Who Introduced The Modern Secular Education In India?

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Who Introduced The Modern Secular Education In India
Modern Education in India – The Indian education system has its deep roots in ancient oral learning as well as the Gurukul education system which later was transformed into formal education by the British. Here are the salient features of modern education in India:

Modern education in India was brought by the British colonisers in the 1830s along with the English language which is credited to have been introduced in India by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay. While metaphysics and philosophy were earlier studied at Nalanda University, the new modern education system brought by the British focused on academic disciplines like Science and Mathematics. As India became free from the British, basic education was made compulsory, especially for 6-14 years of age with schools constructed all across the country. The modern-age education system of India in the 21st century is constituted of a new approach to learning from online education to skill-development courses, digital learning platforms, a grading system as well as the use of educational technology in the classrooms and a newly introduced New Education Policy !

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Who started secularism in India?

History – Ellora Caves, a world heritage site, are in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The 35 caves were carved into the vertical face of the Charanandri hills between the 5th and 10th centuries. The 12 Buddhist caves, 17 Hindu caves and 5 Jain caves, built in proximity, suggest religious co-existence and secular sentiments for diversity prevalent during pre-Islamic period of Indian history.

Ashoka about 2200 years ago, Harsha about 1400 years ago accepted and patronised different religions. The people in ancient India had freedom of religion, and the state granted citizenship to each individual regardless of whether someone’s religion was Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism or any other. Ellora cave temples built next to each other between 5th and 10th centuries, for example, shows a coexistence of religions and a spirit of acceptance of different faiths.

There should not be honour of one’s own (religious) sect and condemnation of others without any grounds. This approach to interfaith relations changed with the arrival of Islam and establishment of Delhi Sultanate in North India by the 12th century, followed by Deccan Sultanate in Central India.

  • The political doctrines of Islam, as well as its religious views were at odds with doctrines of Hinduism, Christianity and other Indian religions.
  • New temples and monasteries were not allowed.
  • As with Levant, Southeast Europe and Spain, Islamic rulers in India treated Hindus as dhimmis in exchange of annual payment of jizya taxes, in a sharia-based state jurisprudence.

With the arrival of Mughal era, Sharia was imposed with continued zeal, with Akbar – the Mughal Emperor – as the first significant exception. Akbar sought to fuse ideas, professed equality between Islam and other religions of India, forbade forced conversions to Islam, abolished religion-based discriminatory jizya taxes, and welcomed building of Hindu temples. Akbar’s tomb at Sikandra, near Agra India. Akbar’s instruction for his mausoleum was that it incorporate elements from different religions including Islam and Hinduism. After Aurangzeb, India came into control of East India Company and the British Raj,

  • The colonial administrators did not separate religion from state, but marked the end of equal hierarchy between Islam and Hinduism, and reintroduced the notion of equality before the law for Hindus, Christians and Muslims.
  • The British Empire sought commerce and trade, with a policy of neutrality to all of India’s diverse religions.

Before 1858, the Britishers followed the policy of patronizing and supporting the native religions as the earlier rulers had done. By the mid-19th century, the British Raj administered India, in matters related to marriage, inheritance of property and divorces, according to personal laws based on each Indian subject’s religion, according to interpretations of respective religious documents by Islamic jurists, Hindu pundits and other religious scholars.

In 1864, the Raj eliminated all religious jurists, pandits and scholars because the interpretations of the same verse or religious document varied, the scholars and jurists disagreed with each other, and the process of justice had become inconsistent and suspiciously corrupt. The late 19th century marked the arrival of Anglo-Hindu and Anglo-Muslim personal laws to divide adjacent communities by British, where the governance did not separate the state and religion, but continued to differentiate and administer people based on their personal religion.

The British Raj provided the Indian Christians, Indian Zoroastrians and others with their own personal laws, such as the Indian Succession Act of 1850, Special Marriage Act of 1872 and other laws that were similar to Common Laws in Europe. For several years past it has been the cherished desire of the Muslims of British India that Customary Law should in no case take the place of Muslim Personal Law.

The matter has been repeatedly agitated in the press as well as on the platform. The Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Hind, the greatest Moslem religious body has supported the demand and invited the attention of all concerned to the urgent necessity of introducing a measure to this effect. —  Preamble to Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937, Although the British administration provided India with a common law, its divide and rule policy contributed to promoting discord between communities.

The Morley-Minto reforms provided separate electorate to Muslims, justifying the demands of the Muslim league. In the first half of 20th century, the British Raj faced increasing amounts of social activism for self-rule by a disparate groups such as those led by Hindu Gandhi and Muslim Jinnah; the colonial administration, under pressure, enacted a number of laws before India’s independence in 1947, that continue to be the laws of India in 2013.

One such law enacted during the colonial era was the 1937 Indian Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, which instead of separating state and religion for Western secularism, did the reverse. It, along with additional laws such as Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act of 1939 that followed, established the principle that religious laws of Indian Muslims can be their personal laws.

It also set the precedent that religious law, such as sharia, can overlap and supersede common and civil laws, that elected legislators may not revise or enact laws that supersede religious laws, that people of one nation need not live under the same laws, and that law enforcement process for different individuals shall depend on their religion.
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Who is the founder of modern education in India?

Lord Macaulay was the father and founder of the present education system, as is referred to in the fourth line of the first paragraph.
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Who introduced secularism?

The British writer George Holyoake (1817–1906) employed the term ‘secularism’ in 1851.
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What is modern education system in India?

Modern Education in India – The Indian education system has its deep roots in ancient oral learning as well as the Gurukul education system which later was transformed into formal education by the British. Here are the salient features of modern education in India:

Modern education in India was brought by the British colonisers in the 1830s along with the English language which is credited to have been introduced in India by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay. While metaphysics and philosophy were earlier studied at Nalanda University, the new modern education system brought by the British focused on academic disciplines like Science and Mathematics. As India became free from the British, basic education was made compulsory, especially for 6-14 years of age with schools constructed all across the country. The modern-age education system of India in the 21st century is constituted of a new approach to learning from online education to skill-development courses, digital learning platforms, a grading system as well as the use of educational technology in the classrooms and a newly introduced New Education Policy !

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Why is India called secular?

Secularism and Indian Constitution – Various provision of the Indian constitution clearly incorporates the basic principles of Secularism. With the (1976), the Preamble to the Constitution asserted that India is a “secular” nation. The meaning of a secular state is that it does not prioritize any one religion for the country and its people.

Articles of Indian Constitutions Provision for secularism
Article 14 and Article 15 The former grants equality before the law and equal protection of the laws to all while the later enlarges the concept of secularism to the widest possible extent by prohibiting discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Article 16 (1) Equal opportunity to all citizens in matters of public employment and reiterates, no discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth and residence
Article 25** ‘Freedom of Conscience’, that is, all persons have equal right to freely profess, practise and propagate religion.
Article 26 Every religious group/ individual has the right to establish and maintain religious and charitable institutions and to manage its own affairs in matters of religion.
Article 27 the state shall not compel any citizen to pay any taxes for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious institution.
Article 28 allows educational institutions maintained by different religious groups to impart religious instruction
Article 29 and Article 30 Provides for the cultural and educational rights to the minorities
Article 51A obliges all the citizens to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood and to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.

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What is the origin of secular?

Definitions – Historically, the word secular was not related or linked to religion, but was a freestanding term in Latin which would relate to any mundane endeavour. However, the term, saecula saeculorum ( saeculōrum being the genitive plural of saeculum) as found in the New Testament in the Vulgate translation (circa 410) of the original Koine Greek phrase εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων ( eis toùs aionas ton aiṓnōn ), e.g.

at Galatians 1:5, was used in the early Christian church (and is still used today), in the doxologies, to denote the coming and going of the ages, the grant of eternal life, and the long duration of created things from their beginning to forever and ever, Secular and secularity derive from the Latin word saeculum which meant “of a generation, belonging to an age” or denoted a period of about one hundred years.

The Christian doctrine that God exists outside time led medieval Western culture to use secular to indicate separation from specifically religious affairs and involvement in temporal ones. “Secular” does not necessarily imply hostility or rejection of God or religion, though some use the term this way (see ” secularism “, below); Martin Luther used to speak of “secular work” as a vocation from God for most Christians.

  • According to cultural anthropologists such as Jack David Eller, secularity is best understood, not as being “anti-religious”, but as being “religiously neutral” since many activities in religious bodies are secular themselves and most versions of secularity do not lead to irreligiosity.
  • The idea of a dichotomy between religion and the secular originated in the European Enlightenment,

Furthermore, since religion and secular are both Western concepts that were formed under the influence of Christian theology, other cultures do not necessarily have words or concepts that resemble or are equivalent to them. One can regard eating and bathing as examples of secular activities, because there may not be anything inherently religious about them.

Nevertheless, some religious traditions see both eating and bathing as sacraments, therefore making them religious activities within those world views, Saying a prayer derived from religious text or doctrine, worshipping through the context of a religion, performing corporal and spiritual works of mercy, and attending a religious seminary school or monastery are examples of religious (non-secular) activities.

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In many cultures, there is little dichotomy between “natural” and “supernatural”, “religious” and “not-religious”, especially since people have beliefs in other supernatural or spiritual things irrespective of belief in God or gods. Other cultures stress practice of ritual rather than belief.

Conceptions of both “secular” and “religious”, while sometimes having some parallels in local cultures, were generally imported along with Western worldviews, often in the context of colonialism, Attempts to define either the “secular” or the “religious” in non-Western societies, accompanying local modernization and Westernization processes, were often and still are fraught with tension.

Due to all these factors, “secular” as a general term of reference was much deprecated in social sciences, and is used carefully and with qualifications.
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Who is the father of modern education?

John Amos Comenius, Father of Modern Education | Moravian College.
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Who created the modern education system?

Horace Mann By David Carleton Known as the “father of American education,” Horace Mann (1796–1859), a major force behind establishing unified school systems, worked to establish a varied curriculum that excluded sectarian instruction. His vision of public education was a precursor to the Supreme Court’s eventual interpretation of the and church-state separation principles in public schools.
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Who discovered modern education system?

Who Invented School Horace Mann is considered as the inventor of the concept of school. He was born in 1796 and later became Secretary of Education in Massachusetts. He was a pioneer in bringing educational reforms into society. He believed that public education where students would follow a curriculum was necessary to impart education in an organized way.
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Who is the father of secular humanism?

Paul Kurtz
Born Paul Winter Kurtz December 21, 1925 Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
Died October 20, 2012 (aged 86) Amherst, New York, U.S.
Alma mater New York University Columbia University
Era 20th-century philosophy
School Scientific skepticism, secular humanism
Main interests Philosophy of religion, Secularism, philosophical naturalism
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Paul Kurtz (December 21, 1925 – October 20, 2012) was an American scientific skeptic and secular humanist, He has been called “the father of secular humanism”. He was Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the State University of New York at Buffalo, having previously also taught at Vassar, Trinity, and Union colleges, and the New School for Social Research.

  • Urtz founded the publishing house Prometheus Books in 1969.
  • He was also the founder and past chairman of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI, formerly the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, CSICOP), the Council for Secular Humanism, and the Center for Inquiry,

He was editor in chief of Free Inquiry magazine, a publication of the Council for Secular Humanism. He was co-chair of the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) from 1986 to 1994. He was a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Humanist Laureate, president of the International Academy of Humanism and Honorary Associate of Rationalist International,
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Who founded secular humanism?

A comprehensive, nonreligious lifestance – Secular humanism is comprehensive, touching every aspect of life including issues of values, meaning, and identity. Thus it is broader than atheism, which concerns only the nonexistence of god or the supernatural.

Important as that may be, there’s a lot more to life and secular humanism addresses it. Secular humanism is nonreligious, espousing no belief in a realm or beings imagined to transcend ordinary experience. Secular humanism is a lifestance, or what Council for Secular Humanism founder Paul Kurtz has termed a eupraxsophy : a body of principles suitable for orienting a complete human life.

As a secular lifestance, secular humanism incorporates the Enlightenment principle of individualism, which celebrates emancipating the individual from traditional controls by family, church, and state, increasingly empowering each of us to set the terms of his or her own life.
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Who is the modern education?

Which one is better than best – Both the types of education have their own place and importance. We cannot declare any type of education good or bad. The traditional was good in its period and the modern education is good in its period. Actually, it depends on the person.

  1. It depends on what the person wants to learn.
  2. If a person wants to learn about his customs and religion, then definitely traditional education is better for him.
  3. On the other hand, if a person wants to learn about science or mathematics, then modern education is good for him.
  4. Both the type of the educations is equally important.

Traditional educated is often associated with our culture. And it is good or we can say it is important to learn about own culture. Everyone should what are their traditions, culture and the stories and beliefs of their religion. In the same way, it is equally important to catch up with world in terms of the modern developments which are occurring today.
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What is the origin of modern education?

China – According to legendary accounts, the rulers Yao and Shun (ca.24th–23rd century BC) established the first schools. The first education system was created in Xia dynasty (2076–1600 BC). During Xia dynasty, government built schools to educate aristocrats about rituals, literature and archery (important for ancient Chinese aristocrats).

  1. During Shang dynasty (1600 BC to 1046 BC), normal people (farmers, workers etc.) accepted rough education.
  2. In that time, aristocrats’ children studied in government schools.
  3. And normal people studied in private schools.
  4. Government schools were always built in cities and private schools were built in rural areas.

Government schools paid attention on educating students about rituals, literature, politics, music, arts and archery. Private schools educated students to do farmwork and handworks. During the Zhou dynasty (1045–256 BC), there were five national schools in the capital city, Pi Yong (an imperial school, located in a central location) and four other schools for the aristocrats and nobility, including Shang Xiang,

The schools mainly taught the Six Arts : rites, music, archery, charioteering, calligraphy, and mathematics. According to the Book of Rites, at age twelve, boys learned arts related to ritual (i.e. music and dance) and when older, archery and chariot driving. Girls learned ritual, correct deportment, silk production and weaving.

It was during the Zhou dynasty that the origins of native Chinese philosophy also developed. Confucius (551–479 BC) founder of Confucianism, was a Chinese philosopher who made a great impact on later generations of Chinese, and on the curriculum of the Chinese educational system for much of the following 2000 years.

Later, during the Qin dynasty (246–207 BC), a hierarchy of officials was set up to provide central control over the outlying areas of the empire. To enter this hierarchy, both literacy and knowledge of the increasing body of philosophy was required: “.the content of the educational process was designed not to engender functionally specific skills but rather to produce morally enlightened and cultivated generalists”.

During the Han dynasty (206–221 AD), boys were thought ready at age seven to start learning basic skills in reading, writing and calculation. In 124 BC, the Emperor Wudi established the Imperial Academy, the curriculum of which was the Five Classics of Confucius.

  1. By the end of the Han dynasty (220 AD) the academy enrolled more than 30,000 students, boys between the ages of fourteen and seventeen years.
  2. However education through this period was a luxury.
  3. The nine-rank system was a civil service nomination system during the Three Kingdoms (220–280 AD) and the Northern and Southern dynasties (420–589 AD) in China.

Theoretically, local government authorities were given the task of selecting talented candidates, then categorizing them into nine grades depending on their abilities. In practice, however, only the rich and powerful would be selected. The Nine Rank System was eventually superseded by the imperial examination system for the civil service in the Sui dynasty (581–618 AD).
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What is the secular country?

A secular state is one that does not consider anyone’s religion as an official religion. A secular state also treats all its citizens equally, regardless of religion.
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What is Indian concept of secularism?

What is Indian Secularism? The Preamble to the Constitution of India proclaimed that India is a secular republic after the passage of the Forty-second Amendment in 1976. The Constitution of India mandates that the Indian state, as well as political parties, be secular in philosophy and action.

  1. The Constitution forbids or prohibits the mixing of religion and state power.
  2. That is the constitutional restraining order.
  3. So long as this Constitution governs this country, no one can argue otherwise.
  4. Any state administration that pursues non-secular policies in violation of the constitutional mandate exposes itself to Article 356 action.

Furthermore, state-owned educational institutions are barred by law from giving religious instruction, and Article 27 of the constitution forbids the use of taxpayer funds to promote any religion. Someone who is not religious or has no religious convictions is referred to be “secular.” Religion is open to everyone and is provided as a personal decision to each individual without any discrimination.

It’s similar to the Vedic concept of Dharma Nirapekshata, or the state’s apathy for religion. Secularism is a concept that provides all religions equal status, respect, and support from the state, or it can be defined as an ideology that advocates for the separation of state and religion. A secular person is someone who does not hold religious moral principles.

His values are the outcome of scientific and rational thought. Secularism advocates for religious nondiscrimination and partiality, as well as equal access to all religions. Philosophy Sarva Dharma Sambhava, which implies equal respect for all religions, is central to Indian secularism.

  1. Western civilizations, where the government is completely divorced from religion, have adopted this secularism approach.
  2. In India, no religion is recognized as official.
  3. It also does not owe any religious loyalty.
  4. There is no recognized state religion in India.
  5. Personal laws, such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, and alimony, vary depending on one’s religious beliefs.

Faith is apolitical, and India does not interfere with the affairs of any faith. On an equal footing, it accepts all religions. It guarantees religious liberty to people of all faiths. Citizens have the right to practice and choose their faith. In India, secularism is a means for tackling religious plurality, not an end in itself.

Its goal was for many religions to coexist peacefully. Secularism in Ancient India Indian religions are known to have coexisted and evolved together for many years prior to the entrance of Islam in the 12th century, followed by Mughal and colonial rule. In ancient India, the Sanatan Dharma (Hinduism) was essentially permitted to flourish as a holistic religion by accepting and attempting to merge various spiritual traditions into a single mainstream.

Hinduism’s religious diversity is exemplified by the formation of four Vedas, as well as numerous interpretations of the Upanishads and Puranas. The Ellora cave temples, for example, exhibit the coexistence of religions and a spirit of acceptance of diverse faiths.

  • They were built next to each other between the 5th and 10th centuries.
  • Ruler Ashoka was the first major emperor to vow that the state would not persecute any religious sect as early as the third century B.C.
  • Ashoka recommended not only tolerance of all religious factions, but also a deep respect for them in his 12th Rock Edict.

Secularism in India dates back to the Indus Valley culture. In these urban civilizations, dance and music were secular. People in ancient India had religious freedom, and the state provided citizenship to anybody who practiced Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, or any other faith.

Secularism in Medieval India The Sufi and Bhakti movements in medieval India helped to reestablish India’s secular nature. They promote secularism’s various facets in society, such as tolerance, brotherhood, universalism, harmony, and peace. Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti, Baba Farid, Saint Kabir Das, Guru Nanak Dev, Saint Tukaram, and Mira Bai were the forerunners of these movements.

The state was known for religious tolerance and freedom of religion under the Mughal ruler Akbar. The Ibadat Khana (house of worship) in Fatehpur Sikri was built to promote religious unity by allowing different religious leaders to express their opinions in one area.

  1. This assembly included theologians from the Brahmins, Jains, and Zoroastrians.
  2. Secularism in Modern India Following Aurangzeb’s death, the East India Company and the British Raj seized control of India.
  3. Even though the British East India Company followed a policy of divide and rule, the Indian liberation movement deepened and expanded the spirit of secularism.

To some extent, the divide-and-rule approach contributed to communal strife among distinct populations. Here are a few examples:

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During the partition of Bengal in 1905, this policy was implemented.The Indian Councils Act of 1909 established separate electorates for Muslims.In certain places, the provision was enlarged by the Government of India Act of 1919 to cover Sikhs, Indian Christians, Europeans, and Anglo-Indians.

Question 1: What is the government’s policy in terms of treating all religions equally in government schools? Answer: It is forbidden to celebrate religious holidays in the school. Question 2: What is secularism in Indian context? Answer: Secularism is a strategy in India that separates the power of religion from the authority of the state.

  1. Question 3: Define Coercion.
  2. Answer: It implies to compel someone to act in a certain way.
  3. It can also refer to the force employed by a legal authority, such as the government.
  4. Question 4: How does the Indian state protect itself from religious dominance by separating itself from religion? Answer: To avoid dominance, the Indian state employs a number of strategies, one of which is to distance itself from religion.

The Indian state is not administered by a religious organization, and it does not favor any one religion. Government spaces in India, such as law courts, police stations, government, schools, and offices, are not restricted from displaying or promoting any particular religion.
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Is Pakistan a secular country?

Aspects & Practices of secularism – There was a petition in Supreme Court of Pakistan in the year of 2015 by 17 judges to declare the nation as a “Secular state” officially. Muhammad Ali Jinnah (the founder of Pakistan) wanted Pakistan to be a secular, democratic, and a liberal republic.

Pakistan was secular from 1947 to 1955 and after that, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic with Islam as its state religion. The main principles of Secularism in the Pakistani constitution were incorporated in its fundamental rights which were granted under various articles of 20, 21, 22 & 25 of the constitution – (a) Article 20 : Freedom to profess religion and to manage religious institutions,

(b) Article 21 : Safeguard against taxation for purposes of any particular religion. (c) Article 22 : Safeguards as to educational institutions in respect of religion, etc. (d) Article 25 : Equality of citizens.
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Who is called secular?

Secular things are not religious. Anything not affiliated with a church or faith can be called secular, Non-religious people can be called atheists or agnostics, but to describe things, activities, or attitudes that have nothing to do with religion, you can use the word secular,

noun someone who is not a clergyman or a professional person adjective characteristic of or devoted to the temporal world as opposed to the spiritual world synonyms: temporal, worldly earthly of or belonging to or characteristic of this earth as distinguished from heaven profane not concerned with or devoted to religion sophisticated having or appealing to those having worldly knowledge and refinement and savoir-faire economic concerned with worldly necessities of life (especially money) material concerned with worldly rather than spiritual interests materialistic, mercenary, worldly-minded marked by materialism mundane, terrestrial concerned with the world or worldly matters see more see less Antonyms: unworldly not concerned with the temporal world or swayed by mundane considerations pious having or showing or expressing reverence for a deity naif, naive marked by or showing unaffected simplicity and lack of guile or worldly experience anchoritic, eremitic, eremitical, hermitic, hermitical characterized by ascetic solitude cloistered, cloistral, conventual, monastic, monastical of communal life sequestered from the world under religious vows spiritual, unearthly concerned with or affecting the spirit or soul unmercenary not mercenary; not influenced by financial gains show more antonyms. adjective not concerned with or devoted to religion ” secular drama” synonyms: profane earthly of or belonging to or characteristic of this earth as distinguished from heaven impious lacking piety or reverence for a god laic, lay characteristic of those who are not members of the clergy profanatory profaning or tending to desecrate temporal, worldly characteristic of or devoted to the temporal world as opposed to the spiritual world see more see less Antonyms: sacred concerned with religion or religious purposes consecrate, consecrated, dedicated solemnly dedicated to or set apart for a high purpose heavenly of or belonging to heaven or god pious having or showing or expressing reverence for a deity divine devoted to or in the service or worship of a deity ineffable, unnameable, unspeakable, unutterable too sacred to be uttered inspirational imparting a divine influence on the mind and soul inviolable, inviolate, sacrosanct having to be kept sacred numinous evincing the presence of a deity quasi-religious resembling something that is religious religious, spiritual concerned with sacred matters or religion or the church reverend, sublime worthy of adoration or reverence sacral of or relating to sacred rites taboo, tabu forbidden to profane use especially in South Pacific islands show more antonyms. adjective of or relating to the doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations adjective of or relating to clergy not bound by monastic vows adjective characteristic of those who are not members of the clergy synonyms: laic, lay profane not concerned with or devoted to religion

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What was the first secular country?

Origin and practice – Secularity can be established at a state’s creation (e.g., the Soviet Union, the United States ) or by it later secularizing (e.g., France or Nepal ). Movements for laïcité in France and separation of church and state in the United States have defined modern concepts of secularism, the United States of America being the first explicitly secular nation in Western history.

Historically, the process of secularisation typically involves granting religious freedom, disestablishing state religions, stopping public funds being used for religion, freeing the legal system from religious control, freeing up the education system, tolerating citizens who change religion or abstain from religion, and allowing political leaders to come to power regardless of their religious beliefs.

In France, Italy, and Spain, for example, official holidays for the public administration tend to be Christian feast days, Any private school in France that contracts with Éducation nationale means its teachers are salaried by the state—most of the Catholic schools are in this situation and, because of history, they are the majority; however, any other religious or non-religious schools also contract this way.

In some European states where secularism confronts monoculturalist philanthropy, some of the main Christian sects and sects of other religions depend on the state for some of the financial resources for their religious charities, It is common in corporate law and charity law to prohibit organized religion from using those funds to organize religious worship in a separate place of worship or for conversion ; the religious body itself must provide the religious content, educated clergy and laypersons to exercise its own functions and may choose to devote part of their time to the separate charities.

To that effect, some of those charities establish secular organizations that manage part of or all of the donations from the main religious bodies. Religious and non-religious organizations can apply for equivalent funding from the government and receive subsidies based on either assessed social results where there is indirect religious state funding, or simply the number of beneficiaries of those organizations.

This resembles charitable choice in the United States. It is doubtful whether overt direct state funding of religions is in accordance with the European Convention on Human Rights, Apparently, this issue has not yet been decided at a supranational level in ECtHR case law stemming from the rights in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which mandates non-discrimination in affording its co-listed basic social rights.

Specifically, funding certain services would not accord with non-discriminatory state action. Many states that are nowadays secular in practice may have legal vestiges of an earlier established religion, Secularism also has various guises that may coincide with some degree of official religiosity.

  • In the United Kingdom, the head of state is still required to take the Coronation Oath enacted in 1688, swearing to maintain the Protestant Reformed religion and to preserve the established Church of England,
  • The UK also maintains seats in the House of Lords for 26 senior clergymen of the Church of England, known as the Lords Spiritual,

In Canada the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms affords secular freedoms of conscience and religion, thought, belief, opinion and expression, including communication, assembly and association yet the Charter’s preamble maintains the concept of “the supremacy of God” which would appear to disadvantage those who hold nontheistic or polytheistic beliefs, including atheism and Buddhism,

  • Italy has been a secular state since the enactment of the Constitution in 1948 (stressed by a Constitutional court ‘s decision in 1985), but still recognizes a special status for the Catholic Church.
  • The reverse progression can also occur, however; a state can go from being secular to being a religious state, as in the case of Iran where the secularized Imperial State of Iran was replaced by an Islamic Republic (list below).

Nonetheless, the last 250 years has seen a trend towards secularism.
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Who does secular mean?

In contemporary English, secular is primarily used to distinguish something (such as an attitude, belief, or position) that is not specifically religious or sectarian in nature (for example, music with no religious connection or affiliation might be described as ‘secular’).
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Which country first adopted secularism?

Origin and practice – Secularity can be established at a state’s creation (e.g., the Soviet Union, the United States ) or by it later secularizing (e.g., France or Nepal ). Movements for laïcité in France and separation of church and state in the United States have defined modern concepts of secularism, the United States of America being the first explicitly secular nation in Western history.

Historically, the process of secularisation typically involves granting religious freedom, disestablishing state religions, stopping public funds being used for religion, freeing the legal system from religious control, freeing up the education system, tolerating citizens who change religion or abstain from religion, and allowing political leaders to come to power regardless of their religious beliefs.

In France, Italy, and Spain, for example, official holidays for the public administration tend to be Christian feast days, Any private school in France that contracts with Éducation nationale means its teachers are salaried by the state—most of the Catholic schools are in this situation and, because of history, they are the majority; however, any other religious or non-religious schools also contract this way.

In some European states where secularism confronts monoculturalist philanthropy, some of the main Christian sects and sects of other religions depend on the state for some of the financial resources for their religious charities, It is common in corporate law and charity law to prohibit organized religion from using those funds to organize religious worship in a separate place of worship or for conversion ; the religious body itself must provide the religious content, educated clergy and laypersons to exercise its own functions and may choose to devote part of their time to the separate charities.

To that effect, some of those charities establish secular organizations that manage part of or all of the donations from the main religious bodies. Religious and non-religious organizations can apply for equivalent funding from the government and receive subsidies based on either assessed social results where there is indirect religious state funding, or simply the number of beneficiaries of those organizations.

  1. This resembles charitable choice in the United States.
  2. It is doubtful whether overt direct state funding of religions is in accordance with the European Convention on Human Rights,
  3. Apparently, this issue has not yet been decided at a supranational level in ECtHR case law stemming from the rights in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which mandates non-discrimination in affording its co-listed basic social rights.

Specifically, funding certain services would not accord with non-discriminatory state action. Many states that are nowadays secular in practice may have legal vestiges of an earlier established religion, Secularism also has various guises that may coincide with some degree of official religiosity.

In the United Kingdom, the head of state is still required to take the Coronation Oath enacted in 1688, swearing to maintain the Protestant Reformed religion and to preserve the established Church of England, The UK also maintains seats in the House of Lords for 26 senior clergymen of the Church of England, known as the Lords Spiritual,

In Canada the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms affords secular freedoms of conscience and religion, thought, belief, opinion and expression, including communication, assembly and association yet the Charter’s preamble maintains the concept of “the supremacy of God” which would appear to disadvantage those who hold nontheistic or polytheistic beliefs, including atheism and Buddhism,

  • Italy has been a secular state since the enactment of the Constitution in 1948 (stressed by a Constitutional court ‘s decision in 1985), but still recognizes a special status for the Catholic Church.
  • The reverse progression can also occur, however; a state can go from being secular to being a religious state, as in the case of Iran where the secularized Imperial State of Iran was replaced by an Islamic Republic (list below).
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Nonetheless, the last 250 years has seen a trend towards secularism.
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Was Krishna secular?

Krishna’s universal appeal He is adored by people of different faiths in and outside India, says Dr Asha Goswami It is remarkable to find that the unique fascination of the people for Krishna, irrespective of their ethnic status, has rendered him into a secular universal god who is not only endeared to the Hindus, but being the centre of adoration to every Indian and many from foreign land, evokes them to visit his places of worship and participate in celebrations held in his honour all through the Indian regions.

  • Moreover, Krishna story is of such a type of Indian saga that has since ages built deep relation with the psyche of the Indian masses.
  • Due to which he equally shines through the Puranic scriptures as well as the grip of the hearts of the people by holding imprint among their thoughts and emotions, as if providing them with heart-to-heart talk from the farmer in the field, worker in the factory to high core scholar, as for every one the tale of Krishna is a living thing.

Among the Indian festivals there is none so popular among the masses than the celebrations of the events from Krishna’s life with great fervour like Janmashtami, Govardhanapuja, Rassa, Hindola, Teeja,Vasantotsava and Holi. Hence, due to such a warm interactive relation with the Indian genre, Shri Krishna be best acclaimed as “the deified cultural hero and the most popular of country’s deities who casts secular appeal as he serves centre of fascination and admiration of the Indians at large so much so that the Krishna connect is felt by them during their daily chores, as they find him resonating in their songs (as goes the maxim Kanha bin geet naahi), conversational folk mediums, tales, beliefs, customs, festival celebration which they have construed in theme, spirit, and ideals of the Krishna saga which they recite and practise at various secular and non-secular ceremonies.

  1. Besides, Krishna is the only Indian god who in different forms is variedly worshipped in Indian regions with different rituals and cultic practices, as in Odisha, he is cherished as Purushottama Jagannatha, in Assam he is Vishnu Krishna, in Gujarat his child form is adored as Swaminarayana.
  2. Hence, this overall profound appeal of Shri Krishna to the Indian masses, if followed in the right spirit, may serve a uniting force for bringing the people together.

For, Shri Krishna’s close interrelation with the Indian people is not based on any tenet but is due to the fact that the Indians trace and cite the motives in the Krishna saga (best called Krishna leelas) as deeply interwoven within their cultural milieus in the form of their social beliefs, customs, faiths, folk tales, and folk arts.

Due to which not only the title of secular god but also of a folk deity were conferred upon Shri Krishna. For, as a god of masses, he equally permeates religious shastraic works as well as the secular media in the form of distinct aesthetic art forms viz performing, visual and iconic apart from being synthesised with the Indian mythology and folklore.

This composite Itihasapurana tradition, which developed with regard to Krishna, provided him with a footage of directly permeating masses’ souls and spirit as well as making profound influence on them by moulding their ethos onto colourful motifs of his leelas replete with music and dance.

With the result, art tradition of India was enriched with the legendary motifs of the Krishna saga. Due to this special appeal for the arts, he is titled ‘the maker of arts’ (Kalaanidhana). Moreover, his personae endowed with sharp features having special appeal for sharp emotions provided enough grounds for evoking aesthetic fervour of the people due to which the Indian art fully bloomed during the medieval era in the form of wide range of contributions by the devotee lyricists, musicians and sculptors throughout the country.

Among the Indian dance forms Odissi, Dandiyaraasa or Garbaraasa, Pandavani, Thayyam and Kathakali may be cited as glaring contributions of Krishna’s secular appeal. In the same era, Krishna also turned into the highest ideal of the Indians as the eternal lover of the beings when there developed five schools of the Krishna bhakti with the combination of singing and dancing, which also proved effective, casting Krishna into secular deity with more wider appeal to the common folks than the religious.

  • Hence, this overwhelming legacy of Krishna bhakti taking into its fold wide range of seekers, devotee poets from different faiths from every nook and corner of India has also played a great role, making Krishna more secular as he is equally cherished and adored by them all from Suradasa to Raskhan.
  • It is thus apparent that by evoking deep impress of the masses, Krishna holds a unique position among the Indian gods that of a secular deity who suits into every strand of nation’s myriad culture.

No wonder, he is an object of fascination of the people with different faith and creed from India and some of the foreign countries like Java, Bali, Malay, Kampuchea and laos, and due to this Krishna be also best acclaimed as the harbinger of integrity among these fellow nations.

Krishna’s universal appeal is also evident from the multiple versions of his grand saga in country’s regional languages which form magna opus works of these vernaculars like Keertanghosh of Sankardev in Assamese, Harileela of Bheemadeva in Gujarati, Bhagavatabhaavartha of Ekanatha in Marathi, and Krishnagathas of Cherusheri in Malayalam.

last but not the least, Krishna’s universal secular appeal can be traced in his personae as a great world teacher — Jagadguru — of a unique religion and faith which be best termed as universal religion in the form of integrated yoga which he taught through Gita, implying a disciplinary practice which envisages mankind ‘to offer worship to God by doing one’s dutiful acts while treating the society as his extended family and seeking God in the best of the each species of the universe’.
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What is Indian concept of secularism?

What is Indian Secularism? The Preamble to the Constitution of India proclaimed that India is a secular republic after the passage of the Forty-second Amendment in 1976. The Constitution of India mandates that the Indian state, as well as political parties, be secular in philosophy and action.

  • The Constitution forbids or prohibits the mixing of religion and state power.
  • That is the constitutional restraining order.
  • So long as this Constitution governs this country, no one can argue otherwise.
  • Any state administration that pursues non-secular policies in violation of the constitutional mandate exposes itself to Article 356 action.

Furthermore, state-owned educational institutions are barred by law from giving religious instruction, and Article 27 of the constitution forbids the use of taxpayer funds to promote any religion. Someone who is not religious or has no religious convictions is referred to be “secular.” Religion is open to everyone and is provided as a personal decision to each individual without any discrimination.

  1. It’s similar to the Vedic concept of Dharma Nirapekshata, or the state’s apathy for religion.
  2. Secularism is a concept that provides all religions equal status, respect, and support from the state, or it can be defined as an ideology that advocates for the separation of state and religion.
  3. A secular person is someone who does not hold religious moral principles.

His values are the outcome of scientific and rational thought. Secularism advocates for religious nondiscrimination and partiality, as well as equal access to all religions. Philosophy Sarva Dharma Sambhava, which implies equal respect for all religions, is central to Indian secularism.

Western civilizations, where the government is completely divorced from religion, have adopted this secularism approach. In India, no religion is recognized as official. It also does not owe any religious loyalty. There is no recognized state religion in India. Personal laws, such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, and alimony, vary depending on one’s religious beliefs.

Faith is apolitical, and India does not interfere with the affairs of any faith. On an equal footing, it accepts all religions. It guarantees religious liberty to people of all faiths. Citizens have the right to practice and choose their faith. In India, secularism is a means for tackling religious plurality, not an end in itself.

Its goal was for many religions to coexist peacefully. Secularism in Ancient India Indian religions are known to have coexisted and evolved together for many years prior to the entrance of Islam in the 12th century, followed by Mughal and colonial rule. In ancient India, the Sanatan Dharma (Hinduism) was essentially permitted to flourish as a holistic religion by accepting and attempting to merge various spiritual traditions into a single mainstream.

Hinduism’s religious diversity is exemplified by the formation of four Vedas, as well as numerous interpretations of the Upanishads and Puranas. The Ellora cave temples, for example, exhibit the coexistence of religions and a spirit of acceptance of diverse faiths.

They were built next to each other between the 5th and 10th centuries. Ruler Ashoka was the first major emperor to vow that the state would not persecute any religious sect as early as the third century B.C. Ashoka recommended not only tolerance of all religious factions, but also a deep respect for them in his 12th Rock Edict.

Secularism in India dates back to the Indus Valley culture. In these urban civilizations, dance and music were secular. People in ancient India had religious freedom, and the state provided citizenship to anybody who practiced Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, or any other faith.

  • Secularism in Medieval India The Sufi and Bhakti movements in medieval India helped to reestablish India’s secular nature.
  • They promote secularism’s various facets in society, such as tolerance, brotherhood, universalism, harmony, and peace.
  • Hawaja Moinuddin Chishti, Baba Farid, Saint Kabir Das, Guru Nanak Dev, Saint Tukaram, and Mira Bai were the forerunners of these movements.

The state was known for religious tolerance and freedom of religion under the Mughal ruler Akbar. The Ibadat Khana (house of worship) in Fatehpur Sikri was built to promote religious unity by allowing different religious leaders to express their opinions in one area.

  • This assembly included theologians from the Brahmins, Jains, and Zoroastrians.
  • Secularism in Modern India Following Aurangzeb’s death, the East India Company and the British Raj seized control of India.
  • Even though the British East India Company followed a policy of divide and rule, the Indian liberation movement deepened and expanded the spirit of secularism.

To some extent, the divide-and-rule approach contributed to communal strife among distinct populations. Here are a few examples:

During the partition of Bengal in 1905, this policy was implemented.The Indian Councils Act of 1909 established separate electorates for Muslims.In certain places, the provision was enlarged by the Government of India Act of 1919 to cover Sikhs, Indian Christians, Europeans, and Anglo-Indians.

Question 1: What is the government’s policy in terms of treating all religions equally in government schools? Answer: It is forbidden to celebrate religious holidays in the school. Question 2: What is secularism in Indian context? Answer: Secularism is a strategy in India that separates the power of religion from the authority of the state.

Question 3: Define Coercion. Answer: It implies to compel someone to act in a certain way. It can also refer to the force employed by a legal authority, such as the government. Question 4: How does the Indian state protect itself from religious dominance by separating itself from religion? Answer: To avoid dominance, the Indian state employs a number of strategies, one of which is to distance itself from religion.

The Indian state is not administered by a religious organization, and it does not favor any one religion. Government spaces in India, such as law courts, police stations, government, schools, and offices, are not restricted from displaying or promoting any particular religion.
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