What Is Constructive Feedback In Education?
Abstract – Constructive feedback is defined as the act of giving information to a student or resident through the description of their performance in an observed clinical situation. The following keys are required during feedback in order to get student’s performance improvement: the observation of an event, the instructor’s comment on said performance, by following always a pre-established pattern or standard, and advice on improvement.
Major impact takes place when a student or a resident compares the teacher’s feedback to its own performance. The dissonance between desired and actual performance constitutes a strong motivation and deep-learning generator. Most of the teachers find it essential, but in general they carry it out in a short and non specific way.
Medical students and residents are willing to get and need constructive feedback and they clearly associate it to high-quality learning. However, even though they appreciate it, they seldom request it. It is essential to take maximum advantage of feedback by giving recommendations, producing reactions and self-analysis and also by defining an appropriate action plan.
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- 0.1 What is constructive feedback?
- 0.2 Why is constructive feedback important in teaching?
- 0.3 What are some examples of constructive feedback?
- 0.4 What is the full meaning of constructive?
- 1 How do teachers make constructive comments?
What is constructive feedback?
What is Constructive Feedback? – Constructive feedback is supportive feedback given to individuals to help identify solutions to areas of weakness they may have. Therefore, it comes with positive intentions and is used as a supportive communication tool to address specific issues or concerns.
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Why is constructive feedback important in teaching?
Giving Assessment Feedback Feedback has a significant impact on learning; it has been described as “the most powerful single moderator that enhances achievement” (Hattie, 1999). The main objectives of feedback are to:
- justify to students how their mark or grade was derived
- identify and reward specific qualities in student work
- guide students on what steps to take to improve
- motivate them to act on their assessment
- develop their capability to monitor, evaluate and regulate their own learning (Nicol, 2010).
To benefit student learning, feedback needs to be:
- constructive. As well as highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of a given piece of work, it should set out ways in which the student can improve the work.
- timely, Give feedback while the assessed work is still fresh in a student’s mind, before the student moves on to subsequent tasks.
- meaningful, It should target individual needs, be linked to specific assessment criteria, and be received by a student in time to benefit subsequent work.
Feedback is valuable when it is received, understood and acted on. How students analyse, discuss and act on feedback is as important as the quality of the feedback itself (Nicol, 2010). Through the interaction students have with feedback, they come to understand how to develop their learning.
All assessment practices, both summative and formative, should include the provision of “quality, timely feedback” (refer to the UNSW ). Feedback needs to be provided throughout the semester, rather than just at the end. Regular constructive feedback during the semester enables students to incorporate feedback into later assessment tasks.
Ideally, plan for assessment feedback as part of the assessment design. When you tell students about the assessment requirements, include information on how and when feedback will be provided. Tell students what specific opportunities they will have to engage with and use feedback in their subsequent learning.
- encourages students to think critically about their work and to reflect on what they need to do to improve it
- helps them see their learning in new ways and gain increased satisfaction from it
- helps promote dialogue between staff and students
- guides students to adapt and adjust their learning strategies
- guides teachers to adapt and adjust teaching to accommodate students’ learning needs
- guides students to become independent and self-reflective learners, and better critics of their own work
- stimulates reflection, interaction and dialogue about learning improvement
- is constructive, so that students feel encouraged and motivated to improve
- has consequences, so that it engages students by requiring them to attend to the feedback as part of the assessment
- is efficient, so that staff can manage it effectively.
Students often find assessment feedback unsatisfactory, for a wide range of reasons, including the following:
- When feedback is cryptic (for example, “More”, “What’s this?”, “Link?”, or simply ticks and crosses), students can sometimes be unable to gauge whether a response is positive or negative, whether and how the feedback is related to their mark, and what they might do to improve.
- When feedback consists mainly of grammar and spelling corrections, and provides little or no advice for them to act on, students cannot tell what they have done well, what they need to change and why they have achieved the grade they have.
- Many assessment tasks are one-offs, intended for students to demonstrate their achievement for a summative grade; students cannot respond to the feedback with a further submission. Such tasks do not encourage risk-taking, experimentation, creativity or practice.
- Feedback that does not acknowledge the way students’ learning has progressed over time does not help them get a sense of how far they have come and what they have yet to achieve.
- Students can encounter different (and inconsistent) comments from different lecturers on similar pieces of writing.
Academic staff report a range of concerns about assessment feedback, including the following:
- Preparing good-quality assessment feedback for students is very time-consuming, in spite of its potential value for improving learning.
- When evidence suggests that students have not read the feedback or acted on it, teachers see time and effort put into providing feedback as wasted.
- Giving feedback can be repetitive and unproductive. Academics often find themselves giving the same or very similar feedback to many students, or giving the same feedback to repeated efforts by one student, with no change occurring in that student’s performance.
- Students can focus on negative comments and fail to register positive comments.
If feedback is provided too late to influence learning, neither can it influence teaching, as staff do not have time to adjust their teaching in response to students’ performance. Devising strategies for feedback can save you time by reducing:
- the number of complaints from students who believe they have been unfairly marked
- the amount of time lecturers spend reading assignments that do not answer the question
- the amount of confusion between markers as to what the submission is supposed to look like.
The time involved to set up the strategies will be more than recouped in the course of the semester.
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What are some examples of constructive feedback?
Example of constructive feedback: ‘Helen, I always appreciate how productive and reliable you are, but I have noticed a change in your performance lately. Turning in assignments late is unlike you. I wanted to check in with you to discuss any challenges you have been facing and understand how I can support you better.’
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What are the 2 types of constructive feedback?
Constructive feedback – This type of feedback is specific, issue-focused and based on observations. There are four types of constructive feedback:
Negative feedback – corrective comments about past behaviour. Focuses on behaviour that wasn’t successful and shouldn’t be repeated. Positive feedback – affirming comments about past behaviour. Focuses on behaviour that was successful and should be continued. Negative feed-forward – corrective comments about future performance. Focuses on behaviour that should be avoided in the future. Positive feed-forward – affirming comments about future behaviour. Focused on behaviour that will improve performance in the future.
What is the full meaning of constructive?
Top Definitions Synonyms Quiz Related Content Examples British
This shows grade level based on the word’s complexity. / kənˈstrʌk tɪv / This shows grade level based on the word’s complexity. adjective helping to improve; promoting further development or advancement (opposed to destructive ): constructive criticism.
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How do teachers make constructive comments?
Constructive Feedback: A Key to Successful Teaching and Learning Feedback has been recognized as a tool to enhance the teaching‐learning process. Both teachers and students may benefit from relevant information which highlights strengths and achievements as well as areas for improvement.
Constructive feedback should be systematic. Feedback for teaching and learning should be relevant, immediate, factful, helpful, confidential, respectful, tailored and encouraging if it is going to be effectively used to achieve successful teaching and learning. Furthermore, input from instructors themselves, students and peers should be sought in order to provide constructive feedback.
(1994), “Constructive Feedback: A Key to Successful Teaching and Learning”,, Vol.8 No.6, pp.19-22. : MCB UP Ltd Copyright © 1994, MCB UP Limited : Constructive Feedback: A Key to Successful Teaching and Learning
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What is objective and constructive feedback?
Of all the ways we communicate at work, feedback is an essential one. Providing feedback is key to letting your employees know how they’re performing and what’s expected of them, and it’s part of supporting your team’s learning and development. It’s important that this feedback happens on a regular, ongoing basis – not just when performance reviews come around.
- Be problem-focused and specific An important part of telling an employee what they could do better is to tell them why. For example, starting a conversation with ‘You need to be getting to work earlier’ assumes the employee knows why punctuality is so important. Instead, be clear about the actual problem at hand – which in this case might be that customers are being kept waiting – and structure your feedback around it. The employee might not have all the background or context on an issue. So, if necessary, give them a sense of how the issue affects you and the rest of the business. The more specific you can make your feedback, the more actionable it will be.
- Talk about the situation, not the individual Constructive feedback is by its nature focused on outcomes and impartial observations – not the employee’s personal attributes. Feedback centred on the individual could be taken as an attack motivated by personal feelings, rather than objective facts. By discussing the situation itself, rather than your personal opinion about it, you’re showing that you’re most concerned about fixing the problem at hand and not criticising the employee’s own personality.
- Give praise where it’s due Giving employees positive feedback is essential, too – and acknowledging positives among negatives can be a good way to reassure them that you haven’t lost perspective. For example, ‘I think you did a great job with this account – sales are up 13% since last quarter. But we’ve had a few customers tell us that response times have increased.’ This tells the employee that you’re not criticising their overall performance; just that certain aspects of their job need attention. Just be careful not to over-emphasise the positives, as this can make you appear uncertain or insincere.
- Be direct but informal Try not to use technology such as email, text message or the phone to relay your feedback, as this can lead to misinterpretation and make it seem less important than it really is. It’s best to speak in person, by finding a quiet space where you can have an honest and informal one-on-one chat with the employee. If that’s not possible, a phone or video chat could best suit if that’s how you regularly communicate. While you want to be informal, it’s best not to beat around the bush – feedback of any sort is most effective when you get straight to the point.
- Be sincere If your tone and manner don’t match the context of the feedback itself, you could send out a mixed message that confuses your employee. If the feedback is positive, let your emotions also indicate that you appreciate their efforts. For negative feedback, a more concerned tone will show that you believe the problem should be taken seriously. Most importantly, always try to avoid displaying negative emotions such as anger, sarcasm or disappointment.
- Listen When you’re giving constructive feedback, make sure your employee is given a chance to respond. It should be a conversation between you both. This shows that you’re prepared to listen to their concerns and their interpretation of events. It’s also an opportunity for the employee to express their ideas to you and become part of the solution.
- Make it timely It’s best to give praise when an employee’s achievement is still fresh. Timeliness is also important for negative feedback – except in a situation where an employee has done something that makes you feel genuinely bad. In that case, it may be wise to wait until you’ve ‘cooled off’ before taking it up with them. This will help to ensure that your feedback is objective and not coloured by emotion.
Ultimately, the best kind of constructive feedback focuses on behaviour or situations, not people and personalities. It’s given in a tone and setting that conveys support and respect. Great constructive feedback helps employees recognise and avoid their mistakes and inspires them to achieve their potential.
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What is not constructive feedback?
Destructive Vs. Constructive Criticism: Learn to Tell the Difference
Criticism comes in two forms: destructive and constructive. Both types of feedback point out our mistakes, flaws, or potential improvements. But while constructive criticism uplifts, offers suggestions, and even provides possible solutions, destructive criticism is cutting, derogatory, and sometimes even mocks our failures. Like it or not, we’re bound to receive both forms of feedback and can’t ultimately control what others share with us. But what we can control is our emotional response to criticism: A healthy response depends upon us learning self-acceptance. Learning self-acceptance may require some life “renovations,” including cutting out toxic people, practicing reaffirming phrases, or even using thought replacement to root out negative thought patterns and steer clear of stewing in harmful emotions. And just as importantly, we should gauge the nature of the criticism we’re offering to others. This starts with evaluating our emotional state, remembering our goal is to be constructive, and considering our relationship with the person we’re offering criticism to (we’re more likely to destructively criticize ).
Learning to accept may not be high on your bucket list, but psychologically speaking, it should probably be recognized as an advanced art form that takes years to master. Because it’s hard. When we hear criticism from others, depending on our self-worth and the nature of the comment, we may retreat inward, becoming our own, even harsher, critics.
Equally as damaging, toward those who’ve pointed out our flaws, be they valid or not. But not all criticism is created equally: Psychologists recognize both and as two distinct forms of verbal feedback. While both have the potential to expose our shortcomings, constructive criticism can help foster a more positive growth mindset.
Destructive criticism, on the other hand, can be emotionally damaging but isn’t 100% avoidable. Most importantly, whether the criticism we give or receive is constructive or destructive, our ability to practice self-acceptance defines our relationship with criticism.
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What is the meaning of constructive purpose?
Adjective. A constructive discussion, comment, or approach is useful and helpful rather than negative and unhelpful.
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