

    Levels or Stages of Education in India today Education in India follows a uniform structure of school education which is known as the 10+2 system. This system is being followed by all Indian States and Union Territories. But not all of them follow a distinct pattern as per the system.1.

    Pre Primary Stage – Pre primary education in India is provided to children between 3–6 years by Kindergarten, Playway or Play Schools. These schools have varying terminology for different levels of classes, beginning from – Pre-Nursery, Nursery, KG, LKG (Lower Kindergarten) and UKG (Upper Kindergarten).

    Most of the pre-primary education in India is provided by private schools.2. The Primary Stage – Primary education in India offered by both private and government schools usually consist of students aged between 5 to 12 years. The duration of study in this stage is 4-5 years.

    Common subjects include English, Hindi, Mathematics, Environmental Science and General Knowledge. Sometimes also termed as Elementary Education, it is free in government schools but it is paid in the private schools. The Government has made elementary education compulsory for children between the age group of years 6 and 14.

    Most of the primary education provided by primary schools in India is imparted from class 1 st to class 4 th or 5 th, Some of the states/UTs which follow 1 st to 5 th class of primary education are Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Chandigarh, Delhi, Karaikal and Yanam regions of Pondicherry etc.

    Some of the states/UTs which follow 1 st to 4 th classes of primary education are Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe region of Pondicherry 3) The Middle Stage – Middle stage of education covering 3-4 years of academic study is formed by 5 th -8 th class consisting of students aged between 12 to 14 years.

    The schools which impart education up till 8 th class are known with various names like – High School, Senior School. Some of the states/UTs which follow 5 th -7 th class of middle stage are Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep etc.

    Some of the states/UTs which follow 6 th -8 th class of middle stage are Arunachal Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi etc.4) The Secondary Stage – Secondary Stage of education covering 2-3 years of academic study starts with classes 8 th -10 th, consisting of students aged between 14-16 years.

    The schools which impart education up till 10 th class are known as Secondary Schools, High Schools, Senior Schools etc. Some of the states/UTs which follow 8 th -10 th class of secondary stage are Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep etc.

    Some of the states/UTs which follow 9 th -10 th class of secondary stage are Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi, Karaikal region of Pondicherry etc.5) Senior Secondary Stage – Senior Secondary Education in India is of only 2 years. There is uniformity on this level of education in terms of duration and classes i.e.

    all the States/UTs follow this 10+2 pattern. Senior Secondary Schools in India include classes 11 th to 12 th, consisting students aged between 16-18 years. At this level of education students have the freedom to choose their preferred stream and subjects.

    They can pursue Arts, Commerce, Science (medical & non medical). The schools which provide education up till 12 th class are commonly known as Senior Secondary Schools or Higher Secondary Schools. Some universities and colleges also offer the education of these classes.6) Undergraduate Stage – Undergraduate education in India is of 3-4 years.

    Undergraduate stage of education is also known as higher education in India. Students studying in this level, generally begin their education from 18 onwards. As per one estimate 88% of undergraduate education is provided by Colleges in India. Majority of the undergraduate courses of 3 years duration belong to field of arts, humanities, science etc.

    • And majority of 4 years of duration belong to the field of agriculture, engineering, pharmaceutical sciences technology.
    • However, there are courses belonging to fields of architecture, law and medicine whose duration is 5 years.7) Postgraduate Stage – Postgraduate education in India is of 2-3 years.
    • Postgraduate stages of courses are known as Masters courses or Doctorate courses.

    Masters course are usually of 2 years duration and doctorate (research) courses are of 3 years duration. Also referred as higher education, 56% of post-graduate education is imparted through colleges. PG education in India is largely provided by universities in India.

    • PG education caters largely to a specific field or sub field of any preferred discipline.
    • Thus, one can specialise in any of preferred subjects at this level.
    • Those who are interested in conducting large amount of research work pursue these courses.
    • Adult Education in India – Adult Education in India comes under the purview of the Department of School Education and Literacy.

    The Bureau of Adult Education and National Literacy Mission under the Department functions as the Secretariat of the, National Literacy Mission was set up on 5th May,1988 to impart a new sense of urgency and seriousness to adult education. The Directorate of Adult Education provides necessary technical and resource support to the NLMA.

    Distance Education in India – Distance education provided by institutes is controlled by the Distance Education Council of India. Distance education is helpful to those who cannot join regular schools or colleges. At the school level, National Institute of Open Schooling offers education through distance learning.

    While, at the college or university level, Open universities provides distance education. Distance education can also be pursued online via internet. Some like the Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) provides online education through – BITS Virtual University.

    Homeschooling in India – Homeschooling isn’t widespread in India and neither it is widely accepted. This type of alternative education It is considered for handicapped or those who are unable to attend regular school due to various factors. While some use Montessori method, Unschooling, Radical Unschooling, Waldorf education or School-at-home.

    Others prefer CBSE, NIOS or NOS and IGCSE prescribed syllabus. : Levels or Stages of Education in India today
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