What Is Formal Agency Of Education?
503 Views Recommended : Get important details about Jammu University. Download Brochure Answer (1) HI, Formal agencies are those institutions and organizations which are set up by the society deliberately with the exclusive aim imparting definite and ready-made tidbits of knowledge in a specified time under a structured environment.
- There are well-defined aims and objectives, specific curriculum, definite teachers and students, definite and fixed time and place in such agencies.
- In short, everything or every aspects of education are pre-planned or planned in advance.
- Such agencies include school, college, university, library, religious institution, the recreation club, the museum, picture and art galleries, zoo, etc.
Informal agencies are those institutions which exercise a great educative influence upon the individuals indirectly and ceaselessly throughout their life. They are called indirect agencies influencing the behaviour of the individuals. Education is provided to the individuals informally and unconsciously.
- These agencies lack all formalities, rules, systematization, pre-planning, premeditation or training.
- There are not particular places or location for imparting education.
- Individuals learn incidentally and naturally by their own initiatives and efforts.
- Among the agencies of informal education are family, community, state, social gathering, play-ground, associations, religious ceremonies, crowds, market places, cinema house, news-paper, fairs, exhibitions, radio, television, public meeting, field trip etc.
Hope this helps. Good luck,
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- 0.1 What are formal agencies examples?
- 0.2 What is the name of formal agency?
- 0.3 Why is formal education important?
- 0.4 What is non-formal agency of education?
- 1 What is the example of formal and non-formal education?
- 2 What are the effects of formal education?
What is formal education and examples?
Formal education – Formal education refers to the structured education system that runs from primary (and in some countries from nursery) school to university, and includes specialised programmes for vocational, technical and professional training. Formal education often comprises an assessment of the learners’ acquired learning or competences and is based on a programme or curriculum which can be more or less closed to adaptation to individual needs and preferences.
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What are formal agencies examples?
Healthcare institutions, schools, business organizations, and churches are some of the common examples of formal organizations. Although formal organizations share basic characteristics, not all these formal organizations are similar. Generally, these can be categorized into coercive, normative, and utilitarian.
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What is the difference between formal and informal agencies of education?
The Role of Formal and Informal Education The role of formal and informal education (urbancow, iStockphoto) The role of formal and informal education (urbancow, iStockphoto) Formal education refers to systematic, curriculum-based, teacher-directed learning that happens within an institution such as a school, college, or university.
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What is the name of formal agency?
School, college, university are the examples of formal agencies of education.
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Why is formal education important?
Importance of Formal Education in our Society Billionaires such as Ritesh Agarwal (Founder & CEO, OYO rooms), Bill Gates (Co-founder, Microsoft) and Gautam Adani (Founder Chairman, Adani Group) are just a few examples of people who have achieved success without having a college degree. But education played a role in laying the foundation for their success.
- The basic knowledge and experiences gained are what allowed the wider picture to emerge in their later life.
- Although they are excellent role models despite being college dropouts, we must remember that they represent only a handful of success stories as opposed to the ‘nobody’ status of the majority of college dropouts in reality.
Let us also not forget that aspirations vary from person to person. Some dream of becoming an IAS or a doctor, whereas others might prefer a career in law, engineering etc. There are a variety of sought-after occupations that demand the fulfilment of prerequisite eligibilities, and formal education helps in this regard because it is legal, statutory, and recognized by the public, government, and society as a whole.
With the evolution of mankind in society, the scope of education has also broadened. Today, the nature of education can be segregated into two broad categories – formal education & informal education. In the premises of formal education, a child is imparted academic knowledge and training by specialised teachers, starting from school and all the way up to college/university level.
This type of education has universal applicability, which facilitates youths to learn within the scope of a planned, deliberate and systematic medium, as per their course of studies. The level of knowledge proficiency under formal education is assessed based on well-planned organised methods of assessment and evaluation.
- However, education can be acquired outside of standardised schooling norms, which fall under the scope of the informal education system.
- There is a lot to be learned outside the scope of formal studies, which can allow people to acquire an in-depth understanding of topics and lessons that are otherwise not taught in schools.
However, the existence of invaluable lessons that can be gained from informal education does not negate the purpose and importance of formal education. Formal education is still relevant and necessary for the holistic development of an individual. – Formal education is an attempt at the all-around development of a person, that can help them become responsible, passionate and productive citizens contributing to the advancement of our society.
- Early introduction to formal education has the ability to enhance the behavioural traits of a child in a way that is desirable in our society.
- This implies the indispensable impact of formal schooling on a child’s upbringing.
- This is perhaps the reason why we see visible differences in the behavioural and knowledge-aspects of two children brought up under two different circumstances – one with formal schooling, and one without.
– Formal education has the ability to change the course of a person from alienation, poverty and destitution, and bring them on a path to security, social belongingness and prosperity. It moulds the physical, intellectual, emotional and social characteristics of a person in a balanced manner.
Furthermore, formal education trains children to develop critical thinking and reasoning power, shaping them into good citizens, and improving their social standing and independence. Every child is born different. They have curiosity, urges and impulses of several kinds which constantly seek outlets.
Formal education provides a sense of direction for them through carefully established channels, enabling them to reach their desired goals. It is the primary task of educational institutions to tap into the latent abilities, potentials, interests, behaviour and needs of the children and bring them forward in the best possible platform.
- It is important to mention that educational institutions play a critical role in defining the career paths of the future working force of a nation.
- Teachers have the ability to guide students towards specialised fields after understanding the abilities and interests of individual students.
- The premise of formal education offers an excellent platform to foster such personalised guidance for students.
To be successful in all aspects of later years, a person needs to acquire some knowledge, skills, attitude and interests. Apart from assisting the child in laying a strong foundation for further and broader scope of education, formal education provides opportunities for social learning, group learning, group works, games and sports, dramatics, debates, discussions, cultural programmes, modes and various forms of democracy.
- They learn cooperation, understanding, friendship, tolerance, cordial manners and all such qualities essential for a successful living in society.
- So, the function of schooling is not limited to only individual development, but it also helps shape social development.
- Educational institutions also facilitate the new generation to get acquainted with the history, literature, customs, traditions, beliefs, ancient myths and legends of the society and the world.
It enables us to protect and preserve society’s events and achievements in the past and pass along the knowledge to the younger generation. Through schooling, it prepares children for the future by inheriting, enriching, preserving and transmitting culture and values.
- The rules, principles and regulations that govern the functioning of institutions also impart valuable lessons on discipline, time management, punctuality, responsibility, morality, social values and more.
- With the accommodation of extra-curricular and co-curricular activities, the educational institutions promote national unity and integrity.
The teachers through their practical efficiency, skills, and competency mould the behaviour of students into a desirable form by imparting socially desirable knowledge, skills and providing socially desirable experiences. However, the knowledge & skill-based proficiency of two educated people can vary depending on their financial situation and the environment in which they learn.
- In comparison to public school students who mostly get to learn in a generic learning environment, students of private schools may receive better privileges & refined learning experiences, leading to global exposure early on.
- Nonetheless, the formal schooling structure is designed in such a manner that every child receives equal opportunities to receive higher education at premier institutions of national and international repute, such as the IITs, NITs, Harvard, Oxford, MIT, etc.
Merit-based scholarships are made available to enable bright students with financial constraints to pursue higher education of their choice without being burdened with the cost involved. India has come a long way since its struggle for freedom and made great strides in its development.
Today, the lag in research & technology that once existed is being rapidly bridged with continuous development and investments to improve and widen the spectrum of education in India. The introduction of NEP 2020 by the Govt. of India is an excellent example of supporting this. Further, additional measures are being taken actively to bring reforms in the educational scenario and better serve the students of our nation.
The best of talents and the majority of the self-reliant citizens of our nation have got their education to thank for the exposure they have received in their respective lives. We have a rich history of producing talented scientists, CEOs, business people and more who have had a positive impact on societies around the world.
Adding on, education has had a significant impact on social reformations and progress in India. It has allowed women in the country to be more independent. It has had a positive impact on poverty alleviation by helping people become more self-sufficient and self-reliant. It has also facilitated the eradication of social evils and superstitions through awareness buildup in society.
In a nutshell, the role of formal education isn’t just to provide a means to livelihood for an individual but to rebuild our society and bring sustainable solutions to light, for the collective benefit of all. : Importance of Formal Education in our Society
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What is non-formal agency of education?
Introduction – Non-formal education refers to education that occurs outside the formal school system. Non-formal education is often used interchangeably with terms such as community education, adult education, lifelong education and second-chance education.
It refers to a wide range of educational initiatives in the community, ranging from home-based learning to government schemes and community initiatives. It includes accredited courses run by well-established institutions as well as locally based operations with little funding. As non-formal education is diverse, this element has many aspects in common with other elements, particularly Lifelong learning.
For the purposes of these guidelines, this element focuses on non-formal education for children and young people outside the regular school system. However, CBR personnel need to be aware that non-formal education reinforces marginalization and stigmatization, so if possible it should not be offered as the only educational option for children with disabilities.
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What is difference between formal and informal?
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Go to Homepage Departments Writing Center Tutorials Formal vs. Informal Language
What is the difference between formal and informal language? Formal and informal language serve different purposes in written communications depending on the reader (Audience) and reason for writing (Purpose). The tone, the choice of words and the way the words are put together vary between the two different styles.
- Formal language is less personal than informal language.
- It is used when writing for professional or academic purposes like graduate school assignments.
- Formal language does not use colloquialisms, contractions or first-person pronouns such as “I” or “We.” Informal language is more casual and spontaneous.
It is used when communicating with friends or family either in writing or in conversation. It is used when writing personal emails, text messages and in some business correspondence. The tone of informal language is more personal than formal language. Examples of formal and informal language are shown below:
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What is the example of formal and non-formal education?
Looking to institutions: informal, non-formal and formal education – The most common way of contrasting informal and formal education derives from an administrative or institutional concern and includes a middle form – non-formal education. Back in the late 1960s there was an emerging analysis of what was seen as a ‘world educational crisis’ (Coombs 1968).
- There was concern about unsuitable curricula; a realization that educational growth and economic growth were not necessarily in step, and that jobs did not emerge directly as a result of educational inputs.
- Many countries were finding it difficult (politically or economically) to pay for the expansion of formal education.
The conclusion was that formal educational systems had adapted too slowly to the socio-economic changes around them and that they were held back not only by their own conservatism, but also by the inertia of societies themselves It was from this point of departure that planners and economists in the World Bank began to make a distinction between informal, non-formal and formal education.
- Fordham 1993: 2) At around the same time there were moves in UNESCO toward lifelong education and notions of ‘the learning society’ which culminated in Learning to Be (‘The Faure Report’, UNESCO 1972).
- Lifelong learning was to be the ‘master concept’ that should shape educational systems (UNESCO 1972:182).
What emerged was the influential tripartite categorization of learning systems. It’s best known statement comes from the work of Coombs with Prosser and Ahmed (1973): Formal education : the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded ‘education system’, running from primary school through the university and including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialised programmes and institutions for full-time technical and professional training.
Informal education : the truly lifelong process whereby every individual acquires attitudes, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience and the educative influences and resources in his or her environment – from family and neighbours, from work and play, from the market place, the library and the mass media.
Non-formal education : any organised educational activity outside the established formal system – whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity – that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives.
- The distinction made is largely administrative.
- Formal education is linked with schools and training institutions; non-formal with community groups and other organizations; and informal covers what is left, e.g.
- Interactions with friends, family and work colleagues.
- See, for example, Coombs and Ahmed 1974).
These definitions do not imply hard and fast categories – as Fordham (1993) comments. When we look more closely at the division there can be considerable overlap. For example, there can be significant problems around the categorizing the education activity linked to involvement in groups and associations (la vie associative) sometimes it might be informal, at other times non-formal, and where the group is part of a school – formal.
- We can see similar issues in some of the discussions of informal science education in the USA.
- Nformal education consists of learning activities that are voluntary and self-directed, life-long, and motivated mainly by intrinsic interests, curiosity, exploration, manipulation, fantasy, task completion, and social interaction.
Informal learning occurs in an out-of-school setting and can be linear or non-linear and often is self-paced and visual- or object-oriented. It provides an experiential base and motivation for further activity and learning. The outcomes of informal learning experiences in science, mathematics, and technology include a sense of fun and wonder in addition to a better understanding of concepts, topics, processes of thinking in scientific and technical disciplines, and an increased knowledge about career opportunities in these fields.
(National Science Foundation 1997) The NSF definition falls in line with what Coombs describes as informal education – but many museums and science centers also describe their activities as informal science education (and would presumably come fall under the category of non-formal education). Similarly, some schools running science clubs etc.
describe that activity as informal science education (and may well fulfill the first requirements of the NSF definition). Just how helpful a focus on administrative setting or institutional sponsorship is a matter of some debate. It may have some use when thinking about funding and management questions – but it can tell us only a limited amount about the nature of the education and learning involved.
The National Science Federation While a great deal of the educational activity of schools, for example, involve following prescribed programmes, lead to accredited outcomes and require the presence of a designated teacher, a lot of educational activity that goes on does not (hence Jackson’s famous concern with the ‘hidden curriculum’).
Once we recognize that a considerable amount of education happens beyond the school wall or outside the normal confines of lessons and sessions it may be that a simple division between formal and informal education will suffice. Recognizing elements of these problems, some agencies have looked for alternative definitions.
One possibility here has been the extent to which the outcomes of the educational activity are institutionally accredited. Such activity involved enrollment or registration – and this can also be used as a way of defining formal education. Non-formal education is, thus, ‘education for which none of the learners is enrolled or registered’ (OECD 1977: 11, quoted by Tight 1996: 69).
Using non-accreditation as a basis for defining an area of education has a strong theoretical pedigree. Eduard Lindeman famously declared that: education conceived as a process coterminous with life revolves about non-vocational ideals. In this wor1d of specialists every one will of necessity learn to do his work, and if education of any variety can assist in this and in the further end of helping the worker to see the meaning of his labor, it will be education of a high order.
But adult education more accurately defined begins where vocational education leaves off. Its purpose is to put meaning into the whole of life. (1926: 5) Institutional accreditation became the basis for allocating funding within the English adult education sector during the 1990s – but in an almost exact reversal of what Lindeman intended.
Programmes leading to accredited qualifications were funded at a much higher rate than those leading to none. Significantly, such a basis said little about the nature of the educational processes or the social goods involved – with two crucial exceptions.
Accredited programmes were more likely to be outcome focused (with all the implications this has for exploration and dialogue), and more individualistic. Indeed, it can be argued that one of the things this funding regime did was to strengthen an individual bias in education and undermine the building of social capital.
Many groups and classes that had previously looked to a mix of learning and social interaction, had to register students for exams. This then had an impact on the orientation of teachers and students.
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What are the five functions of formal education?
Education – It refers to the various ways through which knowledge is passed on to the other members of the society. This knowledge can be in the form of factual data, skills, norms, and values. On the other hand, schooling refers to the formal education one receives under a specially trained teacher.
This was what Mark Twain, author of the novels The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn meant when he said, “I have never let my schooling interfere with my education.” Education evolves from time to time and from country to country. For example, in the Middle Ages in Great Britain, education was reserved only for the nobility, and the kind of education they received was focused on classical subjects that had nothing to do with earning a living.
Around the same time in Japan, education was open to the nobility, but it was the Zen Buddhist monasteries and the Ashikaga Gakko – which focused on Chinese medicine, Confucianism, and the I Ching – that drove it forward. Meanwhile, in the 1900s, education became more mainstream and could be accessed by workers and commoners.
In Russia, education became a key component to becoming an industrial power, hence prompting the creation of a standardized educational system that was under the control of the government. Unlike in the earlier years when students had the freedom to choose what they wanted to learn, teachers were then required to teach based on a predefined curriculum.
Often, that curriculum focused on socialist values and academic excellence. Industrialization also seems to be a major contributor to the expansion of education in the United States. Unlike socialist Russia or its mother country Great Britain, however, education in the US focused on political participation.
According to Thomas Jefferson, allowing education to focus on the value of freedom and citizen participation in governance would enable Americans to “read and understand what is going on in the world.” The US was also the first country to enact mandatory education laws. Because the government paid for education in the country, it was necessary to produce practical consequences.
As a result, each generation of students received a fixed body of knowledge which often reflected the concerns and needs of the generation. For example, modern education in the US is focused on developing skills that students will need when they enter the job market.
- Practical arts and art have less room in the curriculum, but computer science and coding have gained center stage.
- From the short discussion, one can already see that education is an important factor in maintaining the stability of a society.
- Note, however, that education can happen on various fronts.
There is formal education (or schooling) which refers to the complete educational ladder all children must go through from childhood up to adulthood. And then there are the alternative forms which are not controlled by the government (often called private education, indigenous education, informal learning, and self – directed learning ).
- With the advance of the internet, a new form of education has emerged: open education through online courses.
- Regardless of these developments in education, formal education remains to be of paramount importance.
- Every child, in every country, has to go through it.
- As such, its functions remain the same.
Formal education performs the following functions: socialization, social integration, social placement, cultural innovation, and latent functions such as childcare and the establishment of lasting social ties.
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What are the effects of formal education?
The education production function – Formal education increases individuals’ well-being primarily through their acquisition of skills, both cognitive (e.g. literacy and numeracy) and non-cognitive (e.g. social and organizational skills). Thus an understanding of the process by which formal education produces those skills is crucial for crafting effective education policies.
- Economists characterize this process as education production,
- Economists have studied factories, farms and other productive organizations for more than two centuries.
- They have gradually developed a comprehensive yet flexible framework for thinking about production processes.
- At first glance, depicting education as a production process may seem strange, but upon further reflection this approach is useful because it provides a comprehensive framework for thinking about how cognitive and non-cognitive skills were generated through formal education.
Most importantly, this framework provides crucial guidance on how to use education data to estimate the impact of education policies (and other causal factors) on students’ acquisition of skills. The process by which both cognitive and non-cognitive skills are learned is determined by many different factors.
Production functions simply depict this process as a mathematical relationship between inputs and skills acquired. This relationship can be very flexible, allowing for almost any learning process. In this sense, an education production function always exists, although the fact that it exists does not guarantee that one can estimate it.
Everything that determines learning, henceforth referred to as “factors” or “inputs” in the production process, can be divided into school, child and household variables. A simple yet flexible skills production function is: (15.1) A = a ( S, Q, C, H, I ) where A is skills learned (“achievement”), S is years of schooling, Q is the set of all school and teacher characteristics (“quality”) that affect learning, C is all child characteristics (including “ability”) and H is all household characteristics that affect learning, and I is educational “inputs” that households contribute, such as children’s daily attendance and purchases of textbooks and other school supplies.
While years of schooling (S) and educational inputs ( I ) can be grouped with child or household variables, Eq. (15.1) separates them from C and H because they are almost always under parents’ control. Eq. (15.1) shows how each variable affects learning holding other variables constant, This qualification is important.
Consider an improvement in one school quality variable, call it Q j, such as a reduction in class size. Eq. (15.1) shows how changing Q j affects learning for given values of the other variables, But changing Q j (or any school quality variable) could change household behavior, that is change S or one or more I variables.
- For example, parents may keep children in school longer (increase S) or reduce educational inputs (reduce I variables) in response to improved school quality.
- Thus the “full” impact of changing Q j on skills (A) is not entirely captured by the impact of that variable as depicted in Eq. (15.1),
- To obtain the “full” impact of changing school quality, one must know how changes both in the Q variables and in other variables affect S and I in Eq.
(15.1), These relationships can be expressed as: (15.2) S = f ( Q, C, H, P ) (15.3) I = g ( Q, C, H, P ) where P denotes the prices relevant for these household decisions, such as tuition, prices of school supplies, and even child wages (the “price” of children’s time spent in school).
Inserting (15.2) and (15.3) into (15.1) gives another expression for skills acquired (A): (15.4) A = h ( Q, C, H, P ) which economists call a “reduced form” relationship, the right-hand side of which involves only exogenously determined variables (but not endogenous “choice” variables, S and I ).
It shows the full causal impact of school quality variables (and other variables) on learning. Eq. (15.4) is not a production function because it depends on households’ preferences (which guide households’ decisions) and because it includes prices, which, in theory, should not have direct impacts on learning.
While the production function in (15.1) shows the “direct” impacts of all variables that influence learning, when analyzing policy impacts one must estimate the “full” impact depicted in (15.4), which includes not only direct impacts captured in (15.1) but also indirect impacts that work by changing variables that are under households’ control.
Which equation, (15.1) or (15.4), should education policymakers focus on estimating? In fact, estimates of both (15.1) and (15.4) are useful for policymakers. Eq. (15.4) is useful because it shows actual changes in A after the Q and P variables change, and government policies primarily affect these two sets of variables.
- Yet the impacts of Q on A in Eq.
- 15.1) are also important because they better capture overall welfare effects.
- Intuitively, if increases in Q j induce parents to reduce educational inputs ( I ), household welfare increases because savings from these reduced purchases can be spent on other goods. Eq.
- 15.4) captures the drop in A from reducing I, but not the increased household welfare from purchasing other goods.
In contrast, the structural impact measured in (15.1) ignores both effects. Since they have opposing impacts on household welfare, they largely cancel each other out. Thus overall welfare effects are better approximated by changes in A measured in (15.1) ; see Glewwe, Kremer, Moulin, and Zitzewitz (2004) for details.
- Of course, some government policies cannot be described as changes in school quality ( Q ) or schooling prices ( P ).
- Examples are policies that decentralize decision-making processes or change teachers’ contracts.
- Such policies affect schooling outcomes by changing what happens in classrooms, or changing prices for education goods and services.
Glewwe and Kremer (2006) explain that one can depict Q and P as determined by (functions of) education policies, and perhaps by community characteristics as well. Ultimately, both skills (A) and years of schooling (S) are determined by child and household characteristics, education policies, and community characteristics.
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What are the impact of formal education in our society?
Benefits of Education are Societal and Personal – Those who get an education have higher incomes, have more opportunities in their lives, and tend to be healthier. Societies benefit as well. Societies with high rates of education completion have lower crime, better overall health, and civic involvement.
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