What Is Disorder In Physical Education?

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What Is Disorder In Physical Education
Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs – 4.1 Concept of Disability and Disorder Disability and disorder are two separate terms that stand for different types of physical and mental conditions.

Concept of Disability The term disability means any kind of impairment or permanent reduction in physical or mental capacity. The reduction can be related to any kind of physical loss, mental illness, intellectual impairment or reduction in the use of sense organs. This may be present from birth or occur during a person’s lifetime.

This affects a person’s participation in different areas of life and reduces the full use of body structures and functions. Definition – “A disability is defined as a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group,” Concept of Disorder Disorder is any ailment that disturbs the health of a person, hinders a person’s performance and diminishes his/her efficiency.

  1. Disorder grows inside a person, they are small in the beginning but may become serious and grow into a disability.
  2. There are many kinds of disorders like mental disorder, neurological disorder, hyper activity disorder, eating disorder, addiction disorder, attention disorder etc.
  3. Definition – “Disorder can be defined as a blip in the usual functioning of a person.” 4.2 Types of Disability, Its Causes and Nature Disability is conceptualised as being a multidimensional experience as it may affect the organs and body parts which hampers a person’s life in many ways.

Types of Disability There are three types of disabilities which are as follows Cognitive Disability The nature of this disability is mental since cognitive domain is related to using mental abilities and achieving results from it. It is related to impairments in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour.

Intellectual functioning means person’s ability to plan, comprehend and reason while adaptive behaviour refers to applying social and practical skills in everyday life. Children suffering from dyslexia, learning difficulties, speech disorders, problem in solving math calculations, short span of attention and short of memory are said to have cognitive disability.

Causes of cognitive disability are as follows

  • Cognitive impairment may be present at birth and may be genetic or chromosomal or result from complications of pregnancy.
  • Chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome.
  • Genetic abnormalities such as phenylketonuria, Hunter syndrome etc.
  • Prenatal drug and infections and exposure to alcohol.
  • Lack of oxygen during labour pain or birth.

Intellectual Disability The nature of this disability is also mental since the intellectual domain is related to using the capacity of the mind. It is a disability characterised by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behaviour.

  1. Genetic Conditions These include things like Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome.
  2. Problems during Pregnancy This can interfere with fetal brain development.
  3. Alcohol or Drug Use may also cause intellectual disability.
  4. Problems during Childbirth Like if a baby is deprived of oxygen during childbirth or born extremely premature.
  5. Illness or Injury Infection like meningitis, whooping cough or measles can lead to intellectual disability. Extreme malnutrition, infections in the brain, exposure to toxic substances such as lead, and severe neglect or abuse can also cause it.

Physical Disability The nature of this disability is physical since it relates to physical functioning of the body parts including sense organs. This refers to the limitation on a person’s physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina. This includes upper or lower limb loss, poor manual dexterity, visual impairment, hearing loss or disability in coordination with different organs of the body.

  • Illnesses like cancer, heart attack or diabetes cause the majority of long-term disabilities.
  • Back pain, injuries and arthritis are also significant causes.
  • Lifestyle choices and personal behaviour that lead to obesity are also becoming major contributing factors.
  • Musculoskeletal disorders also cause disabilities. Examples include spine/joint disorders, fibromytis etc.
  • Genetic causes like gene inheritance can cause this disability.

4.3 Types of Disorder, Its Causes and Nature A disorder is referred to as a disturbance in physical or mental health or functions that causes dysfunction. Some types of disorder are discussed below ADHD The nature of this disorder is related to, behavioural changes or disorders.

  1. About 10% of school going kids suffer from ADHD, Boys are more suspectible to this disorder than girls.
  2. The common symptoms of this disorder are hyperactivity, trouble focusing on a task, very short span of attention and missing details.
  3. Children with ADHD may understand what’s expected of them but have trouble following the instructions required to complete the task.

‘ Young children mostly act in this way when they are excited or anxious but the difference with ADHD is that these symptoms are present over a longer period of time and take place in different settings. The ADHD disorder affects a child’s academic performance as well as social behaviour.

  1. Genes and Heredity Genetic inheritance and abnormalities in genes may cause this disorder.
  2. Brain Injury and Epilepsy Children who have had traumatic brain injuries or who have epilepsy can often have ADHD-like symptoms.
  3. Environmental Causes Prenatal exposure to smoke, exposure to high levels of lead as a toddler and preschooler is possible contributor.

SPD This is a condition in which the brain has trouble in receiving and responding to information that comes in through the senses. The SPD is related to mental nature. There the sensory inputs are not organised by the brain in an appropriate manner. The common symptoms are showing heightened reactivity to sound, touch or movement.

Under-reactive in certain situations example not noticing when name is called, lethargic, disinterested, poor motor skills, lack of attention, impulsive behaviours etc. The SPD interferes with the children’s normal everyday functioning. They also have delayed communication and social skills. SPD also impacts on a person’s ability to interact with different environments.

Causes of SPD are as follows

  • Genetic or hereditary factors such as having a family history of autism, SPD.
  • Have been understimulated during critical periods of neurological development.
  • Have been exposed to variety of environmental toxins.
  • Have food allergies.
  • Having developmental delays and other, neurological disorders.

ASD The nature of this disorder is related to mental illness which then changes the behaviour. It is a complex,developmental disorder that affects normal brain development. The symptoms of ASD are difficulty in communication and interaction with people.

They also have repetitive behaviour patterns like flicking a light switch repeatedly, smelling everything, flipping objects etc. Children with ASD also have sensory sensitivities such as not using eye contact, confused by language, repeating a word etc. Here the brain does not function in the typical’way due to which they face developmental challenges.

Children and adults with ASD do not acquire good social skills and face many behavioural problems. They often stare at a particular person or object, like a few foods, get over excited by certain sounds etc. Causes of ASD are as follows

  1. ASD can be the result of heredity factors, genetic differences and genetic mutations.
  2. It can also cause through abnormal mechanisms of brain development and other neurobiological factors.
  3. Environmental factors related to exposure to drugs, toxins like lead, insecticides, hydrocarbons and dietary factors may cause ASD.

ODD The nature of this disorder is related to social behaviours. This behaviour disorder usually takes place in early teens. Apart from teens, ODD also affects young children especially boys. In children it begins from the age of 8 years. About 2-16% of children are affected by ODD.

The main symptoms of ODD are similar patterns of anger, irritable mood, saying hateful things, flaring up at trivial matters, seeking revenge etc. Here children in their early teens try to defy authority every now and then, they express their defiance by arguing, disobeying, talking back to parents, teachers and other adults.

Though this type of behaviour is normally seen among all the teenagers but the difference in ODD is that the behaviour lasts more than 6 months and is excessive in comparison to other children of the same age. This kind of behaviour often disrupts the child’s normal daily activities and hampers academic performance.

  1. Genetics A child’s natural disposition or temperament and possible neurobiological differences in the way nerves and the brain function may cause ODD.
  2. Environment Problems with parenting that may involve a lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect also cause ODD.

OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder] The nature of this disorder is related to mental illness. This usually takes place in people of middle ages. Males and females both are equally affected by OCD. About 15-20% of the people experience OCD in mild forms.

The symptoms of this disorder are people doing repetative behaviours, performing routine tasks over an over again or having certain thoughts repeatedly. Some examples of this type of disorder are frequent or excessive hand washing, counting to things repeatedly, checking if a door is locked again and again.

These activities occur to such a degree that it affects a person’s life negatively. The OCD can become serious and may cause other problems related to mental illness. Causes of OCD are as follows

  1. Familial Disorder The disorder may run in the family, therefore close relatives of people with OCD are likely to develop it.
  2. Behavioural Causes The behavioural theory suggests that people with OCD associate certain objects or situations with fear and learn to avoid those things or learn to perform rituals in order to help reduce the fear or the stress related to that situation.
  3. Cognitive Causes This happens when people misinterpret their thoughts like the feeling of dirty hands even when they are cleaned many times.
  4. Environmental Causes This means stressful situation present in the environment such as within the family or society that triggers OCD in people.

4.4 Disability Etiquettes Disability etiquettes is a set of guidelines to deal with the people facing physical or mental disabilities. It was started as a clinical play on existing rule sheets, written for non-disabled audiences that were seen as demeaning by civil rights activists in 1970s.

  • Always respect the dignity of a disabled person, individuality and desire for independence.
  • Treat a person with disability in the same manner and with the same respect and courtesy as with others.
  • Speak directly to the person rather than through the friend, attendant or sign-language interpreter who may also be present.
  • Never speak about the person as if they are invisible, can’t understand what is being said.,
  • Don’t put people with a disability on a pedestal or talk to them in demeaning terms.

Disability Etiquette Guidelines ill Persons with Speech Difficulties

  1. Give attention to the person who has difficulty in speaking.
  2. Keep manner to encourage rather than correcting.
  3. Give extra time for the conversation and be patient.
  4. If you have difficulty in understanding, don’t pretend that you do. Repeat as much as you do understand.

Person with Hearing Loss

  • Get the person’s attention with a wave of the hand, or a tap on the shoulder. Speak clearly and slowly, but without exaggerating your lip movements or shouting.
  • Many persons with hearing loss read lips. Place yourself facing the light source and keep hands, cigarettes and food away from your mouth when talking in order to provide a clear view of your face.
  • When an interpreter accompanies a person, direct your remarks to the person rather than to the interpreter.
  • Look directly at the person and speak expressively.
  • Use sign language if you and the person are both familiar with it.

Persons with Vision Loss

  • When enter the room, indicate who is there. Let the person know when leaving the room.
  • When talking to a person with a visual impairment, begin to identifying yourself by name and that you are speaking to them.
  • When offering your assistance, do not grab the person’s cane or arm.
  • If you are walking with a person who is blind, offer your arm for him/her to hold.
  • Walk at the norma! pace. It is helpful to speak casually and naturally about the environment, objects and buildings you are passing as you walk.
  • Not all visually impaired people read Braille. Ask the person what alternative format they prefer.

(iv) Persons with Cognitive / Language Impairments

  • Use a calm voice and be comfortable. Use simple and short sentences.
  • Do not argue with the person.
  • Treat each person as an individual with talents and abilities deserving of respect and dignity.
  • Give extra time for the person to process what: you are saying and to respond. Look for signs of stress and/Or confusion:

The rules of etiquettes and good manners to deal with people with disabilities are generally the same as the rules for good etiquettes in society. These guidelines address.specific issues which frequently arise for people with disabilities; Since everyone is different, these guidelines only hold true for most individuals most of the time.4.5 Advantage of Physical Activity for Children with Special Needs Physical Activity According to the Department of Health and Human Services, USA, physical activity generally refers to movement that enhances health.

It means the movement of the body that uses energy. Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. For health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous intensity. Exercise is a type of physical activity that’s planned and structured. Lifting weights, taking an aerobics class and playing on a sports team are examples of exercise.

Advantage of Physical Activity for Children with Special Needs Regular physical activity is good for everyone but it’s particularly important for children with special needs. These are most important for their growth and development. There are numbers of advantages of physical activities.

  • It strengthens the heart muscle thereby improving cardiovascular efficiency, lung efficiency and exercise endurance. This helps in controlling repetative behaviours among disabled children.
  • Besides improving fitness, physical activity develops social relationships with other children, teammates and teachers.
  • This brings positive changes in the social behaviour of these children.
  • It helps to improve energy level in the body. Regular physical activity often makes children more energetic, allows them to become active.
  • It regulates blood pressure, cholesterol level and diabetes. Physical activity reduces stress level.
  • It helps to control weight. The children with disabilities are not physically active or may have deficit of calories, which takes fat away and lowers weight and regular exercises help in regulating weight.
  • Physical activities help in improving muscle strength, coordination and flexibility among disabled children.
  • This also improves motor skills, brings better balance and body awareness which is lacking in these children.
  • Physical exercise finds an outlet to channelise the physical energy which helps these children to cope with stress, anxiety and depression.
  • Physical activity enhances the metabolism of brain in the children. It leads to cognitive improvement in children with special needs allowing them to acquire new skills, learn new things and focus on specific goals.
  • Physical activity decreases anxiety, reduces depression, and improves mood and outlook in children. In addition, their
  • quality of sleep is also improved.

4.6 Strategies to Make Physical Activities Accessible for Children with Special Need The various strategies or ways by which physical activities can be made accessible for children with special needs are as follows

  1. Inclusive Classrooms It means development of education laws in such a way that children with special needs get education within the normal classrooms along with other children so that they are well accepted in society.
  2. Assistive Technology It refers to creating devices, tools or equipments that help children with special needs to participate in learning activities like bigger balls, balls with bells, balls attached to strings to bring it back to the students etc.
  3. Adaptive Physical Education Depending on student’s disability, a separate, adaptive class or modifications within a game, changing the rules of the game or sport to some extent can help the students in a big way.
  4. Creating Specific Environment Students with special needs can be provided with specific play area with special requirements as needed by them. Loud music, glaring lights often cannot be tolerated by these children, so a lot of natural lighting should be there.
  5. Positive Behaviour In physical education classes, teachers should show positive behaviour and healthy interactions and prevent negative behaviours. The method is to “Prevent, Teach, Reinforce”. This means class material taught through positive interactions, lesson reinforced by referring back to behavioural expectations and evaluating progress.
  6. Focus on Creative Games Instead of competitive games and physical activities, the strategy is to develop creative games. This helps in team building and cooperation and prevents unnecessary competition and boosts the confidence of these children.
  7. Accomodations and Modification Since the individual needs of the children with special needs ard different^ it is essential for, the teachers to modify the teaching strategies in order to accommodate the children with disabilities. Therefore constant modification and accommodation is required.
  8. Professional Courses Developing more professional courses and teacher certification programs for teaching physical education to children with special needs is essential to popularise the adaptive physical education programme.
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We hope the given CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs will help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.
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What is disorder in class 12 physical education?

Disorder: Any disruption due to which an individual is not able to perform his daily human activities is known as disorder.
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What is difference between disability and disorder?

Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN 1 Mark Questions Question 1. Define disability. Answer: Disability is defined as a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group.

  1. Question 2.
  2. How disability is different from a disorder? Answer: Disability, whether it is physical or mental, is of permanent nature, but disorder can be temporary or permanent.
  3. Question 3.
  4. Why the word ‘differently abled’ is used in place of disabled nowadays? Answer: Differently abled is used in place of disabled nowadays to give a more positive message and to avoid any kind of discrimination in the society.

Question 4. Give some examples of cognitive disability. Answer: Some examples of cognitive disability are children suffering from dyslexia, speech disorders, problems in solving mathematical calculations, short attention span, short memory and learning difficulties.

  1. Question 5.
  2. What is ADHD? Answer: ADHD stands’ for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
  3. This brings behavioural changes and is normally seen is school going kids.
  4. Here the attention span is very short, kids are hyperactive and face trouble in focussing on a task.
  5. Question 6.
  6. What do you understand by disability etiquettes? Answer: Disability etiquettes is a set of guidelines to deal with people facing physical or mental disabilities.

Question 7. Write two ways to communicate with people suffering from cognitive impairments. Answer:

  • Use a calm voice and be comfortable:
  • Treat the person as an individual with talents and abilities

Question 8. What do you understand by physical activity? Answer: Physical activity means the movement of the body and use of energy Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga, and gardening are few examples of physical activity. Question 9. Write any one advantage of physical activity.

  • Answer: Physical activity enhances the metabolism of brain in the children.
  • It leads to cognitive improvement in children with special needs allowing them to acquire new skills, learn new things and focus on specific goals.
  • Question 10.
  • Explain the strategy of positive behaviour in brief.
  • Answer: The strategy of positive behaviour relates to showing a positive attitude and having healthy interactions with children with special needs.

The teachers should prevent negative behaviours and encourage these children to participate in classroom activities. Question 11. What do, you understand by disorder? Answer: A disorder is a blip in the usual functioning of a person. It disturbs the mental or physical health of a person.3 Marks Questions Question 12.

  • Illnesses like cancer, heart attack or diabetes cause the majority of long-term disabilities.
  • Back pain, injuries and arthritis are also significant causes.
  • Lifestyle choices and personal behaviour that lead to obesity are also becoming major contributing factors.
  • The musculoskeletal disorder also causes disabilities. Examples include spine/joint disorders, fibromytis etc.

Question 13. How does the Sensory Processing Disorder interfere with a child’s normal everyday functioning? Answer: The Sensory Processing Disorder is a condition in which the brain has trouble in receiving and responding to information that comes in through senses.

  • Children suffering from SPD are either under-reactive or over-reactive.
  • They also lack motor skills, have short span of attention and delayed communication skills.
  • Due to these symptoms, children with SPD are not able to concentrate on studies or other activities.
  • So the lack of sensory coordination with the brain in an appropriate manner interferes with the children’s normal everyday functioning.

Question 14. How environmental factors cause various types of disorders? Answer: Environmental factors are the external factors present where a child is living. Poor nutrition is a major environmental factor because the child does not get adequate food or nutrition and it leads to deficiencies.

Exposure to toxins such as lead, insecticides, hydrocarbons creates many hormonal imbalances in the body. Similarly, parental neglect and sexual abuse at young age are other factors present in and around the child that create mental imbalances. In this way, environmental factors cause various types of disorders.

Question 15. Explain three causes that are behind intellectual disability. Answer: The three causes behind intellectual disability are as follows

  1. Genetic Conditions These include conditions like Downs syndrome and fragile X syndrome. These occur due to genetic mutations or heredity factors.
  2. Problems during Pregnancy and Childbirth Intellectual disability can be caused if the foetus is not well-developed during pregnancy. If an infant does not get sufficient oxygen during childbirth or is premature, then the chances are more of this disability.
  3. Illness or Injury Illness like meningitis, whooping cough, measles, infections in the brain or head injuries can be the causes of intellectual disability.

Question 16. Explain any five disability etiquettes towards people with hearing loss? Answer: There are various disability etiquettes to be shown towards people with hearing loss. These are as follows

  • Get.the person’s attention with a wave of the hand, or a tap on the shoulder.
  • Speak clearly and slowly, but without exaggerating your lip movements or shouting.
  • Use sign language if you and the person are both familiar with it.
  • When an interpreter accompanies a person, direct your remarks to the person rather than to the interpreter.
  • Look directly at the person and speak f expressively.

Question 17. Explain the strategy of inclusive classrooms. Why is it gaining popularity? Answer: Inclusive classrooms means including the children with special needs within the normal classrooms where other children study. It requires some changes in existing curriculum so that children with special needs get education along with other children.

This concept is gaining popularity because it helps in changing the outlook of society. If all the children, get education in the same environment then they will understand, interact and cooperate with other. In this way, children with special needs get well accepted in society. Question 18. Write the full form of ADHD and SPD.

Elaborate on the causes that lead to the two disorders. Answer: The full form of ADHD-is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder arid SPD is Sensory Processing Disorder. The causes leading to the two disorders are as follows ADHD Causes

  • Genes and Heredity ADHD can run in family due to certain genes and genetic mutations.
  • Brain Injury and Epilepsy Children who have had traumatic brain injuries or who have epilepsy can often have ADHD symptoms.

SPD Causes

  • Children affected with SPD are said to have been understimulated during critical periods of development.
  • Genetic or heredity factors such as having a history of autism or SPD in the family.

5 Marks Questions Question 19. Explain ASD, ODD and OCD. Give two,causes of each. Answer: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a type of mental disorder which then changes the behaviours. It is a developmental disorder that affects normal brain functioning. People with ASD have repetitive behaviour patterns like flicking a light switch repeatedly, flipping objects etc. Causes of ASD

  • It can be the result of heredity factors, genetic differences and genetic mutations.
  • It can also come through abnormal mechanisms of brain development and other neurobiological factors.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a behaviour disorder that usually takes place in early teens. ODD is characterised by irritable mood, anger, revenge, arguments, disobeying, talking back and mood swings. Teenagers going through ODD face a lot of behavioural problems. Causes of ODD

  1. Genetics A child’s natural disposition or temperament and possible neurobiological differences in the way nerves and the brain function may cause ODD.,
  2. Environment Problems with parenting that may involve lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect also causes ODD.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a type of mental disorder that takes place in people in middle ages. People with OCD do repetitive behaviours, perform routine tasks repeatedly or have certain thoughts routinely. For example, excessive hand washing, counting of things repeatedly, checking if a door is locked many times etc. Causes of OCD

  • Familial Disorder The disorder may run in the family, therefore close relatives of people with OCD are likely to develop it.
  • Behavioural Causes The behavioural theory suggests that people with OCD associate certain objects or situations with fear and learn to avoid those things or learn to perform rituals in order to help reduce the fear or the stress related to that situation.

Question 20. Elaborate the disabilities etiquettes of person with speech difficulties and language impairment? Answer: The disabilities etiquettes of person with speech difficulties are mentioned as below

  • Give attention to the person who has difficulty in speaking.
  • Keep manner to encourage rather than correcting.
  • Give extra time for the conversation and be patient.
  • If you have difficulty in understanding, don’t pretend that you do. Repeat as much as you do understand.

The disabilities etiquettes of person with language impairment are mentioned as below

  • Use a calm voice and be comfortable. Use simple and short sentences.
  • Do not argue with the person.
  • Treat each person as an individual with talents and abilities deserving of respect and dignity.

Question 21. Explain the advantages of physical activities for children with special needs. Answer: There are various advantages of physical activities for children with special needs. These are mentioned below

  1. It strengthens the heart muscle thereby improving cardiovascular efficiency, lung efficiency and exercise endurance. This helps in controlling repetitive behaviours among disabled children.
  2. Besides improving fitness, physical activity develops social relationships with other children, teammates and teachers. This brings positive changes in the social behaviour of these children.
  3. It helps to improve energy level in the body. Regular physical activity often makes children more energetic, allows them to become active.
  4. It regulates blood pressure, cholesterol level and diabetes. Physical activity reduces stress level.
  5. It helps to control weight. The children with disabilities are not physically active or may have deficit of calories, which takes fat away and lowers weight but regular exercises help in regulating weight.
  6. Physical activities help in improving muscle strength, coordination and flexibility among disabled children.

Question 22. Explain five strategies to make physical activities accessible for children with special needs. Answer: The five strategies to make physical activities accessible for children with special needs are as follows

  1. Inclusive Classrooms It means development of education laws in such a way that children with special needs get education within the normal classrooms along with other children so that they are well accepted in society.
  2. Assistive Technology It refers to creating devices, tools or equipment that help children with special needs to participate in learning activities like bigger balls, balls with bells, balls attached to strings to bring it back to the students etc.
  3. Adaptive Physical Education Depending on students’ disability, a separate, adaptive class or modifications within a game, changing the rules of the game or sport to some extent can help the students in a big way.
  4. Creating Specific Environment Students with special needs can be provided with specific play area with special requirements as needed by them. Loud music, glaring lights often cannot be tolerated by these children so a lot of natural lighting should be there.
  5. Positive Behaviour In physical education classes, teachers should show positive behaviour and healthy interactions and prevent negative behaviours. The method is to “Prevent, Teach, Reinforce”. This means class material taught through positive interactions, lesson reinforced by referring back to behavioural expectations and evaluating progress.

Value Based Questions Question 23. A teacher in a preschool noticed that a child is not singing along with other children. She is not responding even when her name is called. Then the teacher asked the child to stand next to her and repeat the rhyme along with her, while she prompted her.

With effort the child was able to sing like other children of her age. (i) What do you think the child is suffering from? (ii) What values are’ shown by the teacher? (iii) What type of school/classroom is it? Answer: (i) The child is suffering from anykind of disorder that is mental in nature such as SPD (Sensory Processing Disorder), (ii) The values shown by the teacher are compassion who thinks for all.

the students, kindness, observant, thoughtfulness and caring attitude for the students. (iii) The type of school/ classroom is-inclusive because the children with special needs study along. with the other children and are not sent to separate schools. Question 24.

  • School programmes need to recognise the essential are of physical activity in the education of children with special needs.
  • In order to develop lifelong habits of good fitness and to provide them with many opportunities for socialisation.
  • Schools need to understand that physical education is not a secondary subject but it is just as important as other skills.

(i) Why is physical education important for children with disabilities? (ii) Write two steps to create awareness for the need of physical education. Answer: (i) Physical education is important for children with disabilities because it helps in improving physical fitness, develops social relationships, brings cognitive development and helps these children in acquiring new skills.

Ii) To Create awareness for the need of physical education, children and parents should be told about its benefits. New courses related.to teaching physical education to children with special needs can be started. We hope the Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs: Divyangs help you.

If you have any query regarding Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs: Divyangs, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest. : Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN
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What is the concept of disorder and disability differentiate with suitable examples?

The disorder is the disruption caused to the normal functions of a person. Disability is often associated with body parts. The disorder is often associated with mental competency. Physical disability like Cognitive disability, Intellectual disability.
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What is the define of disorder?

(dis-OR-der) In medicine, a disturbance of normal functioning of the mind or body. Disorders may be caused by genetic factors, disease, or trauma.
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What is disorder and examples?

A disorder is a problem or illness which affects someone’s mind or body. a rare nerve disorder that can cause paralysis of the arms. a psychiatrist who specialises in eating disorders.
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What are the two types of disorder?

Some of the main groups of mental disorders are: mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder) anxiety disorders.
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Is disorder an injury?

Injury or illness. An injury or illness is an abnormal condition or disorder. Injuries include cases such as, but not limited to, a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation. Illnesses include both acute and chronic illnesses, such as, but not limited to, a skin disease, respiratory disorder, or poisoning.
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Does disorder mean disabled?

While the word ‘disorder’ is a medical term, the word ‘disability’ is a legal term that appears in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (‘IDEA’) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. These federal laws protect the rights of students with disabilities.
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What is disorder in a sentence?

The emergency room was in disorder. Inside all was disorder: drawers fallen out, shoes and boots scattered. He called on the authorities to stop public disorder. There are other forms of civil disorder–most notably, football hooliganism.
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How do you classify disorders?

Learning Objectives – By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Explain why classification systems are necessary in the study of psychopathology
  • Describe the basic features of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)
  • Discuss changes in the DSM over time, including criticisms of the current edition
  • Identify which disorders are generally the most common
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A first step in the study of psychological disorders is carefully and systematically discerning significant signs and symptoms. How do mental health professionals ascertain whether or not a person’s inner states and behaviors truly represent a psychological disorder? Arriving at a proper diagnosis —that is, appropriately identifying and labeling a set of defined symptoms—is absolutely crucial.

  1. This process enables professionals to use a common language with others in the field and aids in communication about the disorder with the patient, colleagues and the public.
  2. A proper diagnosis is an essential element to guide proper and successful treatment.
  3. For these reasons, classification systems that organize psychological disorders systematically are necessary.

Although a number of classification systems have been developed over time, the one that is used by most mental health professionals in the United States is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association (2013).

Note that the American Psychiatric Association differs from the American Psychological Association; both are abbreviated APA.) The first edition of the DSM, published in 1952, classified psychological disorders according to a format developed by the U.S. Army during World War II (Clegg, 2012). In the years since, the DSM has undergone numerous revisions and editions.

The most recent edition, published in 2013, is the DSM-5 (APA, 2013). The DSM-5 includes many categories of disorders (e.g., anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and dissociative disorders). Each disorder is described in detail, including an overview of the disorder (diagnostic features), specific symptoms required for diagnosis (diagnostic criteria), prevalence information (what percent of the population is thought to be afflicted with the disorder), and risk factors associated with the disorder.

  1. Shows lifetime prevalence rates—the percentage of people in a population who develop a disorder in their lifetime—of various psychological disorders among U.S. adults.
  2. These data were based on a national sample of 9,282 U.S.
  3. Residents (National Comorbidity Survey, 2007).
  4. The graph shows the breakdown of psychological disorders, comparing the percentage prevalence among adult males and adult females in the United States.

Because the data is from 2007, the categories shown here are from the DSM-IV, which has been supplanted by the DSM-5. Most categories remain the same; however, alcohol abuse now falls under a broader Alcohol Use Disorder category. What Is Disorder In Physical Education The DSM-5 also provides information about comorbidity ; the co-occurrence of two disorders. For example, the DSM-5 mentions that 41% of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) also meet the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder ( ). What Is Disorder In Physical Education The DSM has changed considerably in the half-century since it was originally published. The first two editions of the DSM, for example, listed homosexuality as a disorder; however, in 1973, the APA voted to remove it from the manual (Silverstein, 2009).

  1. Additionally, beginning with the DSM-III in 1980, mental disorders have been described in much greater detail, and the number of diagnosable conditions has grown steadily, as has the size of the manual itself.
  2. DSM-I included 106 diagnoses and was 130 total pages, whereas DSM-III included more than 2 times as many diagnoses (265) and was nearly seven times its size (886 total pages) (Mayes & Horowitz, 2005).

Although DSM-5 is longer than DSM-IV, the volume includes only 237 disorders, a decrease from the 297 disorders that were listed in DSM-IV. The latest edition, DSM-5, includes revisions in the organization and naming of categories and in the diagnostic criteria for various disorders (Regier, Kuhl, & Kupfer, 2012), while emphasizing careful consideration of the importance of gender and cultural difference in the expression of various symptoms (Fisher, 2010).

Some believe that establishing new diagnoses might overpathologize the human condition by turning common human problems into mental illnesses (The Associated Press, 2013). Indeed, the finding that nearly half of all Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM disorder at some point in their life (Kessler et al., 2005) likely fuels much of this skepticism.

The DSM-5 is also criticized on the grounds that its diagnostic criteria have been loosened, thereby threatening to “turn our current diagnostic inflation into diagnostic hyperinflation” (Frances, 2012, para.22). For example, DSM-IV specified that the symptoms of major depressive disorder must not be attributable to normal bereavement (loss of a loved one).

  • The DSM-5, however, has removed this bereavement exclusion, essentially meaning that grief and sadness after a loved one’s death can constitute major depressive disorder.
  • A second classification system, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), is also widely recognized.
  • Published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the ICD was developed in Europe shortly after World War II and, like the DSM, has been revised several times.

The categories of psychological disorders in both the DSM and ICD are similar, as are the criteria for specific disorders; however, some differences exist. Although the ICD is used for clinical purposes, this tool is also used to examine the general health of populations and to monitor the prevalence of diseases and other health problems internationally (WHO, 2013).

  • The ICD is in its 10th edition (ICD-10); however, efforts are now underway to develop a new edition (ICD-11) that, in conjunction with the changes in DSM-5, will help harmonize the two classification systems as much as possible (APA, 2013).
  • A study that compared the use of the two classification systems found that worldwide the ICD is more frequently used for clinical diagnosis, whereas the DSM is more valued for research (Mezzich, 2002).

Most research findings concerning the etiology and treatment of psychological disorders are based on criteria set forth in the DSM (Oltmanns & Castonguay, 2013). The DSM also includes more explicit disorder criteria, along with an extensive and helpful explanatory text (Regier et al., 2012).

The DSM is the classification system of choice among U.S. mental health professionals, and this chapter is based on the DSM paradigm. As these disorders are outlined, please bear two things in mind. First, remember that psychological disorders represent extremes of inner experience and behavior. If, while reading about these disorders, you feel that these descriptions begin to personally characterize you, do not worry—this moment of enlightenment probably means nothing more than you are normal.

Each of us experiences episodes of sadness, anxiety, and preoccupation with certain thoughts—times when we do not quite feel ourselves. These episodes should not be considered problematic unless the accompanying thoughts and behaviors become extreme and have a disruptive effect on one’s life.

Second, understand that people with psychological disorders are far more than just embodiments of their disorders. We do not use terms such as schizophrenics, depressives, or phobics because they are labels that objectify people who suffer from these conditions, thus promoting biased and disparaging assumptions about them.

It is important to remember that a psychological disorder is not what a person is ; it is something that a person has —through no fault of his or her own. As is the case with cancer or diabetes, those with psychological disorders suffer debilitating, often painful conditions that are not of their own choosing.

  • These individuals deserve to be viewed and treated with compassion, understanding, and dignity.
  • The diagnosis and classification of psychological disorders is essential in studying and treating psychopathology.
  • The classification system used by most U.S.
  • Professionals is the DSM-5.
  • The first edition of the DSM was published in 1952, and has undergone numerous revisions.

The 5th and most recent edition, the DSM-5, was published in 2013. The diagnostic manual includes a total of 237 specific diagnosable disorders, each described in detail, including its symptoms, prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity. Over time, the number of diagnosable conditions listed in the DSM has grown steadily, prompting criticism from some.

  1. Diseases and Statistics Manual of Medicine
  2. Diagnosable Standards Manual of Mental Disorders
  3. Diseases and Symptoms Manual of Mental Disorders
  4. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

D A study based on over 9,000 U.S. residents found that the most prevalent disorder was _.

  1. major depressive disorder
  2. social anxiety disorder
  3. obsessive-compulsive disorder
  4. specific phobia

A Describe the DSM-5. What is it, what kind of information does it contain, and why is it important to the study and treatment of psychological disorders? The DSM-5 is the classification system of psychological disorders preferred by most U.S. mental health professionals, and it is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

It consists of broad categories of disorders and specific disorders that fall within each category. Each disorder has an explicit description of its symptoms, as well as information concerning prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity. The DSM-5 provides a common language that enables mental health professionals to communicate effectively about sets of symptoms.

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the DSM differ in various ways. What are some of the differences in these two classification systems? The ICD is used primarily for making clinical diagnoses and more broadly for examining the general health of populations and monitoring the international prevalence of diseases and other health problems.
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What do you mean by disorder Class 11?

Any disruption due to which an individual is not able to perform his daily life human activities effectively is known as a disorder.
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What is a disorder Class 9?

What does disease look like? Answer Verified Hint: Any disturbance in the structure or function of any organ or part of the body. It may be caused due to the attack of pathogens (virus, bacteria), lack of nutritious diet/balanced diet and lack of public health services.

  • Complete answer: There are two types of diseases:- Infectious disease :- The diseases that can be spread from one person to another are called infectious diseases,
  • For example cold.
  • Non-infectious diseases:- The diseases that can not be spread from one person to another are called non-infectious diseases,

For example cancer. On the basis of time period. Acute disease:- these diseases last for a short period of time. The person recovers completely, For example cold. Chronic disease:- the disease that lasts for lifetime, The person never recovers completely.

For example diabetes. On the basis of vector spreading disease :- Bacterial diseases:- Bacterial diseases include any type of illness caused by bacteria. For example :- cholera. Viral diseases:- Diseases caused by viruses. For example :- common cold. Protozoan diseases:- For example:- malaria caused by female anopheles mosquitoes.

Note: Disease can be viewed by examining symptoms of disease. The common symptoms of diseases include headache, fever, vomiting etc. Like jaundice can be examined by pale skin. Diarrhoea can be examined by loose motions. Type of Disease Example Airborne Diseases Common cold, influenza, measles, tuberculosis.
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What makes a disorder a disorder?

What Are Mental Disorders and How Are They Diagnosed? ? How are these conditions diagnosed? Defining exactly what constitutes a psychological disorder can be tricky and, definitions have changed over time. The first problem is that a mental health professional must first decide exactly how to define “disorder.” How do you determine if there is something psychologically wrong or unhealthy about a person? How do you decide what’s normal and what’s abnormal? If you were to define disorder as something that lies outside of the statistical norm, then people who are considered exceptionally talented or gifted in a particular area would be regarded as abnormal.

So rather than focus on actions that are considered outside of the normal statistically speaking, psychologists tend to concentrate on the results of those behaviors. Behaviors that are considered maladaptive and cause significant personal distress and interrupt daily functioning are more likely to be labeled as disorders.

Today, many mental health professionals agree that mental disorders are characterized by both personal distress and impairment in multiple areas of life. This article discusses how clinicians define and classify mental disorders. It also explores how many people are impacted by such disorders every year.

A mental disorder is often used interchangeably with the terms, psychiatric disorder, or mental illness. The “official” term is mental disorder, defined in the latest edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s diagnostic manual, the DSM-5. The DSM-5 defines a mental disorder as a syndrome that causes significant disturbance in behavior, emotion, and cognition.

These disorders are also usually accompanied by significant distress that affects a person’s work, school, and social relationships. The DSM-5 also notes that expected responses to a common stressor such as the death of a loved one are not considered mental disorders.

  • The diagnostic manual also suggests that behaviors that are often considered at odds with social norms are not considered disorders unless these actions are the result of some dysfunction.
  • Mental disorders are defined as conditions that create distress and affect a person’s ability to function.
  • These conditions affect how people behave, think, and feel.

They can also impact how people are able to function at home, work, school, relationships, and other important life domains. The specific symptoms a person might experience depend on the nature of the mental health condition they are experiencing. Some of the symptoms that a person with a mental disorder might experience include:

  • Anxiety
  • Changes in appetite
  • Changes in behavior
  • Changes in mood
  • Changes in sex drive
  • Delusions, hallucinations, or other difficulties perceiving reality
  • Depression or feelings of sadness
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Drug or alcohol use
  • Fatigue or low energy
  • Loss of interest
  • Social withdrawal or isolation
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Suicidal thoughts or self-harm

The classification and diagnosis is an important concern for both mental health providers and mental health clients. While there is no single, definitive definition of mental disorders, some different classification and diagnostic criteria have emerged.

  • Clinicians utilize the, published by the American Psychiatric Association, to determine whether a set of symptoms or behaviors meets the criteria for diagnosis as a mental disorder.
  • The International Classification of Diseases, published by the World Health Organization, is also frequently used.
  • Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a healthcare provider who has knowledge and experience in mental and behavioral health.

This might include a doctor or mental health professional. In order to diagnose a mental disorder, a healthcare professional may ask about a person’s medical history. They will also ask questions about the nature, duration, and severity of the symptoms that a person is experiencing.

  1. There are no medical tests that can be used to diagnose a mental disorder, but a doctor may perform a physical exam and run lab tests to rule out different medical conditions that can cause psychological symptoms.
  2. Healthcare professionals usually use a tool such as the DSM-5 to determine if a person’s symptoms meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder.

While some people may avoid seeking a diagnosis out of fear of, getting a diagnosis is an essential part of finding an effective treatment plan. A diagnosis is not about applying a label to a problem; it is about discovering solutions, treatments, and information related to the problem.

  1. Once a condition has been diagnosed, healthcare providers and therapists can recommend treatments that can help.
  2. With treatment, people can find ways to cope more effectively and function better in different areas of their daily life.
  3. Research has revealed that mental disorders are far more widespread than previously believed.

According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), approximately 21% of American adults over the age of 18, or around 52.9 million people, have some diagnosable mental disorder in a given year. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) reports that mental illness tends to be more prevalent among women and younger adults.

  1. NIMH also reports that 5.6% of American adults have a serious mental illness.
  2. NIMH defines serious mental illness as a mental, behavioral or emotional disorder diagnosable within the past year that meets diagnostic criteria specified by the DSM-5.
  3. These disorders must also lead to serious impairment in functioning that limits or interferes with one or more major life activities.

Global prevalence statistics suggest that anxiety disorders, mood disorders, alcohol use disorders, and substance use disorders are among the most common types of mental health conditions experienced by people worldwide. Statistics suggest that mental disorders are quite common and affect people of all backgrounds.

Anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders are among the most common conditions that people experience. The specific treatment for a mental disorder varies depending on the condition and the needs of the individual. Many mental health conditions are treated with psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of the two.

Lifestyles changes and support groups can often be helpful as well. There are many different types of that can be effective in the treatment of a wide variety of mental disorders. Talking to a therapist can help people understand factors that may play a role in their illness and help them develop new strategies to cope.

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One type of therapy that is often effective is known as (CBT), which involves identifying and changing the negative thoughts and behaviors that contribute to psychological problems., anxiolytics, antipsychotics, and other medications can also be helpful for treating mental disorders. While these medications work in different ways, they typically help create changes in the brain that then relieve symptoms.

Medications can have side effects and should always be taken as prescribed by your doctor. Treatments for mental disorders often involve psychotherapy and medication. Other strategies such as lifestyle modifications, support groups, and self-help can also be beneficial in addition to traditional treatments.

  • Lifestyle changes : For some mental health conditions, lifestyle changes can be helpful. For example, getting regular physical exercise is associated with reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression.
  • Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) : Other practices that may help people cope with symptoms of mental illness include,, yoga, meditation,, and herbal supplements are a few CAM treatments that people may find beneficial.
  • Social support : Having can help improve treatment outcomes for mental health conditions. While some mental disorders can cause people to withdraw socially, maintaining social connections to the best of your ability may help you feel better and get the support you need as you manage your condition.

In addition to treatment with psychotherapy and medication, coping strategies such as lifestyle changes, social support, and relaxation strategies can help people manage the symptoms of mental disorders. Mental disorders can create distress and make it difficult to function as you normally do.
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What is the difference of disease and disorder?

Diagnosis 2.0: Are mental illnesses diseases, disorders, or syndromes? A major challenge for the DSM-V committees as they revise the diagnostic “bible” of psychiatric disorders is to determine whether mental illnesses are diseases, disorders, or syndromes. Here’s how my version of Webster’s dictionary defines these terms:

Disease: A particular distinctive process in the body with a specific cause and characteristic symptoms.Disorder: Irregularity, disturbance, or interruption of normal functions.Syndrome: A number of symptoms occurring together and characterizing a specific disease.

Let’s consider 4 facts that may be relevant for this decision. No objective laboratory test can differentiate 1 psychiatric malady from another, and this lack of specificity casts doubt on the disease model. However, many documented perturbations of normal brain functions are consistent with a disorder paradigm.

The signs and symptoms of psychiatric ailments overlap considerably. Depression and anxiety share many symptoms and frequently co-occur. Bipolar mania and schizophrenia share psychotic features, cognitive deficits, agitation, suicidality, aggressive behavior, etc. The obsessions of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) resemble and sometimes morph into the fixed false beliefs (delusions) of psychosis, and OCD’s compulsions often characterize the behaviors of other psychiatric disorders, such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa.

Personality disorder features essentially are attenuated but enduring forms of Axis I conditions. Nearly all psychiatric illnesses have some degree of suicidality, insomnia, and addictive behavior. Posttraumatic stress disorder’s symptoms recapitulate those of numerous diagnostic categories, such as anxiety, depression, psychosis, negative symptoms, mania, OCD, impulsive behavior, and personality changes.

neurotransmitter pathways (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, or glutamate)structural abnormalities on neuroimaging (cortical atrophy, ventriculomegaly, gray and/or white matter abnormalities) orgenetic predispositions.

Medical and psychiatric comorbidities (migraine, chronic pain, diabetes, obesity, alcohol abuse, anxiety, eating disorders, and Axis II features) occur across all major psychiatric diagnoses. Psychotropics approved for treating 1 condition are frequently useful for others:

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors initially were indicated for depression but soon were found to have efficacy for panic attacks, social phobia, OCD, bulimia, impulse dyscontrol, and fibromyalgia.Atypical antipsychotics indicated for schizophrenia have been found useful in bipolar mania, treatment-resistant OCD, treatment-resistant depression, borderline personality disorder, delirium, anxiety, etc.Anticonvulsants indicated for epilepsy later were approved for bipolar mania and then found to have uses in alcoholism and drug abuse, aggressive behavior, impulsivity, treatment-resistant anxiety, and psychosis.

The multiple efficacies of psychiatric drug classes strongly suggest shared pharmacotherapeutic responsiveness across psychiatric diagnoses, including those without any FDA-approved medication. They also render the opinionated and uninformed criticism of “off-label” prescribing practices hollow, effete, and counterproductive.

  1. So, should DSM-V committees define diagnostic categories as diseases, disorders, or syndromes? The state of knowledge points to disorders and syndromes rather than diseases.
  2. There very well could be a specific disease within a syndrome, but many phenotypes and genotypes manifest with similar clusters of psychiatric signs and symptoms.

As research identifies each syndrome’s components, future DSM editions can systematically incorporate them and their specific pathophysiologies that converge into common neural and behavioral pathways. Until neuroscience elucidates the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases, wouldn’t it make sense to recognize 4 major syndromes: mood, anxiety, psychosis, and addiction? This might prompt the FDA to approve drugs for clusters of symptoms rather than for arbitrarily defined diagnostic categories that appear distinct but in fact share many signs and symptoms.
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What are most common disorders?

Now more than ever, mental illness is at the forefront of the public health discussion. Recent research shows that mental illness is more common—and much more severe—than previously believed. No longer are people being told to “toughen up” or “just don’t think about it.” Instead, they’re being treated with the same urgency and level of care that a physical injury would get.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), roughly 1 in every 5 Americans is currently living with a mental illness. Of those, the three most common diagnoses are anxiety disorders, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These three conditions make up around 30 percent of all diagnoses of mental illness in America.

While they share many of the same qualities, they’re also significantly different from one another.
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What are the main cause of disorder Class 12?

Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Important Questions with Answers: Physical Education & Sports for CWSN – Q.1 What do you understand by disability etiquettes? Answer: Disability etiquettes is a set of guidelines to deal with people facing physical or mental disabilities.Q.2 Write two ways to communicate with people suffering from cognitive impairments. Answer:

  • Use a calm voice and be comfortable:
  • Treat the person as an individual with talents and abilities

Q.2 What do you understand by physical activity? Answer: Physical activity means the movement of the body and use of energy Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga, and gardening are few examples of physical activity.Q.3 Write any one advantage of physical activity.

  • Answer: Physical activity enhances the metabolism of brain in the children.
  • It leads to cognitive improvement in children with special needs allowing them to acquire new skills, learn new things and focus on specific goals.Q.4 Explain the strategy of positive behaviour in brief.
  • Answer: The strategy of positive behaviour relates to showing a positive attitude and having healthy interactions with children with special needs.

The teachers should prevent negative behaviours and encourage these children to participate in classroom activities.Q.5 Define disability. Answer: Disability is defined as a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group.Q.6 How disability is different from a disorder? Answer: Disability, whether it is physical or mental, is of permanent nature, but disorder can be temporary or permanent.Q.7 Why the word ‘differently abled’ is used in place of disabled nowadays? Answer: Differently abled is used in place of disabled nowadays to give a more positive message and to avoid any kind of discrimination in the society.Q.8 Give some examples of cognitive disability.

  1. Answer: Some examples of cognitive disability are children suffering from dyslexia, speech disorders, problems in solving mathematical calculations, short attention span, short memory and learning difficulties.Q.9 What is ADHD? Answer: ADHD stands’ for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
  2. This brings behavioural changes and is normally seen is school going kids.

Here the attention span is very short, kids are hyperactive and face trouble in focussing on a task.Q.10 What do, you understand by disorder? Answer: A disorder is a blip in the usual functioning of a person. It disturbs the mental or physical health of a person.Q.11 Explain the nature and causes of physical disability.

  • Illnesses like cancer, heart attack or diabetes cause the majority of long-term disabilities.
  • Back pain, injuries and arthritis are also significant causes.
  • Lifestyle choices and personal behaviour that lead to obesity are also becoming major contributing factors.
  • The musculoskeletal disorder also causes disabilities. Examples include spine/joint disorders, fibromytis etc.

Q.12 How does the Sensory Processing Disorder interfere with a child’s normal everyday functioning? Answer: The Sensory Processing Disorder is a condition in which the brain has trouble in receiving and responding to information that comes in through senses.

Children suffering from SPD are either under-reactive or over-reactive. They also lack motor skills, have short span of attention and delayed communication skills. Due to these symptoms, children with SPD are not able to concentrate on studies or other activities. So the lack of sensory coordination with the brain in an appropriate manner interferes with the children’s normal everyday functioning.Q.13 How environmental factors cause various types of disorders? Answer: Environmental factors are the external factors present where a child is living.

Poor nutrition is a major environmental factor because the child does not get adequate food or nutrition and it leads to deficiencies. Exposure to toxins such as lead, insecticides, hydrocarbons creates many hormonal imbalances in the body. Similarly, parental neglect and sexual abuse at young age are other factors present in and around the child that create mental imbalances.

In this way, environmental factors cause various types of disorders.Q.14 Explain the strategy of inclusive classrooms. Why is it gaining popularity? Answer: Inclusive classrooms means including the children with special needs within the normal classrooms where other children study. It requires some changes in existing curriculum so that children with special needs get education along with other children.

This concept is gaining popularity because it helps in changing the outlook of society. If all the children, get education in the same environment then they will understand, interact and cooperate with other. In this way, children with special needs get well accepted in society.Q.15 Write the full form of ADHD and SPD.

  • Genes and Heredity ADHD can run in family due to certain genes and genetic mutations.
  • Brain Injury and Epilepsy Children who have had traumatic brain injuries or who have epilepsy can often have ADHD symptoms.

SPD Causes

  • Children affected with SPD are said to have been understimulated during critical periods of development.
  • Genetic or heredity factors such as having a history of autism or SPD in the family.

Q.16 Explain ASD, ODD and OCD. Give two,causes of each. Answer: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a type of mental disorder which then changes the behaviours. It is a developmental disorder that affects normal brain functioning. People with ASD have repetitive behaviour patterns like flicking a light switch repeatedly, flipping objects etc. Causes of ASD

  • It can be the result of heredity factors, genetic differences and genetic mutations.
  • It can also come through abnormal mechanisms of brain development and other neurobiological factors.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a behaviour disorder that usually takes place in early teens. ODD is characterised by irritable mood, anger, revenge, arguments, disobeying, talking back and mood swings. Teenagers going through ODD face a lot of behavioural problems. Causes of ODD

  1. Genetics A child’s natural disposition or temperament and possible neurobiological differences in the way nerves and the brain function may cause ODD.,
  2. Environment Problems with parenting that may involve lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect also causes ODD.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a type of mental disorder that takes place in people in middle ages. People with OCD do repetitive behaviours, perform routine tasks repeatedly or have certain thoughts routinely. For example, excessive hand washing, counting of things repeatedly, checking if a door is locked many times etc. Causes of OCD

  • Familial Disorder The disorder may run in the family, therefore close relatives of people with OCD are likely to develop it.
  • Behavioural Causes The behavioural theory suggests that people with OCD associate certain objects or situations with fear and learn to avoid those things or learn to perform rituals in order to help reduce the fear or the stress related to that situation.

Q.17 Elaborate the disabilities etiquettes of person with speech difficulties and language impairment? Answer: The disabilities etiquettes of person with speech difficulties are mentioned as below

  • Give attention to the person who has difficulty in speaking.
  • Keep manner to encourage rather than correcting.
  • Give extra time for the conversation and be patient.
  • If you have difficulty in understanding, don’t pretend that you do. Repeat as much as you do understand.

The disabilities etiquettes of person with language impairment are mentioned as below

  • Use a calm voice and be comfortable. Use simple and short sentences.
  • Do not argue with the person.
  • Treat each person as an individual with talents and abilities deserving of respect and dignity.

Q.18 Explain the advantages of physical activities for children with special needs. Answer: There are various advantages of physical activities for children with special needs. These are mentioned below

  1. It strengthens the heart muscle thereby improving cardiovascular efficiency, lung efficiency and exercise endurance. This helps in controlling repetitive behaviours among disabled children.
  2. Besides improving fitness, physical activity develops social relationships with other children, teammates and teachers. This brings positive changes in the social behaviour of these children.
  3. It helps to improve energy level in the body. Regular physical activity often makes children more energetic, allows them to become active.
  4. It regulates blood pressure, cholesterol level and diabetes. Physical activity reduces stress level.
  5. It helps to control weight. The children with disabilities are not physically active or may have deficit of calories, which takes fat away and lowers weight but regular exercises help in regulating weight.
  6. Physical activities help in improving muscle strength, coordination and flexibility among disabled children.

Q.19 Explain three causes that are behind intellectual disability. Answer: The three causes behind intellectual disability are as follows

  1. Genetic Conditions These include conditions like Downs syndrome and fragile X syndrome. These occur due to genetic mutations or heredity factors.
  2. Problems during Pregnancy and Childbirth Intellectual disability can be caused if the foetus is not well-developed during pregnancy. If an infant does not get sufficient oxygen during childbirth or is premature, then the chances are more of this disability.
  3. Illness or Injury Illness like meningitis, whooping cough, measles, infections in the brain or head injuries can be the causes of intellectual disability.

Q.20 Explain any five disability etiquettes towards people with hearing loss? Answer: There are various disability etiquettes to be shown towards people with hearing loss. These are as follows

  • Get.the person’s attention with a wave of the hand, or a tap on the shoulder.
  • Speak clearly and slowly, but without exaggerating your lip movements or shouting.
  • Use sign language if you and the person are both familiar with it.
  • When an interpreter accompanies a person, direct your remarks to the person rather than to the interpreter.
  • Look directly at the person and speak f expressively.

Q.21 Explain five strategies to make physical activities accessible for children with special needs. Answer: The five strategies to make physical activities accessible for children with special needs are as follows

  1. Inclusive Classrooms It means development of education laws in such a way that children with special needs get education within the normal classrooms along with other children so that they are well accepted in society.
  2. Assistive Technology It refers to creating devices, tools or equipment that help children with special needs to participate in learning activities like bigger balls, balls with bells, balls attached to strings to bring it back to the students etc.
  3. Adaptive Physical Education Depending on students’ disability, a separate, adaptive class or modifications within a game, changing the rules of the game or sport to some extent can help the students in a big way.
  4. Creating Specific Environment Students with special needs can be provided with specific play area with special requirements as needed by them. Loud music, glaring lights often cannot be tolerated by these children so a lot of natural lighting should be there.
  5. Positive Behaviour In physical education classes, teachers should show positive behaviour and healthy interactions and prevent negative behaviours. The method is to “Prevent, Teach, Reinforce”. This means class material taught through positive interactions, lesson reinforced by referring back to behavioural expectations and evaluating progress.

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What is disorder in a sentence?

The emergency room was in disorder. Inside all was disorder: drawers fallen out, shoes and boots scattered. He called on the authorities to stop public disorder. There are other forms of civil disorder–most notably, football hooliganism.
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