What Percentage Of Gdp Should Be Spent On Education?
The Education 2030 Framework for Action endorses this indicator as a key benchmark for a government financing of education, allocating at least 4% to 6% of its GDP.
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- 1 What percentage of GDP is spent on education in India 2022?
- 2 WHO recommended that at least 6% of GDP should be spent on education?
- 3 Which US state is #1 in education?
- 4 What rank is India in education 2022?
- 4.1 What percentage of GDP is spent on education in Japan?
- 5 How much India invest in education?
- 6 What state is lowest in education?
- 7 Who has the best education system in the world?
- 8 Where does the US lie in education?
- 9 Does US spend more on education than defense?
- 10 How much money is allocated to education 2022?
What percent of US GDP is spent on education?
U.S. and World Education Spending – In the United States, education spending falls short of benchmarks set by international organizations such as UNESCO, of which the U.S. is a member. The nation puts 11.6% of public funding toward education, well below the international standard 15.00%.
- Schools in the United States spend an average of $16,993 per pupil, which is the 7 th -highest amount per pupil (after adjusting to local currency values) among the 37 other developed nations in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
- In terms of a percentage of its gross domestic product (GDP), the United States ranks 12 th among OECD members in spending on elementary education.
- The United States does not meet UNESCO’s benchmark of a 15.00% share of total public expenditure on education.
- In terms of early childhood education, the United States is one of six (6) countries that do not report any educational spending.
- Luxembourg spends US$22,700 per pupil, which is more than any of the other OECD nations spend on education.
- African nations spend the highest amount on education in terms of a percentage of GDP.
- At 4.96%, the United States spends a smaller percentage of its GDP on education than other developed nations, which average 5.59% of GDP in educational spending.
|Country||Elementary Schools||Secondary Schools|
What percentage of GDP is spent on education in India 2022?
The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, India’s guiding policy document on achieving equitable and quality education for all, has reiterated the need for increasing public investment in the education sector to a minimum of 6 per cent of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at the earliest.
- However, in 2021-22, the budgetary allocation for education spending, by the Union government and the states combined, was far less at 3.1 per cent of the country’s GDP.
- A large gap between the 6 per cent target and actual status of investment has remained for many decades now.
- Why? Firstly, it is important to understand the history behind the rationale of setting the 6 per cent benchmark.
THE INITIAL DECADES OF SHAPING PUBLIC INVESTMENT ON EDUCATION In 1964, towards the end of the third Five-Year Plan, the Kothari Commission was created to review the education system of the country. Its role was to advise the government on the general principles and policies for development of education.
- Among its recommendations was, for the first time ever, that education expenditure as a share of Gross National Income (GNI) be increased from 2.9 per cent in 1965-66 to 6 per cent by 1985-86.
- This recommendation was based on certain assumptions with respect to economic growth, population growth, and the growth in enrolment numbers,
In order to achieve this target by 1985-86, the Commission said, the pace of economic growth needed to be faster in the subsequent decades starting from 1965-66, and that there be a dedicated effort at population control. For ready reference, Table 1 captures the broad assumptions of the Kothari Commission, and the targets set for every successive Five-Year Plan period. Source: Vol 4: Planning, Administration, Finance. Education Commission Report, 1964-66. Available online at: http://126.96.36.199/bitstream/123456789/186/1/Report-Education%20and%20National%20Development-Vol-4-Planning%2C%20Administration%2C%20Finance.pdf The Commission recognised that it could be difficult to maintain the expected growth rates for each of the background parameters consistently on an annual basis to achieve the 6 per cent target.
- It thus recommended employing a variety of combinations as supporting parameters.
- These included reaching economic growth ranging from 5 to 7 per cent per annum; population growth ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 per cent per annum; and dedicating a proportion of national income to educational expenditure ranging from 4 to 6 percent over 20 years.
Additionally, the 6 per cent target was recommended on the basis of those of economically advanced countries like Japan, USA, and erstwhile USSR. The expectation was that education expenditure would grow at almost double the rate of economic growth in the early stages,
- HOW THE 6 PER CENT TARGET HAS REMAINED ELUSIVE From 1951 to 1966, during the first three Five -Year Plans, about 7 per cent of the total budget expenditure, on average, was spent on education.
- After the Kothari Commission’s proposal for education expenditure was accepted by the Union government, the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1968, stated that the country should aim “to increase the investment in education to reach a level of expenditure of 6 per cent of the national income as early as possible”,
The proportion of GNP spent on education doubled from 1.7 per cent in 1968-69 to 3.5 per cent in 1985-86, but flattened to 3.4 per cent in 1986-87, Thus, till the late 1980s the target could not be achieved. Subsequently, another policy – the NPE 1986 – emphasised the need for equitable access to educational opportunity and making sufficient funds available for education by increasing public expenditure to reach the same target in the subsequent years. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Sustainable Development Goal, Government expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP. Available online at: http://data.uis.unesco.org/ Thus, public education spending could not reach the benchmark set by these policies.
- The release of NEP 2020 has been visionary since it has introduced new approaches for education delivery and the goal of universalisation of school education from pre-primary to secondary grades by 2030, along with recommending the same target of 6 per cent,
- WHY 6 PER CENT IS A CONSERVATIVE TARGET It is equally important to highlight here that the 6 per cent target was set considering the denominator to be GNI, which is theoretically higher than a country’s GDP.
Therefore, when education expenditure is calculated as a share of GDP, the target should have ideally been slightly higher than 6 per cent. Secondly, the target is already a conservative one as it was based on somewhat grim parameters, such as high pupil-teacher ratio at the primary level; a smaller proportion of investment on schools for capital expenditure; no provision of free uniforms, free stationery, free school meals, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), etc.
- With these services currently being provided, the scope of public investment is much higher.
- Also, earlier estimates do not include pre-primary education, which the NEP 2020 now envisages.
- Similarly, in the case of higher education, the Kothari Commission used unit costs for the year 1965-66 that were much lower, for estimating resource requirements.
It also recommended less expensive part-time and correspondence courses for about 30 per cent of the students. Keeping in mind the limited resources at that time, it recommended carefully planned expansion of higher education over the decades. Therefore, any fresh estimate of the public investment requirements target should ideally be higher than 6 per cent in the current context.
In all, the fact that India has not been able to achieve the relatively conservative target of 6 per cent for almost four decades now, is an area of major concern. It seems to be still stuck on reiterating a goal for public investment in education, which was originally envisaged to be achieved by 1985-86.
This is more so because there is still a large proportion of children not accessing school education beyond elementary level in the country. According to Shah, the more unfortunate and disturbing long-term trend in this regard is the slackening of government effort to mobilise required resources during the high economic growth period from 1986 onwards compared to low economic growth (1966-1986),
The next blog in the series looks at India’s current status on the achievement of the 6 per cent target and the discrepancy around the indicator due to the methodology and definitional issues used in its calculation. References Tilak, J.B. (2006). On allocating 6 per cent of GDP to education. Economic and Political Weekly, 613-618.Available online at: https://www.epw.in/journal/2006/07/perspectives/allocating-6-cent-gdp-education.html Vol 4: Planning, Administration, Finance.
Education Commission Report, 1964-66. Available online at: http://188.8.131.52/bitstream/123456789/186/1/Report-Education%20and%20National%20Development-Vol-4-Planning%2C%20Administration%2C%20Finance.pdf, Tilak, J.B. (2018). The Kothari commission and financing of education.
In Education and Development in India (pp.255-282). Available online at: http://rteforumindia.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/The-Kothari-Commission-and-Financing-of-Education_Tilak.pdf New Education Policy, 2020, MHRD,GoI. Available online at: https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/NEP_Final_English_0.pdf Shah, K.R.
(2006). State inaction in Education in India. Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, 20(4), 465-472. Available online at: http://niepa.ac.in/New/download/Publications/JEPA_(15%20years)/JEPA%202006_Vol-20%20(1-4)/JEPA_OCT-2006-VOL20_4%20Final.pdf#page=7 Also Read: Budget 2022 Increases Education Spending, Samagra Shiksha Scheme Key For School Reopenings Also Listen to: Yamini Aiyar on the Education Pandemic
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How much of Canada’s GDP goes to education?
Canada Education Spending 1981-2022 General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of total general government expenditure on all sectors (including health, education, social services, etc.).
Canada education spending for 2011 was 12.22%, a 0.12% decline from 2010. Canada education spending for 2010 was 12.34%, a 0.15% decline from 2009. Canada education spending for 2009 was 12.48%, a 0.47% increase from 2008. Canada education spending for 2008 was 12.01%, a 0.32% decline from 2007.
|Canada Education Spending – Historical Data|
|Year||Education Spending (% of GDP)||Annual Change|
Canada Education Spending 1981-2022
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What percentage of GDP China spends on education?
China Education Spending 1983-2022 General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of total general government expenditure on all sectors (including health, education, social services, etc.).
China education spending for 2020 was 10.53%, a 0.7% decline from 2019. China education spending for 2019 was 11.23%, a 0.47% increase from 2018. China education spending for 2018 was 10.76%, a 0.83% decline from 2017. China education spending for 2017 was 11.59%, a 0.3% decline from 2016.
|China Education Spending – Historical Data|
|Year||Education Spending (% of GDP)||Annual Change|
China Education Spending 1983-2022
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WHO recommended that at least 6% of GDP should be spent on education?
Background – The education commission of 1964-66 made a detailed analysis of the trends since independence, estimated requirements of the educational system in India up to 1985-86, and recommended that “we should accord the highest priority to education and allocate the largest proportion of GNP possible to it” (p 873).
It suggested, based on certain not altogether unrealistic assumptions regarding economic growth, population growth, growth in enrolment and expenditure per student, that this proportion should be 6 per cent. The commission also compared this estimate with the corresponding figures of other countries, available in the UNESCO statistics: “Japan and the US and the USSR are spending considerably more than 6 per cent of GNP on education” (p 860); they spent no more than a small fraction of their GNP on education at the beginning of the century.
The commission also felt that these countries might be spending about 10 per cent of GNP by 1986, and perhaps more than 10 per cent, if comprehensive disarmament takes place. Hence, the need for India to increase its public expenditure at least to the level of 6 per cent of GNP by 1985-86.
Thus the 6 per cent target suggested by the education commission is based on the following considerations (p 873): The requirements of the system for the next 20 years; the level of spending by the economically advanced countries like Japan, the US and the USSR as a proportion of their GNP on education and the likely trends in future; and the simple normative principle: Normally expenditure on education should grow at double the rate of economic growth in the early stages of educational development.
But the education commission set a modest target of 10 per cent growth in educational expenditure, compared to an expected 6 per cent rate of economic growth. Thus the commission felt that the target of 6 per cent of GNP was not at all an “ambitious one”.
- Methodological, including conceptual and definitional aspects of educational expenditure and the details of the analysis and the targets of the commission are unambiguously clear.
- The rationale provided by the commission for its recommendation was also sound and it also gave enough time to the government for reaching the goal, providing a 20-year period.
Of the several recommendations made by the Kothari commission, 6 per cent of the GDP was accepted by the government of India. It resolved in the National Policy on Education 1968 “to increase the investment in education so as to reach a level of expenditure of 6 per cent of the national income as early as possible” (p 9).
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Which US state is #1 in education?
|1||New Jersey New Jersey||27|
What percentage of GDP is for education 2022?
Image for representational purpose only. (File photo |AP) Very often, governments at the Centre and in the states defend their modest allocation for certain key sectors by citing absolute increases over the previous year instead of using GDP as a benchmark to measure the allocation.
- This is also seen in parliamentary debates and replies to MP’s questions.
- However, the former method distorts reality.
- In a growing economy indicated by an increase in GDP numbers, it is a fair expectation that all sectors would see an increase in gross allocations.
- But what is important is whether these increases are at the same rate as the GDP increase rate.
If not, it would indicate a lesser priority of the government for that sector. For example, allocations as a percentage of GDP estimate for 2022-23 either declined or remained stagnant in 13 of the 21 key sectors compared to similar percentages last year.
Amongst these 13 sectors are School Education, Higher Education, Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Environment, Health and Women and Child Development. These are, in fact, some of the thrust areas of the central government by its own admission. Though the Budget speech laid out a clear direction and reinforced India’s commitment to the goal of achieving net-zero carbon emissions by 2070, the Budget allocated merely Rs.3030 crores for the Ministry of Environment, which forms an abysmal 0.012% of GDP as compared to 0.03% of GDP in 2006-07.
As stated by the MoEFCC in Rajya Sabha, India’s announcements at COP26 require an additional climate financing of approximately $1 trillion. Similarly, health allocation in the present Budget still constitutes a mere 0.335% of GDP, with no significant improvement over last year despite the country facing an ongoing public health crisis.
This is concerning since the public health allocation was 0.26% of GDP in 2015-16, witnessing only a marginal improvement in seven years. Even if we consider the health allocation as a percentage of total expenditure, it doesn’t bode well. The health outlay was 2.2% of the total expenditure in 2006-07.
Fast forward to Budget 2022-23, the budgetary allocation towards health dipped to 2.1%. Interestingly, the cess-excluded allocation on health stands at about Rs 62,000 crore, or 1.6% of the total expenditure, signifying a sizeable reduction of allocations from out of the centre’s share from the divisible pool of taxes and duties.
- An even grimmer picture is visible in education.
- The total education outlay has stagnated in recent years when viewed through the prism of the percentage of GDP.
- The Economic Survey reveals that the combined outlay of the Centre and the States is 3.1% of GDP per 2021-22 BE.
- However, this outlay is the same as in 2013-14, dipping to 2.8% over the ensuing years before recovering against the backdrop of the pandemic.
It is also critical to view this stagnation in light of the National Education Policy (NEP) which has re-emphasised the need for increasing the education expenditure to at least 6% of GDP. Even the NEP talks about the percentage of GDP and not in absolute gross numbers.
- Numbers in the agriculture and allied sectors don’t inspire too much confidence either, having increased only marginally from 0.17% of GDP in 2006-07 to 0.51% of GDP in the present Budget across a span of 15-plus years.
- It is a well-established international practice to calculate and evaluate public expenditure as a percentage of GDP.
Sectoral allocation in absolute terms is a one-dimensional metric that tells us nothing other than the basic value of government expenditure and fails to provide information about rising inflation, inequality or the spending’s relationship with other economic allocations.
Since India is a developing economy, our GDP is growing faster than other large economies. Hence, an increase in final allocations is all but expected. In contrast, when we measure the allocations as a percentage of GDP, we begin to understand how small or large the allocation is. We also can draw linkages and comparisons not only with other sectors in the economy but also with other countries similarly placed as us and whom we aspire to emulate.
This context helps prioritise the areas that need urgent focus and informs better policy-making. India’s per capita GDP grew five times from 2006-07 to 2022-23. However, the same increase is not visible in the allocations to key sectors. This has resulted in inequitable growth where the rich become richer, leaving the poor on the margins of society.
- India’s Gini coefficient, a matrix to measure wealth inequality, stood at 82.3 in 2020, rising from 74.7 in 2000.
- There needs to be a paradigm shift in how the country approaches its issues – changing the lens that informs decision-making.
- The government must depart from the old ways of viewing incremental, absolute increases in allocations as a successful milestone to measuring allocations as a percentage of GDP.
Why India spends so less on education?
Given the state of education in the country, if one tells you to guess the public spending on the sector, you will probably say that it is very low compared to developed countries or the newly industrialised countries like China, Russia, and Brazil. But what if you are told that public spending on education in India is one of the highest in the world among developing countries and equivalent to developed countries.
Data from the World Bank tells us that the global average of public spending on education was 4.5 per cent of GDP in 2017 while India, in the same year, spent 4.4 per cent. China, the country we want to compete with, spent only 4.1 per cent of GDP on education despite having a tax-to-GDP ratio higher than that of India.
For Russia, the spending is even lower at around 4 per cent. On a global scale, the public spending on education as part of total public spending is around 14.3 per cent while for India, the average spending of all states on education is 15.9 per cent.
On top of that, the Union government spends around 3 per cent of its total expenditure on education. So, despite a low tax-to-GDP ratio compared to newly industrialised developing countries as well as developed countries, India’s expenditure on education is comparable to those countries. India prioritised education in public spending, especially in the last two decades, but any substantial impact of that on the quality of education is yet to be seen.
Where does all the money go? Every Tom, Dick and Harry, irrespective of his/her competency, will tell you that India needs to increase its spending on education. The Kothari Commission, which argued that 6 per cent of GDP should be spent on education, is the most common document referred to, to advance this argument.
Most of the committee reports and policies formulated after that argue the same. However, no one is talking about what is the return on investment on the money being invested. The enrollment ratio in public schools and colleges in India is one of the lowest in the world despite comparable spending. So, the question here arises: where does all this money go? Well, all of it is being spent on what economists call ‘revenue expenditure’, that too on teacher salaries.
In most of the states, the share of teacher salaries as a percentage of total expenditure is between 70 per cent to as high as around 90 per cent. On an average, teacher salaries constitute more than 75 per cent of the total expenditure. No country in the world pays its teachers as much as India does.
In India, the salary of a government primary school teacher is as much as 40,000 per month — around Rs 5 lakh per annum. The salary of an average school teacher is four times higher than the per capita income of the country. The salary of assistant professors is even higher at around Rs 70,000 per month and Rs 8 lakh per year, which is 6 times the per capita income of the country.
In comparison, the salary of a government school teacher in California, one of the richest states in the United States, is 68,000 dollars per annum against a per capita income of 59,000 dollars. In most of the American states, the per capita income of the teachers is comparable to per capita income of the state.
On the other hand, in India, per capita income of a government teacher in Uttar Pradesh is around Rs 5 lakh per annum against a per capita income of Rs 70,000. Indian states are paying as much as 5 to 10 times more the per capita income to government teachers. And, it is not that these state governments are paying this much to the teachers out of sheer will.
The teachers are being paid so much because they have become a political constituency. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, a professor at the University College London, published a research paper in which she argued that ‘over-politicization of teachers is killing public education in India’.
- Teachers have become too important a political constituency to be ignored by any political dispensation.
- In almost all the states that have legislative councils, a certain percentage of seats are reserved for teachers.
- Every year, one can see the news of teacher agitations in one or the other state of the country.
“Strikes and agitations by aided and local-government school teachers have led to enactment of important education legislation (such as the Salary Disbursement Act, 1971 and the Basic Education Act, 1972 in Uttar Pradesh, the Direct Payment Agreement 1972 in Kerala, etc) which have all but nationalised aided private schools, increased teachers job-security and reduced their accountability to local government officials,” wrote Geeta Gandhi Kingdon.
- Teachers are so important as a political constituency — given their large numbers — that every manifesto of every political party in states like Uttar Pradesh dedicates a page for them.
- Therefore, every party talks about ‘regularisation’ of teachers or about an increase in their salaries.
- However, this hefty pay is limited to only the government teachers.
Private teachers, who are comparatively better, have remuneration ranging from as low as 5,000 rupees per month to a maximum of 25,000 rupees per month compared to 42,000 rupees for government teachers. Despite such low payments to the private school teacher, the majority of Indian children are studying in private schools — even in areas with low per capita incomes — because education in these schools is much better according to parents.
The reason behind poor educational infrastructure and education quality: Government teachers are overpaid and there is very little accountability. More than one-third of the total public expenditure on education goes to teacher/professor salaries and the spending on educational infrastructure, curriculum development, screening, co-curricular activities and many other aspects of learning is very little.
Therefore, there is always a fund crunch for educational infrastructure despite public spending on education in India being one of the highest in the world. Moreover, there is no accountability of the teachers towards the students and their learning outcomes despite the fact they are paid such a hefty paycheck.
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What rank is India in education 2022?
On July 15, 2022, the Union Minister Dharmendra Pradhan, Ministry of Education (MoE) released the ‘India Rankings 2022- Ranking of Higher Educational Institutions on Performance’. It was prepared by National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF), MoE.
The ‘India Rankings 2022: Overall’ was topped by Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras of Chennai, Tamil Nadu with a score of 87.59. It retains its 1st position in Overall Category for 4 th consecutive year and in Engineering for 7 th consecutive year,It was followed by Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bengaluru (Karnataka) with a score of 83.57 at 2nd place, and IIT Bombay in Mumbai (Maharashtra) with 82.35 score.IIT Madras also ranked top in Engineering College Category.
Basis of Assessment : The overall assessment is premised upon the 5 parameters of Teaching, Learning & Resources (TLR); Research and Professional Practice (RP); Graduation Outcomes (GO); Outreach and Inclusivity (OI); and Peer Perception. These are further divided into 18-21 sub-parameters, Table showing the top 5 Rankers in Overall Category:
|1||Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras, Chennai||87.59|
|2||Indian Institute of Science (IIsc), Bengaluru,Karnataka||83.57|
|3||IIT, Bombay (Mumbai)||82.35|
|4||IIT Delhi, New Delhi, Delhi||82.22|
|5||IIT Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh)||77.83|
Click Here for Official Overall list Table showing top 5 rankers India Rankings 2022: University
|2||Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU),New Delhi||68.47|
|3||Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi||65.91|
|4||Jadavpur University, Kolkata (West Bengal)||65.37|
|5||Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)||63.40|
ul>IISC tops the Universities Category for 7th consecutive year.
Click Here for Official University List Table showing top 5 rankers India Rankings 2022: College
|1||Miranda House, Delhi||78|
|2||Hindu College, Delhi||71.86|
|3||Presidency College, Chennai,Tamil Nadu||71.67|
|4||Loyola College, Chennai||71|
|5||Lady Shri Ram College For Women, New Delhi||70.83|
ul>Miranda House retains the 1st position amongst Colleges for the 6 th consecutive year.Colleges in Delhi dominate ranking of colleges with five colleges out of first 10 colleges from Delhi.
Click Here for Official list of Colleges Table showing top 5 rankers India Rankings 2022: Research Institutions
|2||IIT Madras (Tamilnadu)||86.38|
|3||IIT Delhi (Delhi)||82.16|
|4||IIT Bombay (Maharashtra)||80.21|
|5||IIT Kharagpur (West Bengal)||74.05|
ul>IISc stood first in this Category for 2 nd consecutive year.
Click Here for Official list of Research Institutions List Table showing top 5 rankers India Rankings 2022: Engineering
Click Here for Official list of Engineering Institutions Table showing top 5 rankers India Rankings 2022: Management
|1||Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Ahmedabad, Gujarat||83.35|
|2||IIM Bengaluru, Karnataka||82.62|
|3||IIM Calcutta, West Bengal||78.64|
|5||IIM Kozhikode, Kerala||74.74|
ul>IIM Ahmedabad tops the Management category for 3 rd consecutive year.
Click Here for Official list of Management Institutions Table showing top 5 rankers India Rankings 2022: Pharmacy
|1||Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi||79.50|
|2||National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Hyderabad, Telangana||79.46|
|3||Panjab University, Chandigarh||76.29|
|4||National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Mohali (Punjab)||75.78|
|5||Birla Institute of Technology & Science (BITS) Pilani, Rajasthan||74.99|
ul>Jamia Hamdard tops the ranking in Pharmacy for the 4 th consecutive year.
Click Here for Official list of Management Pharmacy Institutions Table showing top 5 rankers India Rankings 2022: Medical
|1||All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Delhi||91.60|
|2||Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh||79|
|3||Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu||72.84|
|4||National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore||71.56|
|5||Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi, UP||68.12|
ul>AIIMS, New Delhi tops the Medical category for the 5 th consecutive year. It ranked at 9th position in Overall category for the first time.
Click Here for Official list of Medical Institutions Table showing top 5 rankers India Rankings 2022: Dental
|1||Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Chennai||82.30|
|Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Udupi, Karnataka||77.28|
|3||Dr.D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune (Maharashtra)||76.67|
|4||Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences (MAIDS), Delhi||70.48|
|5||King George`s Medical University, Lucknow,Uttar Pradesh||69.13|
ul>SIMATS takes the top slot for the first time in Dental Subject displacing Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal.
Click Here for Official list of Dental Institutions Table showing top 5 rankers India Rankings 2022: Law
|1||National Law School of India University (NLSIU), Bengaluru||78|
|2||National Law University (NLU), New Delhi||73.96|
|3||Symbiosis Law School (SLS), Pune, Maharashtra||73.73|
|4||Nalsar University of Law, Hyderabad||73.05|
|5||The West Bengal National University of Juridicial Sciences (WBNUJS or NUJS), Kolkata||70.72|
ul>NLSIU retains its first position in Law for the 5 th consecutive year.
Click Here for Official list of Law Institutions Table showing top 5 rankers India Rankings 2022: Architecture
|1||IIT Roorkee, Uttarakhand||83.46|
|4||School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi||66.37|
|5||National Institute of Technology (NIT), Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu||65.19|
ul>IIT Roorkee stands at 1st position in Architecture subject for 2 nd consecutive year.
Click Here for Official list of Architect Institutions Other Highlights: i. A total number of 4,786 unique institutions offered themselves for ranking under Overall, category-specific and / or domain-specific rankings for India Rankings 2022. In all, 7,254 applications for ranking were made by these 4,786 unique institutions under various categories / domains including 1,876 in Overall Category, 1,249 in Engineering, and 2,270 in General Degree Colleges.
ii. Number of unique applicants to India Rankings have increased from 2,426 in 2016 to 4,786 in 2022 whereas total number of applications for ranking in various categories have increased from 3,565 in 2016, to 7,254 in 2022 i.e. total increase of 2,360 (97.28% increase) in unique institutions and 3,689 (103.48% increase) in total applicants.
iii.100 institutions are ranked in Overall, Universities and Colleges categories. iv. Number of institutions that are being ranked in Engineering has been increased to 200 from 2019 onwards.v. The number of institutions ranked in Management and Pharmacy are being increased from 75 to100 each from 2022 onwards.
Vi. Number of institutions ranked are restricted between 30 and 50 in subject domains namely Architecture, Law, Medical, Dental as well as in Research Institutions. Recent Related News: i. The Unnat Bharat Abhiyan (UBA) 2.0 on April 25, 2022 has completed four years since its launch on the sameday in the year 2018.
The UBA 2.0 was launched with the vision of transformational change in the rural development processes by MoE. IIT Delhi has been designated to function as the National Coordinating Institute for this program. ii. The Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Education has released the National Achievement Survey (NAS) 2021 report which was conducted on November 12 2021, assessing the state of the School education system in India.
- According to NAS 2021, majority of the states performed below the overall national score, but states like Kerala, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Punjab performed better than the national average.
- About National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF): Approved by approved by the Ministry of Education(then Ministry of Human Resource Development(MHRD)) in 2015, it released the first India Rankings based on this framework in 2016.
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What country spends the most on education?
International Comparisons – In 2018, the United States spent $14,400 per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student on elementary and secondary education, which was 34 percent higher than the average of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries of $10,800 (in constant 2020 U.S.
Dollars). At the postsecondary level, the United States spent $35,100 per FTE student, which was double the average of OECD countries ($17,600). This indicator uses material from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to compare countries’ expenditures on education using two measures: expenditures on public and private education institutions per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student and total government and private expenditures on education institutions as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP),
The OECD is an organization of 38 countries that collects and publishes an array of data on its member countries. Education expenditures are from public revenue sources (governments) and private revenue sources, and they include current and capital expenditures.
Private sources include payments from households for school-based expenses such as tuition, transportation fees, book rentals, and food services, as well as public funding via subsidies to households, private fees for education services, and other private spending that goes through the educational institution.
The total government and private expenditures on education institutions as a percentage of GDP measure allows for a comparison of countries’ expenditures relative to their ability to finance education. Purchasing power parity (PPP) indexes are used to convert other currencies into U.S.
dollars. Monetary amounts are in constant 2020 dollars based on national Consumer Price Indexes.1 Select a subgroup characteristic from the drop-down menu below to view relevant text and figures. International + Level of institution + Expenditures per FTE student at the elementary/secondary level varied across OECD countries 2 in 2018, ranging from $3,100 in Mexico to $24,000 in Luxembourg.
The United States spent $14,400 per FTE student at the elementary/secondary level, 3 which was 34 percent higher than the average of OECD countries 4 reporting data ($10,800). The United States had the fifth highest expenditures per FTE student at the elementary/secondary level in 2018 after Luxembourg, Norway ($16,500), Austria ($15,700), and Iceland ($15,500).
Expenditures per FTE student at the postsecondary level also varied across OECD countries 5 in 2018, ranging from $3,000 in Colombia to $48,900 in Luxembourg. Expenditures per FTE student at this level for the United States ($35,100) were second highest, after Luxembourg, and double the average of OECD countries reporting data ($17,600).
Figure 1. Expenditures and percentage change in expenditures per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student for elementary and secondary education, by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country: 2010 and 2018 In 2018, the average of OECD countries’ expenditures per FTE student at the elementary/secondary level was $10,800, compared with $9,500 in 2010.6 In 23 of the 25 OECD countries with data available for both years, including the United States, expenditures per FTE student at the elementary/secondary level were higher in 2018 than in 2010, after adjusting for inflation.
In these countries, expenditures ranged from being 1 percent higher (Slovenia and Spain) to 57 percent higher (Israel) in 2018 compared with 2010. Two countries (Denmark and Mexico) had expenditures per FTE student at the elementary/secondary level that were lower in 2018 than in 2010. In the United States, expenditures per FTE student were 3 percent higher in 2018 ($14,400) than in 2010 ($14,000).
Twenty of the 25 countries with data available for both 2010 and 2018 had higher percentage changes in expenditures than the United States. The exceptions were Slovenia and Spain (both 1 percent higher in 2018 than in 2010), as well as Denmark and Mexico, the countries that had lower expenditures in 2018 than in 2010. In 2018, the average of OECD countries’ expenditures per FTE student at the postsecondary level was $17,600, compared with $14,900 in 2010.7 Of the 24 OECD countries with data available in both years, expenditures per FTE student at the postsecondary level were higher in 2018 than in 2010 in 19 countries, including the United States.
In the United States, expenditures per FTE student at the postsecondary level were 15 percent higher in 2018 ($35,100) than in 2010 ($30,500). Of the 19 countries with expenditures per FTE student that were higher in 2018 than in 2010, the percentage change in expenditures per FTE student at the postsecondary level ranged from a low of less than one-half of 1 percent in Germany to a high of 116 percent in Estonia.
Five countries (Chile, Finland, Spain, Denmark, and Mexico) had expenditures per FTE student at the postsecondary level that were lower in 2018 than in 2010. Figure 3. Expenditures per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student for elementary and secondary education in selected Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, by gross domestic product (GDP) per capita: 2018 A country’s wealth, defined as GDP per capita, is positively associated with its education expenditures per FTE student at the elementary/secondary and postsecondary levels. In 2018, of the 16 countries with a GDP per capita greater than the $46,800 average of OECD countries, 15 countries had elementary/secondary education expenditures per FTE student that were higher than the average of OECD countries.8 These 15 countries were France, the United Kingdom, Canada, Finland, Australia, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, Austria, Norway, the Netherlands, Iceland, the United States, and Luxembourg.
The exception was Ireland, which had lower elementary/secondary expenditures per FTE student ($10,000) than the average of OECD countries. Of the 20 countries with a GDP per capita lower than the average of OECD countries, 18 countries also had elementary/secondary education expenditures per FTE student that were lower than the average of OECD countries in 2018.9 These 18 countries were Colombia, Mexico, Chile, Greece, Latvia, the Slovak Republic, Poland, Hungary, Portugal, Turkey, Estonia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Israel, Spain, Japan, New Zealand, and the Czech Republic.
The exceptions were the Republic of Korea and Italy, which had expenditures per FTE student at the elementary/secondary level ($13,900 and $11,300, respectively) that were higher than the average for OECD countries. Figure 4. Expenditures per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student for postsecondary education in selected Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, by gross domestic product (GDP) per capita: 2018 At the postsecondary level in 2018, of the 16 countries with a GDP per capita that was higher than the average of OECD countries, 14 had postsecondary education expenditures per FTE student that were higher than the $17,600 average of OECD countries.10 The two countries that had expenditures per FTE student that were lower than the average of OECD countries were Ireland and Iceland ($17,300 and $16,600, respectively).
Of the 21 countries with a lower GDP per capita than the average of OECD countries, 18 countries had postsecondary education expenditures per FTE student that were lower than the average of OECD countries. Three countries had expenditures per FTE student that were higher than the average of OECD countries: Estonia ($17,800), New Zealand ($18,500), and Japan ($19,400).
Figure 5. Government and private expenditures on education institutions as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries with the two highest and lowest percentages of expenditures for all institutions, by level of education: 2018 Among the 36 OECD countries reporting data in 2018, the average total expenditures on education institutions constituted 4.9 percent of GDP. Norway and Chile reported the highest total expenditures on education institutions as a percentage of GDP (both 6.6 percent), followed by Israel and New Zealand (both 6.2 percent), the United Kingdom (6.1 percent), and the United States (6.0 percent).
Ireland and Luxembourg reported the lowest total expenditures on education institutions as a percentage of GDP (both 3.3 percent), followed by Lithuania (3.4 percent), the Slovak Republic and Greece (both 3.7 percent), and Hungary (3.8 percent). At the elementary/secondary level, total expenditures for the United States on educational institutions in 2018 amounted to 3.5 percent of GDP.
This was higher than the average of OECD countries (3.4 percent). Eight countries spent 4.0 percent or more of GDP on elementary/secondary institutions. Israel reported the highest percentage of GDP spent on elementary/secondary institutions (4.8 percent).
- Lithuania reported the lowest percentage of GDP spent on elementary/secondary institutions (2.3 percent).
- At the postsecondary level, total expenditures for the United States on education institutions in 2018 amounted to 2.5 percent of GDP.
- This was higher than the average of OECD countries (1.4 percent) and higher than the percentages of all other OECD countries reporting data.
In addition to the United States, other countries that spent 2.0 percent or more of GDP on postsecondary institutions were Chile (2.4 percent), Canada (2.3 percent), and the United Kingdom (2.0 percent).
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Is Canada or the US more educated?
Immigrants help raise education levels in Canada, but face higher rates of overqualification if they have a foreign degree – Immigrants play a key role in Canada’s high share of degree holders. Leveraging the talents of highly educated immigrants is key to maintaining Canada’s standard of living and meeting labour market needs as the population ages.
- In 2021, immigrants and non-permanent residents accounted for over half of the working-age population with an earned doctorate (55.8%), a master’s degree (52.2%) or a degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry (50.8%), and accounted for 39.1% of those with a bachelor’s degree.
- Immigrants account for a larger share of the population in Canada than in any other G7 country, and,
In addition, these recent immigrants were more highly educated than any previous group, with nearly 6 in 10 (59.4%) holding a bachelor’s degree or higher. Immigrants who had landed in Canada since the 2016 Census were responsible for nearly half (2.1 percentage points) of the 4.3-percentage-point rise from 2016 to 2021 in the share of the working-age population holding a bachelor’s degree or higher.
These high levels of education, along with higher rates of Canadian work experience, have contributed to the labour market outcomes of recent immigrants., recent immigrants in 2021 (who landed during the period from 2016 to 2021) were more likely to be working in industries with above-average hourly wages, compared with recent immigrants in 2016 (who landed during the period from 2011 to 2016).
Nevertheless, immigrants with foreign credentials (their degree was obtained outside Canada) face barriers to using their skills in Canada. Over one-quarter (25.8%) of all immigrants with a foreign degree were overqualified, which is defined as a degree holder working in a job that typically requires a high school education or less.
This was more than double the overqualification rate among Canadian-born degree holders (10.6%) or immigrants with a Canadian degree (11.8%). Among immigrants with a foreign degree, overqualification was higher among women (28.3%) than among men (23.1%). The overqualification of immigrants with foreign degrees is a longstanding issue, observed consistently since the addition of location of study data to the 2006 Census.
It grows ever more salient as the number of immigrants with foreign degrees increases. In 2021, almost two-thirds (63.8%) of immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher had completed it outside Canada. Even immigrants with foreign degrees in high-demand areas such as registered nursing or medicine faced high rates of job mismatch.
For example, 36.5% of immigrants with a foreign bachelor’s degree or higher in registered nursing worked as registered nurses, or in closely related occupations such as nurse practitioners, nursing supervisors or health care managers, and 41.1% of immigrants with a foreign medical degree worked as doctors.
In contrast, among the population with a Canadian nursing degree or medical degree, approximately 9 in 10 worked as registered nurses (87.4%) or doctors (90.1%). Although the census does not tell us directly about barriers that immigrants may face to finding employment in their field, such as credential recognition and official language proficiency, results show that, if immigrants with foreign degrees had jobs in their field at the same rate as the Canadian-educated population, it could increase the potential number of working-age registered nurses and closely related occupations by 27,350, and doctors by 15,730.
Another group facing high rates of job mismatch despite being in a high-demand field were women who had studied computer and information sciences. This was the case for both immigrant women and Canadian-born women. Among the population with a postsecondary credential in computer and information science who worked in 2020 or 2021, less than one-third (31.5%) of women worked in, compared with half (50.1%) of men.
This constituted a job match gap of 18.6 percentage points. The job match gap between men and women remained similar (ranging from 16 to 22 percentage points) even after taking credential type into account (below bachelor’s, bachelor’s degree or master’s degree) and whether they studied in Canada or outside Canada.
Women with computer science credentials were more likely than men with those credentials to work in other-than- occupations in business, finance and administration (21.5% for women compared with 7.7% for men). If the job match gap between women and men in computer science were eliminated (controlling for credential type and location of study), it would potentially increase the total number of working-age people working in computer science occupations by 26,340.
The number of international students has grown rapidly in recent years,, based on data on study permit holders from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. These students commonly immigrate to Canada and make an important contribution to the educated workforce.
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For the Economy – Many countries have placed greater emphasis on developing an education system that can produce workers able to function in new industries, such as science and technology. This is partly because older industries in developed economies have become less competitive and thus are less likely to continue dominating the industrial landscape.
Primary—elementary school in the United StatesSecondary—middle school, high school, and preparatory schoolPost-secondary—university, community college, and vocational school
A country’s economy becomes more productive as the proportion of educated workers increases since educated workers can more efficiently carry out tasks that require literacy and critical thinking. However, obtaining a higher level of education also carries a cost.
A country doesn’t have to provide an extensive network of colleges or universities to benefit from education; it can provide basic literacy programs and still see economic improvements. Countries with a greater portion of their population attending and graduating from schools see faster economic growth than countries with less-educated workers.
As a result, many countries provide funding for primary and secondary education to improve economic performance. In this sense, education is an investment in human capital, similar to an investment in better equipment. The ratio of the number of children of official secondary school age enrolled in school to the number of children of official secondary school age in the population (referred to as the enrollment ratio) is higher in developed nations than in developing nations.
The enrollment ratio differs as a metric from calculating education spending as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), which doesn’t always correlate strongly with the level of education in a country’s population. GDP represents the output of goods and services for a nation. Therefore, spending a high proportion of GDP on education doesn’t necessarily ensure that a country’s population is more educated.
For businesses, an employee’s intellectual ability can be treated as an asset, This asset can be used to create products and services that can be sold. The more well-trained workers employed by a firm, the more that firm can theoretically produce. An economy in which employers treat education as an asset is often referred to as a knowledge-based economy,
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How much does Russia spend on education?
Government expenditure on education in Russia in 2020, by segment (in billion Russian rubles)
|Characteristic||Spending in billion Russian rubles|
|Secondary vocational education||284|
What percentage of GDP is spent on education in Norway?
Norway Education Spending 1981-2022 General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of total general government expenditure on all sectors (including health, education, social services, etc.).
Norway education spending for 2018 was 15.92%, a 0.02% decline from 2017. Norway education spending for 2017 was 15.94%, a 0.1% increase from 2016. Norway education spending for 2016 was 15.84%, a 0.23% increase from 2015. Norway education spending for 2015 was 15.61%, a 1.29% decline from 2014.
|Norway Education Spending – Historical Data|
|Year||Education Spending (% of GDP)||Annual Change|
Norway Education Spending 1981-2022
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What percentage of GDP is spent on education in Japan?
Japan: Education spending, percent of GDP
|Japan||Public spending on education, percent of GDP|
Who suggested the 10 2 3 structure of education?
The 10+2+3 pattern for secondary, higher secondary, and university education was recommended by which of the following commissions?A) Mudaliar CommissionB) Kothari CommissionC) Operation BlackboardD) None of these Answer Verified Hint: Dr.D.S. Kothari recommended the commission of the 10+2+3 pattern for secondary, higher secondary, and university education and this Commission was appointed in 1964.
Complete answer: Kothari Commission may be a National Education Commission (1964-1966). This commission has been found out by the government of India in order that all aspects of the educational sector are often examined in India to grow a general pattern of education and to advise policies and guidelines so that India’s education can be developed.Under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, this commission was formed on 14 July 1964.
On 29th June 1966, its objectives and the important recommendations had been submitted. After independence, Kothari Commission was the sixth commission in India but related to education it was the first commission. There were a Core group of 20 members in the Kothari Commission.
A consultation from a panel of 20 overseas consultants had been taken in this commission, who were based out of the USA, UK, Japan, France, Sweden. The Commission had interviewed 9000 people who were working as scholars, educators, and scientists in a span of 21 months. First, the report was submitted to M.C.Chagla on 29th June 1966 and then to the minister of education.The main objective of the Kothari Commission is to supply policies and guidelines for the event of education in India and to look at every aspect of the Indian education sector.
It promotes regional languages, Sanskrit as well as international languages, preferably English. This commission improves education at the university level by paying special attention to postgraduate level research, training, providing adequate libraries, laboratories, and funds.Under the leadership of former Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, the bill was passed in the Parliament.
- Some objectives of this commission increase Productivity, Promoting National and Social Integration, Modernization, and Education, Developing moral, social, and spiritual values.
- This commission deals with general problems and also deals with Education at different stages and in different sectors.It consists of supplementary papers.
It took 100 days to submit the final report and the report was divided into four sections. Pre-primary education should also be given before General education. The time span of Higher education should be fixed for two years. There should be a postgraduate course after the degree course.
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Why is education important for GDP?
A more educated society translates into higher rates of economic growth and thus the ability of governments to alleviate poverty.
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How much India invest in education?
For 2022-23, the budget for school education spending is GBP 6 bn (INR 63,449 crore) and has increased by 22 per cent over its previous year’s revised allocation. The higher education budget has also increased by 13 per cent over its previous year’s allocation and is GBP 4 bn (INR 40,828 crore).
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What state is lowest in education?
Nevada ranks as the second least educated state in America LAS VEGAS (KLAS) — According to an in-depth analysis of 2022’s most and least educated states in America, Nevada tops the list of the least educated states, coming in second to Oklahoma. Nevada also ranks 49th in educational attainment, 42nd in school quality, 46th in best school systems in America, and last in the share of doctorate degrees in the nation. (Courtesy: Scholaroo) Here’s how every state ranked in most to least educated:
MassachusettsConnecticutMarylandNew JerseyVirginiaVermontNew YorkNew HampshireMinnesotaRhode IslandIllinoisWashingtonPennsylvaniaColoradoCaliforniaDelawareMaineWisconsinIowaNebraskaOregonMissouriUtahKansasMichiganHawaiiKentuckyMontanaOhioIndianaNorth CarolinaTennesseeNorth DakotaGeorgiaSouth DakotaFloridaWyomingTexasSouth CarolinaArkansasAlabamaAlaskaWest VirginiaIdahoNew MexicoMississippiArizonaLouisianaNevadaOklahoma
The analysis was conducted by Scholaroo, and the data set contained 19 metrics, ranging from the share of college graduates to the share of vocational school graduates to literacy and numeracy rates. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, a typical American worker with a bachelor’s degree earns on average $26,000 more per year than a worker with just a high school diploma.
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Who has the best education system in the world?
1. The United States of America – The American education system is known for its practical learning and offers a wide array of educational choices to international students. It is one of the most popular educational destinations among students because it offers graduate, postgraduate, engineering, and doctorate programs.
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Where does the US lie in education?
What the latest results of an international test tell us about the state of education in the United States Joerg Sarbach/AP Photo The U.S. education system is mediocre compared to the rest of the world, according to an international ranking of OECD countries. More than half a million 15-year-olds around the world took the Programme for International Student Assessment in 2012. Click to view full chart Not much has changed since 2000, when the U.S. scored along the OECD average in every subject: This year, the U.S. scores below average in math and ranks 17th among the 34 OECD countries. It scores close to the OECD average in science and reading and ranks 21st in science and 17th in reading. Here are some other takeaways from the report:
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How much does the US spend on education 2022?
Each year federal agencies receive funding from Congress, known as budgetary resources. In FY 2022, the Department of Education (ED) had $637.70 Billion distributed among its 10 sub-components. Agencies spend available budgetary resources by making financial promises called obligations.
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Does US spend more on education than defense?
U.S. spends far more on military than on education Political leanings aside, a recent letter to the editor regarding military versus education spending, challenged readers to “look it up on the internet.” So I did. According to, the military budget is 11 percent ($755 billion) while spending on education is about 4 percent ($297 billion).
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How much money is allocated to education 2022?
Additionally, the budget increased by 10.5%, or R5.6 billion, from R54 billion in 2021/22 to R59,7 billion in 2022/23.
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What percent of federal money goes to education?
Primary tabs. The federal government supports education by providing about 8.5 percent of the funding for K-to-12 schooling, helping students finance higher education through loans and grants, and giving favorable tax treatment to educational institutions.
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