What Is Psychology Class 11 Physical Education?
Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior of a sportsperson. It surrounds environmental factors that affect how people think, act, and feel. It also includes the study of conscious and unconscious situation. Sports psychology: It is the branch of applied psychology which deals with sports performance and behavior of a player during training and competition.
Psychology helps to improve the performance and personality of players by scientifically modifying his behavior. Proper motivation and feedback enhances the performance of the player. It helps to control and check the declining performance It helps to understand the learning rate, learning curve, development patterns, etc It develops proper behavior setup during the competitionIt helps the player to deal with spectators and crowd It helps to overcome the stress and tension of players It helps to understand the needs of a sports person It helps coaches for a better selection of players It improves the coaching, training and teaching skills for effective learning
- 0.1 What is meant by psychology class 11 physical education?
- 0.2 What is the importance of psychology in sports class 11?
- 1 What are the topics in psychology class 11?
- 2 Is psychology Class 11 easy?
- 3 Who Defined psychology?
- 4 Is the first definition of psychology?
- 5 What is Fullform of psychology?
- 6 What is data in psychology class 11?
- 7 What is the need and importance of psychology in physical education?
What is psychology in physical education?
Sport psychology is a proficiency that uses psychological knowledge and skills to address optimal performance and well-being of athletes, developmental and social aspects of sports participation, and systemic issues associated with sports settings and organizations.
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What is meant by psychology class 11 physical education?
CBSE Class 11 Revision Notes Physical Education Psychology and Sports – Psychology: Psychology is the study of mind and behavior Direction everywhere Sports Psychology: Sports Psychology is an applied Psychology involving applications of psychological principles to the field of physical education and sports. Importance of sports psychology Growth and Development: Growth “The term growth of parts of the education means the growth of parts of the body, may be in size, height and weight Development can be defined as progressive series of changes in an orderly coherent pattern. Different stages of growth and development Adolescence, Problems of Adolescence and Management of Problems of Adolescents Adolescence → Adolescence is the period of change from childhood to adulthood Sympathetic and Liberal attitude of parents –> Management of Problems of Adolescence Healthy atmosphere at home and school –> Management of Problems of Adolescence Paper knowledge of Adolescence psychology –> Management of Problems of Adolescence Proper sex education –> Management of Problems of Adolescence Channelization of energy in right directions –> Management of Problems of Adolescence. Define Learning, Laws of learning and Transfer of learning Learning → Learning is a life long process : it starts in the womb and ends in the tomb. Learning is adaptation and adjustment. Transfer of learning, Types of Transfer of learning, factor affecting transfer of learning Transfer of learning < Transfer of learning occurs when a person's learning in one situation influence his learning and performances in other situation
Positive Transfer –When there is an improvement in a performance as a result previous learning or training Negative Transfer– When learnt one skill makes learning of the second skill more difficult Application Transfer– When previous learning is applied successfully to life situations Bilateral Transfer– When there is a change of performance in a number on one side of the body as a result of training the corresponding member on other side Proactive Transfer– learning of a skill affects the learning of a skill yet to be learnt. Retroactive Transfer– A skill recently being learnt affects the previously learnt skill.
Plateau and causes of Plateau Plateau: A period of little or no apparent progress in an individual’s learning, marked by an inability to increase speed, reduce number of errors etc. and indicated by a horizontal stretch in a learning curve or graph. Concept of emotions and methods of controlling emotions. Emotions → Emotions are intense feeling that are directed at someone or something. Emotions are subjective conscious experiences characterized by expressions, biological reactions and mental status.
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What is the importance of psychology in sports class 11?
Improve performances – The Knowledge of sports psychology helps to improve performance and personality of players’s by scientific ways of modifying behaviour.2. Motivation and feedback -proper motivation and proper feedback enhances the performance of players. It gives counseling to players.
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What are the topics in psychology class 11?
FAQs on CBSE Class 11 Psychology – Q.1: Is the Psychology subject from Class 11 hard? Ans: It is not difficult to ace the CBSE Class 11 Psychology examination if the student understands the syllabus and strategises the preparation.Q.2: What are the chapters included in CBSE Class 11 Psychology? Ans: CBSE Class 11 Psychology has nine chapters namely- What is Psychology?, Methods of Enquiry in Psychology, The Bases of Human Behavior, Human Development, Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual Processes, Learning, Human Memory, Thinking and Motivation and Emotion.Q.3: Where can I find all the details about Psychology Class 11? Ans: Students can find all the details about Psychology Class 11 on Embibe.Q.4: How to download the NCERT Class 11 Psychology textbook? Ans: Students can download the textbook from this page or from the official website.Q.5: Is the mock test really helpful to improve my CBSE Class 11 Psychology scores? Ans: Students can take the Class 11 Psychology mock test embibe to understand their knowledge on their subject and get familiar with the exam pattern.
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What is explain in psychology?
2. Explain – In addition to describing, psychologists seek to be able to explain behaviors. The goal of explaining is to provide answers to questions about why people react to certain stimuli in certain ways, how various factors impact personalities and mental health, and so on.
- Psychologists often use experiments, which measure the impacts of variables upon behaviors, to help formulate theories that explain aspects of human and animal behaviors.
- Many psychologists have developed numerous theories over the past two centuries to explain various human behaviors.
- Some theories have been debunked or replaced by more recent findings, while others have endured and maintained their acceptance by the scientific community.
Some theories focus on explaining small aspects of human behavior, like Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning and Bowlby’s attachment theory, Others set out to describe human behavior in its entirety, like Erickson’s eight stages of human development and Freud’s Freudian theory of personality,
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What is psychology test class 11?
Methods Of Enquiry In Psychology – CBSE Notes for Class 11 Psychology • A Psychological research is conducted for the purpose of description, prediction, explanation, control of behaviour and application of knowledge generated in an objective manner.
- Scientific research involves the following steps: conceptualising a problem, collection of data, analysing data, drawing and revising research conclusions.
- The Psychological research is also conducted to explain and understand subjective meaning of events as they occur in a particular context and also manifest ones own behaviour and experiences.
• Psychological researches use different types of data including demographic, environmental, physical, physiological and psychological informations are gathered. In Psychological study the data is located in a context and linked to the theory and method used for its collection.
• Psychologists use three general methods. One is natural observation, which is made as systematic as possible by the development of psychological tests. Another is the experimental method in which independent variables are manipulated and dependent variables are measured. The third is statistical methods to test the significance of differences obtained and to compute correlations between variables.
• The general scientific method involves careful observation, forming hypotheses, and testing hypotheses against empirical facts. • Psychologists use three major scientific methods: descriptive methods, correlational methods, and formal experiments.1.
- Descriptive methods include the use of surveys, naturalistic observation, and clinical methods to describe behaviour and mental processes; these help us to reach the goal of description.2.
- Correlational methods are used to study the relationships between variables; these help us to reach the goal of prediction.3.
Formal experiments can be used to reach conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships between variables; these help us to reach the goals of understanding and influencing behaviour. • Different methods are used for the collection of information, e.g., observation, experiment, correlational research, survey research, case study etc.
- Observation method refers to employing systematic, organised and objective procedures to record behavioural phenomena occuring naturally in real time.
- It may be naturalistic vs controlled and participant vas non-participant.
- The experimental method helps in establishing cause-effect relationship.
- Experiment refers to a series of observations conducted under controlled conditions to investigate the causal relationship between selected variables.
It involves the manipulation of an independent variable in order to see its effect on a dependent variable. There are three types of experiments: the laboratory experiment, the field experiment and the natural experiment/quasi experiment. • In most of the Psychological measurement the individual differences in one ability are often related to individual differences in other abilities.
Correlational research indicates a relationship between two variables. The correlation between two variables may range from +1.00 through 0.0 to -1.00. The coefficient of correlation is of three types: positive, negative and zero. Correlation simply provide a numerical value of relationship, it never explains the cause of relationship.
• The focus of survey research and interviews is to inform about the existing reality. The investigator make use of questionnaire, interviews and ratings to obtain information about a particular area. • Surveys are generally remote, in that respondants do not have an interviewer present, whereas interviews involve face to face interaction.
The questionnaire is very common, simple, versatile and low cost self report method of collecting data. Surveys are also conducted through telephonic survey. • Psychological tests have been devised and are primarily used for the determination and analysis of individual differences in general intelligence, differential aptitudes, educational achievement, vocational fitness, personality, social attitudes and non intellectual characteristics.
• A Psychological test is a standardised and objective tool which is used to assess an individual’s abilities and personality characteristics in relation to others. A good psychological test should have high reliability, high validity and representative norms.
- Psychological tests can be categorised on language basis as Verbal, Non Verbal and Performance tests.
- On the basis of administration Psychological tests are divided into individual and group tests.
- These tests can also be classified as speed or power tests.
- Case study is another important technique to understand human behaviour.
It is an attempt to explore, in some considerable depth, the behaviour and experiences of an individual. These are based on data generated by different methods e.g., Interview, Observation, Questionnaire and Psychological tests. Case studies are developed of individuals, organisations, small group of individuals, institutions and specific events.
- In Psychological researches the data may be analysed through qualitative as well as quantitative methods.
- Lack of absolute zero, relative nature of Psychological tools and subjective interpretation of qualitative data are some of the limitations of Psychological inquiry.
- Ethical principles of voluntary participation of the subjects, their informed consent, and sharing of results with the participants must be followed by a researcher.
•, Experiments usually involve at least one experimental group (which receives the independent variable) and a control group. • Differences between the groups in the dependent variable can be said to be caused by the independent variable. • Ethical research carefully protects the rights of participants.
Research using humans is considered to be ethical when the following conditions are met.1. Individuals are asked to participate without coercion (force).2. Individuals are informed about the nature of the experiment before giving consent to participate.3. Unnecessary deception of participants is avoided and carefully regulated when required.4.
The nature of the study is fully explained to the participant after the study is over.5. All information learned about the participant is kept confidential. • Statistics is that branch of mathematics which deals with numerical data. It deals with description, summarising and representation of data.
- The inferential statistics helps to draw conclusions from data.
- Psychologists use four levels of scales: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio.
- Nominal scale is at the lowest level and ratio the highest.
- The bar diagram represents distribution of categorical data, qualitative categories on a nominal or ordinal scale of measurement.
If the data are on a nominal scale the categories to be representted by the bars on x-axis could be in any meaningful order. • Frequency Polygon is a line figure which is used to represent data from a frequency distribution. It is a series of connected points above the midpoint of each class interval.
- Histogram is a bar graph that presents data from frequency distribution.
- Histogram as well as polygon are made when data are either on interval or ratio scale.
- A measure of central tendency helps to simplify comparison of two or more groups.
- There are three commonly used measures of central tendency: Arithmetic Mean, Median and Mode.
• The arithmetic mean is the sum of all the scores in a distribution divided by the total number of scores. • The median is the score value that divides the distribution into halves. It is such a value that half of the scores in the distribution fall below it and half of them fall above it.
The mode is the score value with the highest frequency. In an ungrouped data the mode is that single score which occurs in a distribution of scores most frequently. Words That Matter 1. Case study: A technique in which one person, event or organisation is studied in depth.2. Confidentiality: Researchers are responsible for keeping all of the data they collect completely anonymous.3.
Control group: Subjects in a study who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group.4. Correlational research: Research with the goal of describing the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics or variables.5.
Data: Qualitative and quantitative information related to mental processes and behaviour, gathered from individuals.6. Debriefing: The procedure for informing a participant of the actual intent of an experiment after its successful completion. It is specially required if the participant was seriously misled during the conduct of experiment.7.
Dependent variable: The factor that is measured in an experiment; it changes because of the manipulation of the independent variable.8. Experimental group: The subjects in study who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable.9.
- Experiment: A series of observations conducted under controlled conditions to investigate the causal relationship between selected variable.10.
- Group test: A test administered to several people at one time by a single tester.11.
- Hypothesis: A tentative statement of the relationship between variables as answer to the research questions.12.
Enculturation: All learning that takes place without direct, deliberate teaching.13. Independent variable: The event or situation manipulated by an experimenter to see if it will have a predicted effect on some other event or situation.14. Individual test: A test which Can be administered to only one person at a time.
The Standford-Binet and the Wechsler intelligence tests are examples of individual tests.15. Interview: A face-to face dialogue for the purpose of obtaining information, establishing a diagnosis, assessing interpersonal behaviour and personality characteristics, or counseling the individual.16. Negative correlation: Relationship between two variables in which as one variable goes up, the other goes down.17.
Norm: Standard or “value or criteria, based on measurements of a large group of people used in interpreting scores on psychological tests; in social psychology, the group standard for approved behaviour.18. Objectivity: If two or more persons independently study a particular event, both of them, to a great extent, should arrive at the same conclusion.
- 19. Observation: The intentional examination and recording of an object or process as it occurs.20.
- Performance tests: Tests that do not involve language.21.
- Psychological test: A standardised and objective tool to assess psychology attributes of a Sample of a person’s behaviour.22.
- Positive correlation: Two or more than two variables have some common features.23.
Qualitative method: Psychologists use method in which data is interpreted in terms of narrative analysis generally in descriptive forms like field notes, photographs, etc. Information is not available in form of scores.24. Quantitative method: Responses and analysis of the data is based on statistical calculations in terms of scores or in scaled form.
- Scores are expressed in the strength and magnitude of the response.25.
- Questionnaire: Set of questions.
- Most common, simple, versatile and low-cost self-report method of collecting information.26.
- Reliability: A statement about the degree of consistency of a measurement technique.
- Reliable techniques yield similar measure upon repeated measurement under similar conditions.27.
Speed Test: A test which evaluates the individual on the basis of time taken to answer the items accurately.28. Power Test: Test which assess the underlying ability of the individuals by allowing them sufficient time.29. Survey: A research method utilising written questionnaires or personal interviews to obtain data of a given population.30.
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What is psychology class 11 Brainly?
Psychology is the study of mental functions and human behavior in all its forms. Psychology is the study of human behavior and human relationships and is the positive science of behavior.
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What is psychology and its types?
Psychology is the study of behavior and the mind. There are different types of psychology, such as cognitive, forensic, social, and developmental psychology. A person with a condition that affects their mental health may benefit from assessment and treatment with a psychologist.
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What is important psychology in sports?
What sport psychologists do – Some athletes seek help from a sport psychologist or other exercise and sport psychology professional when they have a problem. They might become anxious or lose focus during competition, for example. They might have trouble communicating with teammates, controlling their temper, or even just motivating themselves to exercise.
Enhance performance. Various mental strategies, such as visualization, self-talk and relaxation techniques, can help athletes overcome obstacles and achieve their full potential. Cope with the pressures of competition. Sport psychologists can help athletes at all levels deal with pressure from parents, coaches, or even their own expectations. Recover from injuries. After an injury, athletes may need help tolerating pain, adhering to their physical therapy regimens, or adjusting to being sidelined. Keep up an exercise program. Even those who want to exercise regularly may find themselves unable to fulfill their goal. Sport psychologists can help these individuals increase their motivation and tackle any related concerns. Enjoy sports. Sports organizations for young people may hire a sport psychologist to educate coaches about how to help kids enjoy sports and how to promote healthy self-esteem in participants.
Sports psychology can even help people off the playing field, The same strategies that sport psychologists teach athletes—relaxation techniques, mental rehearsals and cognitive restructuring, for example—are also useful in the workplace and other settings.
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Is psychology Class 11 easy?
Psychology class 11 textbook should be selected carefully. Psychology class 11 is not difficult, students can easily understand it. Psychology class 11 is an interesting subject which students should study with concentration. NCERT Textbook for Class 11 Psychology is a helpful resource for students studying for the 11th Class Examination.
Understand and digitize school operations with Teachmint and its features like the performance management for efficient school management. All of the chapters in the Psychology topic are covered in both volumes of this NCERT Class 11 Psychology set. The focus of the discussion is on how people think, feel, act, and interact, as well as what motivates them.
Students of psychology investigate why people behave the way they do, how they respond to the world around them, and what factors impact their actions. These problems may be social, medical, cognitive, or emotional. Psychologists describe human behavior using scientific approaches.
Read the evaluation methodologies and outcomes. Also, read everything about the hybrid learning, Because they know what to look for, they study, evaluate, and use data to find trends. Psychologists use their knowledge to provide assistance and create positive change rather than merely understanding human behavior.
Biological psychology studies behavior genetics and hormonal influence, whereas social psychology studies humans through conditioning and environmental factors, observing how their behavior is influenced by others. The debate over whether someone’s actions are attributable to inherited or learned characteristics has raged for decades.
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What is the main topic of psychology?
All Psychology Topics – Are you in crisis? Specialists are available for confidential telephone counseling. The Go-To Science Psychologists examine the relationships between brain function and behavior, and the environment and behavior, applying what they learn to illuminate our understanding and improve the world around us. Science of Psychology Last updated: November 2022 Date created: June 2008
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Who Defined psychology?
Etymology and definitions – The word psychology derives from the Greek word psyche, for spirit or soul, The latter part of the word “psychology” derives from -λογία -logia, which refers to “study” or “research”. The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae ( Psychology, on the Nature of the Human Soul ) in the late 15th century or early 16th century.
The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary, The dictionary refers to “Anatomy, which treats the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul.” In 1890, William James defined psychology as “the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions.” This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades.
However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in 1913 asserted that the discipline is a “natural science”, the theoretical goal of which “is the prediction and control of behavior.” Since James defined “psychology”, the term more strongly implicates scientific experimentation,
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Is the first definition of psychology?
Learning Objectives – By the end of this section, you will be able to:
- Understand the importance of Wundt and James in the development of psychology
- Appreciate Freud’s influence on psychology
- Understand the basic tenets of Gestalt psychology
- Appreciate the important role that behaviorism played in psychology’s history
- Understand basic tenets of humanism
- Understand how the cognitive revolution shifted psychology’s focus back to the mind
Psychology is a relatively young science with its experimental roots in the 19th century, compared, for example, to human physiology, which dates much earlier. As mentioned, anyone interested in exploring issues related to the mind generally did so in a philosophical context prior to the 19th century.
Two men, working in the 19th century, are generally credited as being the founders of psychology as a science and academic discipline that was distinct from philosophy. Their names were Wilhelm Wundt and William James. This section will provide an overview of the shifts in paradigms that have influenced psychology from Wundt and James through today.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) was a German scientist who was the first person to be referred to as a psychologist. His famous book entitled Principles of Physiological Psychology was published in 1873. Wundt viewed psychology as a scientific study of conscious experience, and he believed that the goal of psychology was to identify components of consciousness and how those components combined to result in our conscious experience.
Wundt used introspection (he called it “internal perception”), a process by which someone examines their own conscious experience as objectively as possible, making the human mind like any other aspect of nature that a scientist observed. Wundt’s version of introspection used only very specific experimental conditions in which an external stimulus was designed to produce a scientifically observable (repeatable) experience of the mind (Danziger, 1980).
The first stringent requirement was the use of “trained” or practiced observers, who could immediately observe and report a reaction. The second requirement was the use of repeatable stimuli that always produced the same experience in the subject and allowed the subject to expect and thus be fully attentive to the inner reaction.
- These experimental requirements were put in place to eliminate “interpretation” in the reporting of internal experiences and to counter the argument that there is no way to know that an individual is observing their mind or consciousness accurately, since it cannot be seen by any other person.
- This attempt to understand the structure or characteristics of the mind was known as structuralism,
Wundt established his psychology laboratory at the University at Leipzig in 1879 ( ). In this laboratory, Wundt and his students conducted experiments on, for example, reaction times. A subject, sometimes in a room isolated from the scientist, would receive a stimulus such as a light, image, or sound.
The subject’s reaction to the stimulus would be to push a button, and an apparatus would record the time to reaction. Wundt could measure reaction time to one-thousandth of a second (Nicolas & Ferrand, 1999). (a) Wilhelm Wundt is credited as one of the founders of psychology. He created the first laboratory for psychological research.
(b) This photo shows him seated and surrounded by fellow researchers and equipment in his laboratory in Germany. However, despite his efforts to train individuals in the process of introspection, this process remained highly subjective, and there was very little agreement between individuals. As a result, structuralism fell out of favor with the passing of Wundt’s student, Edward Titchener, in 1927 (Gordon, 1995).
- William James (1842–1910) was the first American psychologist who espoused a different perspective on how psychology should operate ( ).
- James was introduced to Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection and accepted it as an explanation of an organism’s characteristics.
- Ey to that theory is the idea that natural selection leads to organisms that are adapted to their environment, including their behavior.
Adaptation means that a trait of an organism has a function for the survival and reproduction of the individual, because it has been naturally selected. As James saw it, psychology’s purpose was to study the function of behavior in the world, and as such, his perspective was known as functionalism,
- Functionalism focused on how mental activities helped an organism fit into its environment.
- Functionalism has a second, more subtle meaning in that functionalists were more interested in the operation of the whole mind rather than of its individual parts, which were the focus of structuralism.
- Like Wundt, James believed that introspection could serve as one means by which someone might study mental activities, but James also relied on more objective measures, including the use of various recording devices, and examinations of concrete products of mental activities and of anatomy and physiology (Gordon, 1995).
William James, shown here in a self-portrait, was the first American psychologist. Perhaps one of the most influential and well-known figures in psychology’s history was Sigmund Freud ( ). Freud (1856–1939) was an Austrian neurologist who was fascinated by patients suffering from “hysteria” and neurosis. Hysteria was an ancient diagnosis for disorders, primarily of women with a wide variety of symptoms, including physical symptoms and emotional disturbances, none of which had an apparent physical cause.
- Freud theorized that many of his patients’ problems arose from the unconscious mind.
- In Freud’s view, the unconscious mind was a repository of feelings and urges of which we have no awareness.
- Gaining access to the unconscious, then, was crucial to the successful resolution of the patient’s problems.
- According to Freud, the unconscious mind could be accessed through dream analysis, by examinations of the first words that came to people’s minds, and through seemingly innocent slips of the tongue.
Psychoanalytic theory focuses on the role of a person’s unconscious, as well as early childhood experiences, and this particular perspective dominated clinical psychology for several decades (Thorne & Henley, 2005). (a) Sigmund Freud was a highly influential figure in the history of psychology. Freud’s ideas were influential, and you will learn more about them when you study lifespan development, personality, and therapy. For instance, many therapists believe strongly in the unconscious and the impact of early childhood experiences on the rest of a person’s life.
- The method of psychoanalysis, which involves the patient talking about their experiences and selves, while not invented by Freud, was certainly popularized by him and is still used today.
- Many of Freud’s other ideas, however, are controversial.
- Drew Westen (1998) argues that many of the criticisms of Freud’s ideas are misplaced, in that they attack his older ideas without taking into account later writings.
Westen also argues that critics fail to consider the success of the broad ideas that Freud introduced or developed, such as the importance of childhood experiences in adult motivations, the role of unconscious versus conscious motivations in driving our behavior, the fact that motivations can cause conflicts that affect behavior, the effects of mental representations of ourselves and others in guiding our interactions, and the development of personality over time.
- Westen identifies subsequent research support for all of these ideas.
- More modern iterations of Freud’s clinical approach have been empirically demonstrated to be effective (Knekt et al., 2008; Shedler, 2010).
- Some current practices in psychotherapy involve examining unconscious aspects of the self and relationships, often through the relationship between the therapist and the client.
Freud’s historical significance and contributions to clinical practice merit his inclusion in a discussion of the historical movements within psychology. Max Wertheimer (1880–1943), Kurt Koffka (1886–1941), and Wolfgang Köhler (1887–1967) were three German psychologists who immigrated to the United States in the early 20th century to escape Nazi Germany.
These men are credited with introducing psychologists in the United States to various Gestalt principles. The word Gestalt roughly translates to “whole;” a major emphasis of Gestalt psychology deals with the fact that although a sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, how those parts relate to each other as a whole is often what the individual responds to in perception.
For example, a song may be made up of individual notes played by different instruments, but the real nature of the song is perceived in the combinations of these notes as they form the melody, rhythm, and harmony. In many ways, this particular perspective would have directly contradicted Wundt’s ideas of structuralism (Thorne & Henley, 2005).
Unfortunately, in moving to the United States, these men were forced to abandon much of their work and were unable to continue to conduct research on a large scale. These factors along with the rise of behaviorism (described next) in the United States prevented principles of Gestalt psychology from being as influential in the United States as they had been in their native Germany (Thorne & Henley, 2005).
Despite these issues, several Gestalt principles are still very influential today. Considering the human individual as a whole rather than as a sum of individually measured parts became an important foundation in humanistic theory late in the century.
- The ideas of Gestalt have continued to influence research on sensation and perception.
- Structuralism, Freud, and the Gestalt psychologists were all concerned in one way or another with describing and understanding inner experience.
- But other researchers had concerns that inner experience could be a legitimate subject of scientific inquiry and chose instead to exclusively study behavior, the objectively observable outcome of mental processes.
Early work in the field of behavior was conducted by the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936). Pavlov studied a form of learning behavior called a conditioned reflex, in which an animal or human produced a reflex (unconscious) response to a stimulus and, over time, was conditioned to produce the response to a different stimulus that the experimenter associated with the original stimulus.
The reflex Pavlov worked with was salivation in response to the presence of food. The salivation reflex could be elicited using a second stimulus, such as a specific sound, that was presented in association with the initial food stimulus several times. Once the response to the second stimulus was “learned,” the food stimulus could be omitted.
Pavlov’s “classical conditioning” is only one form of learning behavior studied by behaviorists. John B. Watson (1878–1958) was an influential American psychologist whose most famous work occurred during the early 20th century at Johns Hopkins University ( ).
- While Wundt and James were concerned with understanding conscious experience, Watson thought that the study of consciousness was flawed.
- Because he believed that objective analysis of the mind was impossible, Watson preferred to focus directly on observable behavior and try to bring that behavior under control.
Watson was a major proponent of shifting the focus of psychology from the mind to behavior, and this approach of observing and controlling behavior came to be known as behaviorism, A major object of study by behaviorists was learned behavior and its interaction with inborn qualities of the organism.
- Behaviorism commonly used animals in experiments under the assumption that what was learned using animal models could, to some degree, be applied to human behavior.
- Indeed, Tolman (1938) stated, “I believe that everything important in psychology (except such matters as involve society and words) can be investigated in essence through the continued experimental and theoretical analysis of the determiners of rat behavior at a choice-point in a maze.” John B.
Watson is known as the father of behaviorism within psychology. Behaviorism dominated experimental psychology for several decades, and its influence can still be felt today (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Behaviorism is largely responsible for establishing psychology as a scientific discipline through its objective methods and especially experimentation.
- In addition, it is used in behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy.
- Behavior modification is commonly used in classroom settings.
- Behaviorism has also led to research on environmental influences on human behavior.B.F.
- Skinner (1904–1990) was an American psychologist ( ).
- Like Watson, Skinner was a behaviorist, and he concentrated on how behavior was affected by its consequences.
Therefore, Skinner spoke of reinforcement and punishment as major factors in driving behavior. As a part of his research, Skinner developed a chamber that allowed the careful study of the principles of modifying behavior through reinforcement and punishment.
This device, known as an operant conditioning chamber (or more familiarly, a Skinner box), has remained a crucial resource for researchers studying behavior (Thorne & Henley, 2005). (a) B.F. Skinner is famous for his research on operant conditioning. (b) Modified versions of the operant conditioning chamber, or Skinner box, are still widely used in research settings today.
(credit a: modification of work by “Silly rabbit”/Wikimedia Commons) The Skinner box is a chamber that isolates the subject from the external environment and has a behavior indicator such as a lever or a button. When the animal pushes the button or lever, the box is able to deliver a positive reinforcement of the behavior (such as food) or a punishment (such as a noise) or a token conditioner (such as a light) that is correlated with either the positive reinforcement or punishment.
- Skinner’s focus on positive and negative reinforcement of learned behaviors had a lasting influence in psychology that has waned somewhat since the growth of research in cognitive psychology.
- Despite this, conditioned learning is still used in human behavioral modification.
- Skinner’s two widely read and controversial popular science books about the value of operant conditioning for creating happier lives remain as thought-provoking arguments for his approach (Greengrass, 2004).
During the early 20th century, American psychology was dominated by behaviorism and psychoanalysis. However, some psychologists were uncomfortable with what they viewed as limited perspectives being so influential to the field. They objected to the pessimism and determinism (all actions driven by the unconscious) of Freud.
- They also disliked the reductionism, or simplifying nature, of behaviorism.
- Behaviorism is also deterministic at its core, because it sees human behavior as entirely determined by a combination of genetics and environment.
- Some psychologists began to form their own ideas that emphasized personal control, intentionality, and a true predisposition for “good” as important for our self-concept and our behavior.
Thus, humanism emerged. Humanism is a perspective within psychology that emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all humans. Two of the most well-known proponents of humanistic psychology are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers (O’Hara, n.d.). Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) was an American psychologist who is best known for proposing a hierarchy of human needs in motivating behavior ( ).
Although this concept will be discussed in more detail in a later chapter, a brief overview will be provided here. Maslow asserted that so long as basic needs necessary for survival were met (e.g., food, water, shelter), higher-level needs (e.g., social needs) would begin to motivate behavior. According to Maslow, the highest-level needs relate to self-actualization, a process by which we achieve our full potential.
Obviously, the focus on the positive aspects of human nature that are characteristic of the humanistic perspective is evident (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Humanistic psychologists rejected, on principle, the research approach based on reductionist experimentation in the tradition of the physical and biological sciences, because it missed the “whole” human being.
Beginning with Maslow and Rogers, there was an insistence on a humanistic research program. This program has been largely qualitative (not measurement-based), but there exist a number of quantitative research strains within humanistic psychology, including research on happiness, self-concept, meditation, and the outcomes of humanistic psychotherapy (Friedman, 2008).
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is shown. Carl Rogers (1902–1987) was also an American psychologist who, like Maslow, emphasized the potential for good that exists within all people ( ). Rogers used a therapeutic technique known as client-centered therapy in helping his clients deal with problematic issues that resulted in their seeking psychotherapy.
Unlike a psychoanalytic approach in which the therapist plays an important role in interpreting what conscious behavior reveals about the unconscious mind, client-centered therapy involves the patient taking a lead role in the therapy session. Rogers believed that a therapist needed to display three features to maximize the effectiveness of this particular approach: unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy.
Unconditional positive regard refers to the fact that the therapist accepts their client for who they are, no matter what he or she might say. Provided these factors, Rogers believed that people were more than capable of dealing with and working through their own issues (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Humanism has been influential to psychology as a whole. Both Maslow and Rogers are well-known names among students of psychology (you will read more about both men later in this text), and their ideas have influenced many scholars. Furthermore, Rogers’ client-centered approach to therapy is still commonly used in psychotherapeutic settings today (O’hara, n.d.) View a brief video of Carl Rogers describing his therapeutic approach. Behaviorism’s emphasis on objectivity and focus on external behavior had pulled psychologists’ attention away from the mind for a prolonged period of time. The early work of the humanistic psychologists redirected attention to the individual human as a whole, and as a conscious and self-aware being.
By the 1950s, new disciplinary perspectives in linguistics, neuroscience, and computer science were emerging, and these areas revived interest in the mind as a focus of scientific inquiry. This particular perspective has come to be known as the cognitive revolution (Miller, 2003). By 1967, Ulric Neisser published the first textbook entitled Cognitive Psychology, which served as a core text in cognitive psychology courses around the country (Thorne & Henley, 2005).
Although no one person is entirely responsible for starting the cognitive revolution, Noam Chomsky was very influential in the early days of this movement ( ). Chomsky (1928–), an American linguist, was dissatisfied with the influence that behaviorism had had on psychology.
He believed that psychology’s focus on behavior was short-sighted and that the field had to re-incorporate mental functioning into its purview if it were to offer any meaningful contributions to understanding behavior (Miller, 2003). Noam Chomsky was very influential in beginning the cognitive revolution.
In 2010, this mural honoring him was put up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (credit: Robert Moran) European psychology had never really been as influenced by behaviorism as had American psychology; and thus, the cognitive revolution helped reestablish lines of communication between European psychologists and their American counterparts. Furthermore, psychologists began to cooperate with scientists in other fields, like anthropology, linguistics, computer science, and neuroscience, among others.
This interdisciplinary approach often was referred to as the cognitive sciences, and the influence and prominence of this particular perspective resonates in modern-day psychology (Miller, 2003). Feminist Psychology The science of psychology has had an impact on human wellbeing, both positive and negative.
The dominant influence of Western, white, and male academics in the early history of psychology meant that psychology developed with the biases inherent in those individuals, which often had negative consequences for members of society that were not white or male.
Women, members of ethnic minorities in both the United States and other countries, and individuals with sexual orientations other than heterosexual had difficulties entering the field of psychology and therefore influencing its development. They also suffered from the attitudes of white, male psychologists, who were not immune to the nonscientific attitudes prevalent in the society in which they developed and worked.
Until the 1960s, the science of psychology was largely a “womanless” psychology (Crawford & Marecek, 1989), meaning that few women were able to practice psychology, so they had little influence on what was studied. In addition, the experimental subjects of psychology were mostly men, which resulted from underlying assumptions that gender had no influence on psychology and that women were not of sufficient interest to study.
An article by Naomi Weisstein, first published in 1968 (Weisstein, 1993), stimulated a feminist revolution in psychology by presenting a critique of psychology as a science. She also specifically criticized male psychologists for constructing the psychology of women entirely out of their own cultural biases and without careful experimental tests to verify any of their characterizations of women.
Weisstein used, as examples, statements by prominent psychologists in the 1960s, such as this quote by Bruno Bettleheim: “. we must start with the realization that, as much as women want to be good scientists or engineers, they want first and foremost to be womanly companions of men and to be mothers.” Weisstein’s critique formed the foundation for the subsequent development of a feminist psychology that attempted to be free of the influence of male cultural biases on our knowledge of the psychology of women and, indeed, of both genders.
Crawford & Marecek (1989) identify several feminist approaches to psychology that can be described as feminist psychology. These include re-evaluating and discovering the contributions of women to the history of psychology, studying psychological gender differences, and questioning the male bias present across the practice of the scientific approach to knowledge.
Culture has important impacts on individuals and social psychology, yet the effects of culture on psychology are under-studied. There is a risk that psychological theories and data derived from white, American settings could be assumed to apply to individuals and social groups from other cultures and this is unlikely to be true (Betancourt & López, 1993).
One weakness in the field of cross-cultural psychology is that in looking for differences in psychological attributes across cultures, there remains a need to go beyond simple descriptive statistics (Betancourt & López, 1993). In this sense, it has remained a descriptive science, rather than one seeking to determine cause and effect.
For example, a study of characteristics of individuals seeking treatment for a binge eating disorder in Hispanic American, African American, and Caucasian American individuals found significant differences between groups (Franko et al., 2012). The study concluded that results from studying any one of the groups could not be extended to the other groups, and yet potential causes of the differences were not measured.
- This history of multicultural psychology in the United States is a long one.
- The role of African American psychologists in researching the cultural differences between African American individual and social psychology is but one example.
- In 1920, Cecil Sumner was the first African American to receive a PhD in psychology in the United States.
Sumner established a psychology degree program at Howard University, leading to the education of a new generation of African American psychologists (Black, Spence, and Omari, 2004). Much of the work of early African American psychologists (and a general focus of much work in first half of the 20th century in psychology in the United States) was dedicated to testing and intelligence testing in particular (Black et al., 2004).
That emphasis has continued, particularly because of the importance of testing in determining opportunities for children, but other areas of exploration in African-American psychology research include learning style, sense of community and belonging, and spiritualism (Black et al., 2004). The American Psychological Association has several ethnically based organizations for professional psychologists that facilitate interactions among members.
Since psychologists belonging to specific ethnic groups or cultures have the most interest in studying the psychology of their communities, these organizations provide an opportunity for the growth of research on the impact of culture on individual and social psychology. Read a news story about the influence of an African American’s psychology research on the historic Brown v. Board of Education civil rights case. Before the time of Wundt and James, questions about the mind were considered by philosophers. However, both Wundt and James helped create psychology as a distinct scientific discipline.
Wundt was a structuralist, which meant he believed that our cognitive experience was best understood by breaking that experience into its component parts. He thought this was best accomplished by introspection. William James was the first American psychologist, and he was a proponent of functionalism.
This particular perspective focused on how mental activities served as adaptive responses to an organism’s environment. Like Wundt, James also relied on introspection; however, his research approach also incorporated more objective measures as well. Sigmund Freud believed that understanding the unconscious mind was absolutely critical to understand conscious behavior.
- This was especially true for individuals that he saw who suffered from various hysterias and neuroses.
- Freud relied on dream analysis, slips of the tongue, and free association as means to access the unconscious.
- Psychoanalytic theory remained a dominant force in clinical psychology for several decades.
Gestalt psychology was very influential in Europe. Gestalt psychology takes a holistic view of an individual and his experiences. As the Nazis came to power in Germany, Wertheimer, Koffka, and Köhler immigrated to the United States. Although they left their laboratories and their research behind, they did introduce America to Gestalt ideas.
Some of the principles of Gestalt psychology are still very influential in the study of sensation and perception. One of the most influential schools of thought within psychology’s history was behaviorism. Behaviorism focused on making psychology an objective science by studying overt behavior and deemphasizing the importance of unobservable mental processes.
John Watson is often considered the father of behaviorism, and B.F. Skinner’s contributions to our understanding of principles of operant conditioning cannot be underestimated. As behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory took hold of so many aspects of psychology, some began to become dissatisfied with psychology’s picture of human nature.
Thus, a humanistic movement within psychology began to take hold. Humanism focuses on the potential of all people for good. Both Maslow and Rogers were influential in shaping humanistic psychology. During the 1950s, the landscape of psychology began to change. A science of behavior began to shift back to its roots of focus on mental processes.
The emergence of neuroscience and computer science aided this transition. Ultimately, the cognitive revolution took hold, and people came to realize that cognition was crucial to a true appreciation and understanding of behavior. Based on your reading, which theorist would have been most likely to agree with this statement: Perceptual phenomena are best understood as a combination of their components.
- William James
- Max Wertheimer
- Carl Rogers
- Noam Chomsky
B _ is most well-known for proposing his hierarchy of needs.
- Noam Chomsky
- Carl Rogers
- Abraham Maslow
- Sigmund Freud
C Rogers believed that providing genuineness, empathy, and _ in the therapeutic environment for his clients was critical to their being able to deal with their problems.
- unconditional positive regard
D The operant conditioning chamber (aka _ box) is a device used to study the principles of operant conditioning.
A How did the object of study in psychology change over the history of the field since the 19th century? In its early days, psychology could be defined as the scientific study of mind or mental processes. Over time, psychology began to shift more towards the scientific study of behavior.
However, as the cognitive revolution took hold, psychology once again began to focus on mental processes as necessary to the understanding of behavior. In part, what aspect of psychology was the behaviorist approach to psychology a reaction to? Behaviorists studied objectively observable behavior partly in reaction to the psychologists of the mind who were studying things that were not directly observable.
Freud is probably one of the most well-known historical figures in psychology. Where have you encountered references to Freud or his ideas about the role that the unconscious mind plays in determining conscious behavior?
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What is psychology in PDF?
Psychology is the science of mental behavior and the human mind, and the professional. application of such knowledge toward the greater good. This deﬁnition contains several key elements that need to be elaborated upon.
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What is Fullform of psychology?
: the science of mind and behavior. : the mental or behavioral characteristics of an individual or group. : the study of mind and behavior in relation to a particular field of knowledge or activity.
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What is data in psychology class 11?
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Psychology Chapter 2 Methods of Enquiry in Psychology Question 1. What are the goals of scientific enquiry? Answer: There exists diversity in types of researches or studies undertaken by psychologists but they all seem to share some common goals of enquiry, which are as follows-:
- This helps to define the phenomena and distinguish it from other phenomenas.
- Description is necessary because any event or behaviour may have many aspects.
- For example, the idea of entertainment varies from reading books to going to pubs, depending on the individual.
- The recording of event or behaviour is an integral part of description.
- Prediction means forecasting of events.
- It establishes relationship between two variables.
- For example, one might say exercising leads to weight loss.
- In psychology all predictions are made within a certain margin of error i.e. they are not pin-pointed or exact.
- Explanation involves knowing the cause or the reason behind the behaviour.
- It also tries to understand the conditions under which a particular behaviour occurs. For example, a child behaves rudely whenever he is disturbed so his disturbances become the cause of his rude behaviour.
- Control means creating change in the phenomenon or behavior.
- It refers to making behaviour happen, reduction in it or enhancement in it.
- The changes produced by psychological treatment in terms of therapy are good examples of control.
- Psychological researches are often conducted to solve various problems faced by file society.
- Psychology helps in solving problem at individual, organizational or community level.
- For example, therapies are provided to individuals and counseling is also there to help them.
- At file organizational level, various psychological concepts like work motivation are used to enhance performance. At file community level, counseling is provided to help people engage in various, helpful and eco-friendly behaviours.
Question 2. Describe the various steps involved in conducting a scientific enquiry. Answer: Scientific research or study is a clearly defined process that goes through a series of steps—
- Conceptualising a problem
- The process begins when a researcher selects a theme or topic for study.
- Then the research questions or problems for the study are formulated.
- Problem is based on the review of past researches, observations and personal experiences.
- Problem indicates the relationship between variables. For example, what is the relationship between reward and classroom learning?
- After formulation of problem, the hypothesis is formed, which is the tentative and testable statement about the relationship between two variables. For example, increased amount of reward will lead to betterment in learning.
- Collecting data
- Data collection requires developing a research design or a blueprint of the entire study.
- Participants of the study are decided, depending on the nature of study, they could be children, adolescents, college students, teachers, workers, elder people etc.
- Methods of data collection like observation, experimental, correlational method etc are decided.
- The next decision is taken about the tools to be used, like interview schedule,. questionnaire, survey etc.
- Procedure for data collection is decided i.e. how the tools need to be administered to collect data i.e. individual to collect data i.e. individual or group administration.
- This is followed by actual data collection.
- Drawing conclusions
- The next step is to analyse data to understand its meaning.
- The graphical representation of data is made using, bar diagram, pie chart, histogram, mean, median, mode, standard deviation etc.
- The purpose of analysis is to verify a hypothesis and draw conclusions accordingly.
- Revising research conclusions
- The research begins with the hypothesis.
- Then researcher sees whether the conclusions support this hypothesis or not.
- If conclusions support the hypothesis then it is confirmed.
- If it is not confirmed researcher revises or states an alternative hypothesis/theory and again tests it and the same process continues.
Question 3. Explain the nature of psychological data. Answer: Data is any information related to mental processes, experiences and behaviour, collected by using various tools. Psychological data are of different types, such as-:
- Demographic information This information includes personal information related to a particular individual. This includes name, age, gender, education, marital status, residence, caste, religion, income etc, which are personally relevant.
- Physical information This includes information pertaining to physical environment i.e. ecological condition. It also includes information about economy, housing conditions, facilities at the home, in the school, transportation etc.
- Physiological data This is related to Biological data. For example, height, weight, heart rate, level of fatigue, EEG, reaction time, sleep, blood pressure etc is collected. Data related to animal’s biological functioning is also collected.
- Psychological information This includes data regarding psychological functioning of individual. It involves data about intelligence, personality, attitudes, values, emotions, motivation, psychological dysfunctions, consciousness etc. Thus obtained data is divided into various categories, so that it can be analysed using statistical measures.
Question 4. How do experimental and control group differ? Explain with the help of an example. Answer:
- Experimental group: The subjects in study who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable. In an experiment this group is administered the independent variable (the variable that is manipulated to see its effect on any other variable under study).
- Control Group: control group is a comparison group.
- The independent variable is not administered on this group.
- Subjects in a study who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group.
The purpose is to see whether any difference occur in two groups as a result of application of independent variable on experimental group. For example, suppose, an experiment is carried out to study the effect of presence of others on helpful behaviour, one participant was put in a situation requiring help, say, someone drowning in swimming pool, here five other people were also present, another participant was alone in the emergency situation.
- In an experiment except for the experimental manipulation, other conditions are kept constant for both the groups.
- Question 5.
- A researcher is studying relationship between speed of cycling and the presence of people.
- Formulate a relevant hypothesis and identify the independent and dependent variables.
- Variable: It is any stimulus or event which varies or can take on different valves can be measure e.g. weight, height.
- Hypothesis: It is a tentative and testable statement which expresses relation between two or more than two variables, e.g.: those who are rewarded shall require lesser number of trials to learn than those who are not rewarded.
- Independent variable: It is the variable which is systematically manipulated or altered in an experiment. It is the cause.
- Dependent variable: It is the variable that is measured in an experiment. It is the effect.
- As per the question: Hypothesis. Presence of others will enhance the speed of cycling. Independent variable. Presence of others Dependent variable. Speed of cycling
Question 6.Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of experimental method as a method of enquiry. Answer: Experimental method is aimed at discovering causal relationship between various factors by manipulating the situation under totally controlled conditions. Characterstics:
- Experimentation involves manipulation of variables to study their effect on other aspects.
- Experiments are carried out in totally controlled condition.
- Subjects or individuals are assigned to experimental and control group, randomly.
- All factors other than manipulated variable that might affect the dependent variable are kept constant.
- Experimental method aims at establishing cause-effect relationship between the variables.
- Replication and verification of obtained result is possible.
- The investigator can manipulate the independent variable according to the demands of the situation.
- It can be performed at any time.
- It is very objective—No personal bias exists.
- Experiments are conducted in a very artificial and unrealistic situations-the setting is not natural.
- They lack external validity i.e. generalizability. Since they are not done in natural settings, the results can’t be generalized with confidence.
- It is difficult to control and know all extraneous variables like – motivation, emotion, state etc.
- It is not always possible to study a problem experimentally. For example, personality can’t be studied experimentally.
Question 7. Dr. Krishnan is going to observe and record children’s play behaviour at a nursery school without attempting to influence or control the behaviour. Which method of research is involved? Explain the process and discuss its merits and demerits.
Answer: Dr. Krishnan would use the method of non-participant observation to observe and record children’s behaviour at play without attempting to influence or control the behaviour. He would sit in a corner and observe the children’s behaviour without them being aware of it. He would note the behaviour of children while playing, how ‘ they interact with each other and their reaction towards winning or losing.
He would collect all the data in a file and then match the conclusion with the hypothesis. Merits of non-participant observation:
- The researcher observes the people and their behaviour in naturalistic settings.
- The observer can get first hand information regarding the subject.
- This method is time consuming, labour intensive and subject to personal biases.
- The researcher may interpret the behaviour based on personal values.
Question 8. Give two examples of the situations where survey method can be used. What are the limitations of this method? Answer: Survey Method is a research method utilizing written questionnaires or personal interviews to obtain data of a given population. For example: Surveys are used in variety of situations such as
- They can be used in political regime to know whether people approve or disapprove any particular policy of government, say for example, policy of reservation in higher education or Nuclear deal with America in recent times.
- They are used during elections also to know who will people vote to.
- Surveys can also be used to test hypothesis about the relationship among variables. One may try to find out the effect of some event on people’s behaviour. For example – Surveys have been conducted after the earthquake at Bhuj in Gujarat to find out the impact of earthquake on people’s lives.
- In marketing area, before launching a product surveys are often conducted. They are used to assess people’s attitude on various social issues such as family planning and gender equality.
- The major difficulty is the issue of accuracy and honesty of the responses as the respondents attempt to create favourable impression – faking is possible.
- Surveyor’s bias also affects the results. He/she may ask the question in such a way as to elicit desired response.
- Surveys remain at the surface and it does not penetrate into the depth of the problem. They are time-consuming and expensive.
- These techniques make the respondent conscious. So he/she may mould his/her responses.
- Survey demand expertise, research knowledge and competence on the part of the researcher. Most of the survey researchers don’t possess these qualities in the required amount. This invalidates the quality of survey.
- Sample selected might not be the true representative of the population.
Question 9. Differentiate between interview and questionnaire. Answer: Interview :
- Interview is a face to face interaction between two people
- They can be structured or unstructured
- Interviews are flexible; questions can be added or altered.
- Interviewer can dig deeper by posing counter question and by noticing non-verbal clues.
- They are subjective in nature.
- It is not a good tool for those who can’t express themselves verbally
- It requires highly skilled person as interviewer.
- It consists of a form containing a series of questions where the respondents themselves fill in the answers.
- Questionnaire is always structured.
- It is not possible to know anything more that what is asked in the question.
- They are highly objective.
- Sometimes someone else can also fill in the questionnaire other than the target person.
- Clarification of questions is sometimes not possible.
- They can be administered to a large number of people at a time.
- Comparatively less skilled person can do the Interpretation.
Question 10. Explain the characteristics of a standardised test. Answer: Characteristics of a standardised test:
- Reliability: Reliability refers to the consistency of scores obtained by an individual on the same test on different occasions. If the test is reliable, these showed not be any variation in the scores obtained by the students on the 2 occasions. For this we can complete the following: (i)Test-retest reliability: it indicates the temporal stability. It is computed by finding out co-efficient of correlation b/w the 2 sets of same people. (ii) Split-half reliability: It gives an indication about the degree of intends, consistency of the test.,
- Validity: For a test to be usable, it must be valid. Validity refers to the question “does the test measure what it claims to measures”.E.g. If a test is for assessment intelligence, it should only be testing intelligence and not aptitude.
- Norms: A test becomes standardized if norms are developed for the test, norm is the normal average performance of the group. The test is administered on a large number of students. Their average performance standards are based in their age, sex, place of residence, etc. this helps us in compassion of performance of groups and individual students.
Question 11. Describe the limitations of psychological enquiry. Answer: LIMITATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ENQUIRY:
- Lack of true zero point Psychological measurements do not have a true zero point like physical sciences. For example, there is no zero interest, attitude or personality. So the measurements are not absolute, they are relative in nature. Sometimes ranks are also used as scores.
- Relative nature of psychological tools Psychological tests, Questionnaire etc. are not universally applied; they are made for particular context. Tools developed in urban context may not be applied in rural area, also western tests and other tools may not apply elsewhere.
- Subjective interpretation qualitative data The data which can’t be categorized or quantified in scores or ranks, runs the risk of subjective (individual, personal) interpretation.Every researcher may give different meanings to data.
Question 12.What are the ethical guidelines that a psychologist needs to follow while conducting a psychological enquiry? Answer: Since psychology largely deals with human beings, so the researchers need to follow some moral principles which are as follows:
- Voluntary participation
- This means that participants have the freedom to choose whether to participate in the study or not.
- Use of force or coercion or any other pressure should not be used.
- Participants should have the right to withdraw from study any time without penalty.
- Informed consent
- Participants in a study should understand what treatment they will undergo during study.
- This information should be given before the study/research starts.
- If at times it is not possible to reveal all the information, they should be at least explained the nature of study before it starts.
- Sometimes due to the nature of the study it becomes necessary to withhold some information from the participants, this is known as deception.
- So after the study is over the participants are given complete information to complete their understanding of research. For example, suppose a researcher wants to study the relationship between frustration and aggression, the participants will not be informed that they’ll be put in a frustrating situation; otherwise experiment or study will have no conclusions; so here deception is necessary. However, after it is over they should be told that they were aroused deliberately., Why was it done should also be explained.
- It ensures that the participants leave the study in the same physical or mental state as when they entered.
- Efforts should be made to remove any anxiety or other adverse effects from the minds of the participants as a result of being deceived in the study.
- Sharing the results of the study It is obligatory for the researcher to go to the participants and share the results of study with them. Participants expect that the results of study done with them will be told to them, they want to know about their behaviour and where do they fall as compared to others. It has two advantages-:
- One, researchers full fill the expectations of the participants.
- Second, the participants may tell the researcher about something else which may provide supplementary information.
- Confidentiality of data sources
- The participants have right to privacy.
- This right is protected by keeping the information provided by them in strict confidence.
- It becomes more important if the information is personal and may become embarrassing if revealed.
- The information should be used for the purpose of research only.
- To maintain confidentiality one should not record their identities.
- Sometimes identity is required, in such cases code numbers should be given on the data sheet and the names and their codes should be kept separately.
: NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Psychology Chapter 2 Methods of Enquiry in Psychology
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What is the meaning of psychology in physical education class 12?
Psychology And Sports – Psychology and sports deals with positive behavior of sportsperson during training and competition period to increase performance. It guides coaches and players to give individual attention regarding various method and various motivational techniques.
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What is the need and importance of psychology in physical education?
In psychological readiness, sports psychology plays an important role. Sports psychology is also helpful in the cognitive stage, the social-active stage and the autonomous stage of motor skill learning. Sports psychology helps in understanding the behavior of athletes or sportspersons engaged in competitive sports.
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What is the best definition of psychological?
1. adjective Psychological means concerned with a person’s mind and thoughts.
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