Who Is The Father Of Pharmacy Education?


Who Is The Father Of Pharmacy Education
Mahadeva Lal Schroff Pharm Hist.
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Who is known as first pharmacist?

Middle East – In Baghdad the first pharmacies, or drug stores, were established in 754, under the Abbasid Caliphate during the Islamic Golden Age, By the ninth century, these pharmacies were state-regulated. The advances made in the Middle East in botany and chemistry led medicine in medieval Islam substantially to develop pharmacology, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) (865-915), for instance, acted to promote the medical uses of chemical compounds. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) (936-1013) pioneered the preparation of medicines by sublimation and distillation,

  • His Liber servitoris is of particular interest, as it provides the reader with recipes and explains how to prepare the “simples” from which were compounded the complex drugs then generally used.
  • Sabur Ibn Sahl (d.869), was, however, the first physician to initiate a pharmacopoeia, describing a large variety of drugs and remedies for ailments.

Al-Biruni (973-1050) wrote one of the most valuable Islamic works on pharmacology entitled Kitab al-Saydalah ( The Book of Drugs ), where he gave detailed knowledge of the properties of drugs and outlined the role of pharmacy and the functions and duties of the pharmacist.

Ibn Sina (Avicenna), too, described no less than 700 preparations, their properties, mode of action and their indications. He devoted in fact a whole volume to simple drugs in The Canon of Medicine, Of great impact were also the works by al-Maridini of Baghdad and Cairo, and Ibn al-Wafid (1008–1074), both of which were printed in Latin more than fifty times, appearing as De Medicinis universalibus et particularibus by ` Mesue ‘ the younger, and the Medicamentis Simplicibus by ` Abenguefit ‘.

Peter of Abano (1250–1316) translated and added a supplement to the work of al-Maridini under the title De Veneris, Al-Muwaffaq’s contributions in the field are also pioneering. Living in the tenth century, he wrote The Foundations of the True Properties of Remedies, amongst others describing arsenious oxide, and being acquainted with silicic acid,
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Who is called father of pharmacognosy?

Dioscorides, known as the father of pharmacognosy, was a physician in military and a pharmacognosistin Nero’s Army and wrote on drugs of plant origin. In AD 77, he wrote ‘De MateriaMedica,’ elaborating on large data about helpful medicinal plants.
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Who is the first father of pharmacy?

Pharm Hist.
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Who is the father of pharmacy education in India?

Father of Pharmacy in India – Prof Mahadeva Lal Schroff is credited as the Father of Pharmacy Education in India because he provided the right direction to the field of pharmacy and inspired many generations of pharmacists. He wasn’t a trained pharmacist but his contributions to the field are countless. Related Questions:

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What is the nickname of pharmacist?

For the precursor profession, see Apothecary, For a scientist trained in the study of chemistry, see Chemist, For the Alvvays song, see Pharmacist (song),


A patient consults a pharmacist.
Names Pharmacist, Chemist, Druggist, Doctor of Pharmacy, Apothecary
Occupation type Professional
Activity sectors Health care, health sciences, chemical sciences
Competencies The ethics, art and science of medicine, analytical skills, critical thinking
Education required Doctor of Pharmacy, Master of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy
Fields of employment Pharmacy
Related jobs Physician, pharmacy technician, toxicologist, chemist, other medical specialists

A pharmacist, also known as a chemist ( Commonwealth English ) or a druggist (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), is a healthcare professional who prepares, controls, formulates, preserves, distributes medicines and advises and guides the public on the correct use of medicines to achieve maximum benefit, minimal side effects and to avoid drug interactions,

They also serve as primary care providers in the community. Pharmacists undergo university or graduate-level education to understand the biochemical mechanisms and actions of drugs, drug uses, therapeutic roles, side effects, potential drug interactions, and monitoring parameters. This is mated to anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology.

Pharmacists interpret and communicate this specialized knowledge to patients, physicians, and other health care providers. Among other licensing requirements, different countries require pharmacists to hold either a Bachelor of Pharmacy, Master of Pharmacy, or Doctor of Pharmacy degree.

The most common pharmacist positions are that of a community pharmacist (also referred to as a retail pharmacist, first-line pharmacist or dispensing chemist ), or a hospital pharmacist, where they instruct and counsel on the proper use and adverse effects of medically prescribed drugs and medicines.

In most countries, the profession is subject to professional regulation. Depending on the legal scope of practice, pharmacists may contribute to prescribing (also referred to as “pharmacist prescriber”) and administering certain medications (e.g., immunizations) in some jurisdictions.
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Who is the father of medicinal botany?

Medicinal Botany In 3500 BC, Ancient Egyptians began to associate less magic with the treatment of disease, and by 2700 BC the Chinese had started to use herbs in a more scientific sense. Egyptians recorded their knowledge of illnesses and cures on temple walls and in the Ebers papyrus (1550 BC), which contains over 700 medicinal formulas.

Hippocrates, 460-380 BC, known as the “Father of Medicine,” classified herbs into their essential qualities of hot and cold, moist and dry, and developed a system of diagnosis and prognosis using herbs. The number of effective medicinal plants he discussed was between 300 and 400 species. Aristotle, the philosopher, also compiled a list of medicinal plants.

His best student, Theophrastus discussed herbs as medicines, the kinds and, collection methods, and effects on humans and animals. He started the science of botany with detailed descriptions of medicinal plants growing in the botanical gardens in Athens.

  • The most significant contribution to the medicinal plant descriptions was made by Dioscorides.
  • While serving as a Roman army physician, he wrote De Materia Medica in about AD 60.
  • This five-volume work is a compilation concerning approximately 500 plants and describes the preparation of about 1000 simple drugs.

Written in Greek, it contains good descriptions of plants giving their origins and medical virtues and remained the standard text for 1,500 years. The earliest Ayurvedic texts on medicine from India date from about 2,500 BC. In Ayurvedic theory, illness is seen in terms of imbalance, with herbs and dietary controls used to restore equilibrium.

  1. Abdullah Ben Ahmad Al Bitar (1021–1080 AD) an Arabic botanist and pharmaceutical scientist, wrote the Explanation of Dioscorides Book on Herbs,
  2. Later, his book, The Glossary of Drugs and Food Vocabulary, contained the names of 1,400 drugs.
  3. The drugs were listed by name in alphabetical order in Arabic, Greek, Persian or Spanish.

Galen, a physician considered the “medical pope” of the Middle Ages, wrote extensitvely about the body’s four “humors” — the four fluids that were thought to permeate the body and influence its health. Drugs developed by Galen were made from herbs that he collected from all over the world.

The studies of botany and medicine became very closely linked during the Middle Ages. Virtually all reading and writing were carried out in monasteries. Monks laboriously copied and compiled the manuscripts. Following the format of Greek botanical compilations, the monks prepared herbals that described identification and preparation of plants with reported medicinal characteristics.

At this time though, healing was as much a matter of prayer as medicine. Early herbalists frequently combined religious incantations with herbal remedies believing that with “God’s help” the patient would be cured. With time, pracitioners began to focus on healing skills and medicines.

By the 1530s, Paracelsus (born Philippus Theophrasts Bombastus von Hohenheim, near Zurich in 1493), was changing Europes attitudes toward health care. Many physicians and apothecaries were dishonest and took advantage from those they should be helping. Paracelsus was a physician and alchemist who believed that medicine should be simple and straight forward.

He was greatly inspired by the Doctrine of Signatures, which maintained that the outward appearance of a plant gave an indication of the problems it would cure. This theory is sometimes surprisingly acurate. In 1775, Dr. William Withering was treating a patient with severe dropsy caused by heart failure.

He was unable to bring about any improvement with traditional medicines. The patient’s family administered an herbal brew based on an old family recipe and the patient started to recover. Dr. Withering experimented with the herbs contained in the recipe and identified foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea ) as the most significant.

In 1785, he published his Account of the Foxglove and Some of Its Medical Uses. He detailed 200 cases where foxglove had successfully been used to treat dropsy and heart failure along with his research on the and harvest dates that produced the strongest effect.

  • Withering also realized that theraputic dose of foxglove is very close to the toxic level where side effects develop.
  • After further analysis, the cardiac glycosides digoxin and digitoxin were eventually extracted.
  • These are still used in treating heart conditions today.
  • In 1803, morphine became one of the first drugs to be isolated from a plant.

It was identified by Frederich Serturner in Germany. He was able to extract white crystal from crude opium poppy. Scientists soon used similar techniques to produce aconitine from monkshood, emetine from ipecacuanha, atropine from deadly nightshade, and quinine from Peruvian bark.

  1. In 1852, scientists were able to synthesize salicin, an in willow bark, for the first time.
  2. By 1899, the drug company Bayer, modified salicin into a milder form of aectylsalicylic acid and lauched asprin into our modern world.
  3. The synthetic age was born and in the following 100 years, plant extracts have filled pharmacy shelves.

Although many medicines have been produced from plant extracts, chemists sometimes find that the synthetic versions do not carry the same therapeutic effects or may have negative side effects not found when using the whole plant source. A full 40 percent of the drugs behind the pharmacist’s counter in the Western world are derived from plants that people have used for centuries, including the top 20 best selling prescription drugs in the United States today.

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For example, quinine extracted from the bark of the South American cinchona tree ( Cinchona calisaya ) relieves malaria, and licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza glabra ) has been an ingredient in cough drops for more than 3,500 years. The species native to the United States, Glycyrrhiza lepidota, has a broad range from western Ontario to Washington, south to Texas, Mexico and Missouri.

Eastward, there are scattered populations. The leaves and roots have been used for treating sores on the backs of horses, toothaches, and fever in children, sore throats and cough. Medicinal interest in mints dates from at least the first century A.D., when it was recorded by the Roman naturalist Pliny.

In Elizabethan times more than 40 ailments were reported to be remedied by mints. The foremost use of mints today in both home remedies and in pharmaceutical preparations is to relieve the stomach and intestinal gas that is often caused by certain foods. Consumers routinely assume that the medications they take and the food they ingest have been scrupulously studied by the U.S.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They assume that many of these products are safe because they are natural. However, many herbals have never been seriously tested for efficacy or toxicity. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 eliminated the authority of the FDA to regulate vitamins, herbs and other food-based products, and therefore the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the use of any herbal supplement. Susan J. Zunino, an Agricultural Research Service molecular biologist, leads the nutrition-focused research investigating the health-imparting effects of plant chemicals, or phytochemicals, using laboratory cultures of both healthy human blood cells and cancerous ones as her models.

  • Zunino’s pioneering studies reveal the previously unknown ability of about a half-dozen phytochemicals to stop growth of this type of leukemia.
  • The findings are of interest to cancer researchers and to nutrition researchers exploring the health benefits of compounds in the world’s edible fruits, vegetables, herbs, and spices.

Ebers papyrus. Who Is The Father Of Pharmacy Education De Materia Medica, Foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea ). Photo by Tom Heutte, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org. Opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum ). Illustration by Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany.
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Who is the father of medicinal chemistry?

Eventu- ally, the 606th compound, Salvarsan, was found to be an effective agent with a satisfactory therapeutic index. Basically, Ehrlich was the father of medicinal chemistry.
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Who is the father of pharmacy Wikipedia?

William Procter Jr.
Born May 3, 1817 Baltimore, Maryland
Died February 10, 1874 (aged 56) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Occupation Pharmacist

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Who is the first pharmacist in India?

Bishnupada Mukerjee
Born 1 March 1903 Barrackpore, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India
Died 30 July 1979 (aged 76)
Alma mater University of Michigan
Occupation Pharmacologist, Orthopedic surgeon

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When was pharmacy started in India?

Abstract : – The pharmacy profession was introduced in India in the year 1932 and completed 75 years in the year 2007. Development of pharmacy profession in India: Drug Enquiry Committee 1931: The Government of India appointed the drugs enquiry committee (1930-31) under the chairmanship of Dr.R.N.

  1. Chopra. First Pharmacy College in India in 1932: With the inspiration of Late Mahamana Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya and with the untiring zeal and enthusiasm of Late Professor M.L.Schroff, the Pharmacy Department was established as early as 1932.
  2. The full 4 year course in pharmacy was started in the year 1937 in B.H.U.

Drug Act 1940: The Govt. of India took nine years to process the drugs act 1940 after submitting the report of Drugs Enquiry Committee in 1931. The Drugs rules were framed in the year 1945 to formulate as per provision of the act. Hospital Pharmacy: Hospital pharmacy is a department or service in a hospital that provides pharmaceutical services or pharmaceutical care.

The objective of the hospital pharmacy services is to provide safe and effective medication for all patients attending hospitals and clinics. Development of hospital pharmacy in India: In the year1959, the model scheme for a Hospital Pharmacy was approved by the PCI envisioned a hospital with 500 beds or more to have in addition to the ordinary Hospital Pharmacy.

Formation of Indian Hospital Pharmacist Association in 1963: During the 15th IPC at Pilani in 1963 Dr.B.D.Miglani who is known as the Father of Hospital Pharmacy started the Indian Hospital Pharmacist Association in the country with the founder member of Sh.S.L.Nasa and Sh.

  • Davender K Jain, Ex-Secretary, Pharmacy Council of India.
  • IHPA is the National Professional Body of Hospital Pharmacists engaged in Practice of Pharmacy.
  • The mission of IHPA is to promote & develop the practice of pharmacy, upgrade the knowledge and skills of hospital pharmacists.
  • There are various committees setup by the govt.

to develop hospital pharmacy in India which includes Mysore Expert Committee -1967, Haathi Committee, National Human Right Commission (1991), etc.,. Drugs information centers are to facilitate more information about the use of drugs and its contents for the pharmacists; Software has been developed in which the data of more than 80,000 drugs has been displayed.
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Who started the concept of pharmacy?

pharmacy pharmacy, the and art concerned with the preparation and standardization of, Its scope includes the cultivation of plants that are used as drugs, the synthesis of chemical of medicinal value, and the analysis of medicinal agents. Pharmacists are responsible for the preparation of the dosage forms of drugs, such as tablets, capsules, and sterile solutions for injection.

  1. They physicians’, dentists’, and veterinarians’ prescriptions for drugs.
  2. The science that embraces knowledge of drugs with special reference to the mechanism of their action in the of disease is,
  3. The beginnings of pharmacy are ancient.
  4. When the first person expressed juice from a succulent leaf to apply to a wound, this art was being practiced.

In the Greek, Asclepius, the god of the healing art, delegated to Hygieia the duty of his remedies. She was his apothecary or pharmacist. The physician-priests of Egypt were divided into two classes: those who visited the sick and those who remained in the temple and prepared remedies for the patients.

In and Rome and during the Middle Ages in, the art of healing recognized a separation between the duties of the physician and those of the herbalist, who supplied the physician with the raw materials from which to make medicines. The Arabian influence in Europe during the 8th century ad, however, brought about the practice of separate duties for the pharmacist and physician.

The toward specialization was later reinforced by a law enacted by the city council of Bruges in 1683, forbidding physicians to prepare medications for their patients. In, took a pivotal step in keeping the two professions separate when he appointed an apothecary to the Pennsylvania Hospital.

  1. The development of the since led to the discovery and use of new and effective substances.
  2. It also changed the role of the pharmacist.
  3. The scope for compounding of medicines was much diminished and with it the need for the manipulative skills that were previously applied by the pharmacist to the preparation of bougies, cachets, pills, plasters, and potions.

The pharmacist continues, however, to fulfill the prescriber’s intentions by providing advice and information; by formulating, storing, and providing correct dosage forms; and by assuring the and quality of the dispensed or supplied medicinal product.

  • The history of education has closely followed that of,
  • As the training of the physician underwent changes from the apprenticeship system to formal educational courses, so did the training of the pharmacist.
  • The first college of pharmacy was founded in the United States in 1821 and is now known as the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science.

Other institutes and colleges were established soon after in the United States, Great Britain, and continental Europe. Colleges of pharmacy as independent organizations or as schools of universities now operate in most developed countries of the world.

  1. The course of instruction leading to a bachelor of science in pharmacy extends at least five years.
  2. The first and frequently the second year of training, embracing general education subjects, are often provided by a school of arts and sciences.
  3. Many institutions also offer graduate courses in pharmacy and cognate sciences leading to the degrees of master of science and doctor of philosophy in pharmacy, pharmacology, or related,

These advanced courses are intended especially for those who are preparing for careers in research, manufacturing, or teaching in the field of pharmacy. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Since the treatment of the sick with drugs a wide field of knowledge in the biological and physical sciences, an understanding of these sciences is necessary for adequate pharmaceutical training.

  1. The basic five-year curriculum in the colleges of pharmacy of the United States, for example, embraces physics,, biology, bacteriology, physiology, pharmacology, and many other specialized courses.
  2. As the pharmacist is engaged in a business as well as a profession, special training is provided in merchandising, accounting, computer techniques, and pharmaceutical jurisprudence.

To practice pharmacy in those countries in which a license is required, an applicant must be qualified by graduation from a recognized college of pharmacy, meet specific requirements for experience, and pass an examination conducted by a board of pharmacy appointed by the government.

  1. Pharmacy laws generally include the regulations for the practice of pharmacy, the sale of poisons, the dispensing of narcotics, and the labeling and sale of dangerous drugs.
  2. The pharmacist sells and dispenses drugs within the provisions of the food and drug laws of the country in which he practices.
  3. These laws recognize the national pharmacopoeia (which defines products used in, their purity, dosages, and other pertinent data) as the standard for drugs.

The of the began publishing the in the early 1950s. Its purpose is to standardize drugs internationally and to supply standards, strengths, and for those countries that have no national pharmacopoeia. : pharmacy
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