What Is Basic Education In India?


What Is Basic Education In India
Primary education or elementary education lasts 8 years in India. Pupils aged 6 to 14 complete the following 2 stages: primary stage, grade I-V; upper primary stage, grade VI-VIII.
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What is basic education education?

Basic education Whole range of educational activities, taking place in various settings, that aim to meet basic learning needs as defined in the World Declaration on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand, 1990). According to ISCED standard, basic education comprises primary education (first stage of basic education) and lower secondary education (second stage).
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When did basic education start in India?

Mahatma Gandhi proposed his scheme of Basic Education (Nai Talim) in a well formulated approach to education in 1937 in his news paper ‘Harijan’.
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What is basic education by Mahatma Gandhi?

Nai Talim The principal idea is to impart the whole education of the body, mind and soul through the handicraft that is taught to the children. —  In 1940 Shri Chitta Bhusan, hardcore Gandhian freedom fighter and follower of ‘Basic Education’, came to a remote village named Majhihira in the then Manbhum district of Bihar (now in West Bengal), where he founded the Majhihira National Basic Education Institution (MNBEI).

He took his last breath on 7th February 2016 at 101 years old. He enjoyed a simple life and used a, Nai Talim, or Basic Education, is a principle which states that knowledge and work are not separate. promoted an educational curriculum with the same name based on this pedagogical principle. It can be translated with the phrase ‘Basic Education for all’.

However, the concept has several layers of meaning. It developed out of Gandhi’s experience with the English educational system and with colonialism in general. In that system, he saw that Indian children would be alienated and ‘career-based thinking’ would become dominant.
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Which subjects are included in basic education?

Curriculum at the Elementary School – Teachers at the primary school level play constructive role in molding the career of young children. A wide range of grade levels encompasses the elementary school. Mostly, elementary school teachers concentrate on a particular grade level, teaching different fundamental subjects ranging from mathematics, social studies, science, music, physical education, and language arts.

Confident- who can judge right and wrong, can think on his own, reasons and can communicate Active Contributor- who innovates, works well with teams and learns to contribute and exercises, and strive towards excellence Self directed learner- who questions and explores, perseveres and takes responsibility for his own learning A concerned citizen- who is concerned about his country, has strong sense of civic responsibility and takes an active part in betterment of people around him.

It is vital that curriculum at primary schools should be based on- fit individual needs, be tailored to age and ability and attitude. Besides gaining skills, pupils are able to understand what is taught, how it is taught, and how it can be applied to the world at large.
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What are the objectives of basic education?

One of the objectives of primary education is to inculcate permanent literacy, numeracy, and ability to communicate effectively. This point has to do with developing the child’s speaking, writing, reading and speaking skills.
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Who introduced basic education scheme?

Wardha Scheme of Basic Education 1937

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The Wardha Scheme of Basic Education was the consequence of Mahatma Gandhi’s realization of India’s non-effective education system. In 1931 Mahatma Gandhi for the first time attended the Second Round Table Conference (RTC) in London, where he highlighted the deterioration of the education system in India and held British education policy responsible, for the severe downfall of education in India.

  • Later, in 1937 Mahatma Gandhi published an article in his weekly Magazine ‘ Harijan ‘ about his viewpoints on the failing education system in India.
  • He also wrote about the schemes that can be followed to expand the education system to every section of society.During the 1937 elections, the Indian National Congress (INC) candidates had projected free and compulsory education as one of their manifestoes.

Post their win, INC decided to take forward Gandhi’s Education scheme, published in ‘ Harijan ‘. Congress decided to officially propose the scheme with some modifications. Therefore, in this regard ‘ All India National Educational Conference ‘ was held at Wardha.

  1. Nationwide Free and Compulsory Education for 7 years
  2. Mother Tongue will be the Medium of Instruction
  3. Education will be centred around manual or productive work, not just for Degree and examination. Hence it integrated the Physical Environment, Social Environment, and Craft Work.

Based upon this meeting at Wardha, a committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Zakir Hussain was formed. The Committee submitted the first extensive National Basic Education Scheme in its report in March 1938, which is known as the Wardha Scheme of Basic Education, It is also called as Nai Talim/Basic Education/Buniyadi Talim (Shiksha)/ Buniyadi Shiksha.
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What are the three basic education?

What are the 3 Types of Education – Education refers to the development of the learning and thinking process. It goes beyond the four walls of the classroom. It is all about gaining experience and therefore we can divide education into three main types:

  • Formal Education
  • Informal Education
  • Non-formal Education
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All three types of education are explained in this section below.

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    Is basic education compulsory?

    According to international human rights law, primary education shall be compulsory and free of charge. Secondary and higher education shall be made progressively free of charge. Free primary education is fundamental in guaranteeing everyone has access to education.

    • However, in many developing countries, families often cannot afford to send their children to school, leaving millions of children of school-age deprived of education.
    • Despite international obligations, some states keep on imposing fees to access primary education.
    • In addition, there are often indirect costs associated with education, such as for school books, uniform or travel, that prevent children from low-income families accessing school.

    Financial difficulties states may face cannot relieve them of their obligation to guarantee free primary education. If a state is unable to secure compulsory primary education, free of charge, when it ratifies the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR, 1966), it still has the immediate obligation, within two years, to work out and adopt a detailed plan of action for its progressive implementation, within a reasonable numbers of years, to be fixed in the plan (ICESCR, Article 14).
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    Is basic education mandatory?

    THE Federation of Associations of Private Schools and Administrators, the country’s largest association of private schools, wants the two years of senior high school or Grades 11 and 12 of the K to 12 program placed under the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education Skills and Development Authority (Tesda) instead of the Department of Education (DepEd).

    Eleazardo Kasilag, president of the 9,995-member association, said it would be a disaster, especially for private schools, if DepEd insists on placing the two more years of high school education on the lap of basic education instead of tertiary education since private schools would have to invest millions of pesos to construct more school buildings and hire more teachers as they are not subsidized by the government.

    “It makes sense for the tertiary departments to take up the basic education graduates as Grades 11 and 12 students would take up courses devoted to their specialization such as in arts, sports, entrepreneurship, agriculture or information technology,” he added.

    The K to 12 program would equip high school students with the skills to land a job after graduation even without enrolling in college and compete with their counterparts in other countries. With the K to 12 program, college courses may be shortened as general education subjects usually taken by first year college students such as Physical Education would then be absorbed in Grades 11 and 12.

    – Ashzel Hachero _ _ What is basic compulsory education? First, it would be useful to have a survey of other countries. Here is a list showing the countries and their respective number of years of required schooling. ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compulsory_education )

    Country Number of required years of schooling
    Australia 12
    Canada 10
    China 9
    Egypt 8
    Finland 9
    France 10
    Germany 9-10
    Hong Kong 9
    India 8
    Poland 12
    Russia 11
    Singapore 9
    Slovenia 9
    Taiwan 9
    United Kingdom 12
    United States 9-13

    There is quite a range, 8-13 years. Compulsory education means all are required by law to attend school for the prescribed duration. In the United States, a family who has a child who would be 5 years of age by October receives a phone call from the school district to ensure compliance with the compulsory education law of the state.

    Compulsory education also clearly defines what and how many years of education the government must provide for its citizens. During the reformation, the idea of compulsory education in Europe was aligned with the goal of having each citizen capable of reading the scriptures. More recently, education has been viewed as equipping the student with the 3R’s: reading, ‘riting, and ‘rithmetic.

    Nowadays, with emphasis on critical thinking, there are new 3R’s: Relating, Representing and Reasoning. Both science and arts cover these three important basic skills. Relating, representing and reasoning are clearly skills that provide an individual to function inside a society.

    1. Without the ability to reason, for example, it is difficult to imagine how a democratic process can actually work if the members of society cannot weigh what is right and what is wrong.
    2. It is in our communication with one another that a society is able to move forward as one.
    3. That is why it is a must that each member of society is able to engage in discussions with other members of society.

    As human beings, who are especially aware of ourselves and what surrounds us, it is important that we become capable of digesting and casting our experiences in models that we could share with others. It is through these representations that we deepen our understanding of ourselves and the world we live in.

    What Is Basic Education In India
    http://www3.jkl.fi/tiedotus/human_tech_city/index.php/2008-02/144 “Preschool education: According to Finnish law a child has the right to free preschool education in the year prior to the start of compulsory education, generally at the age of six. Basic education: Basic education is a nine-year general education. Basic education is free and gives everyone who completes it the right to further education. All children living permanently in Finland are legally obliged to complete the compulsory education syllabus. Basic education is also available to adults: this is arranged by general upper secondary schools for adults and folk high schools.”

    Why then is there a range for the number of years for compulsory education among various countries? The years of compulsory education depend on the resources the government has. It also depends on what the real objectives are of compulsory education. Most of the countries here that have less years of compulsory education have additional years of schooling beyond the required years that are still at the pre-university level.

    • These countries usually offer two separate tracks after the basic compulsory education: vocational and precollege preparation.
    • This indeed makes the proposed additional years of DepEd’s K+ 12 plan look quite similar.
    • In this respect, it may be helpful to reflect on what the true objectives are of Philippine basic education.

    What do we value? We should measure what we value and not value what we measure. Scores in tests and years in a curriculum, are both measures. We need to be careful in using these numbers in drawing policies and programs that address problems in education.

    • We must keep in mind that these are tools and representations.
    • The scores in these exams by both Philippine students and teachers are low.
    • But, in my opinion, much more useful than realizing that the Philippines ranks low in these exams, is seeing the range, or breadth of scores of Philippine students.

    In my opinion, “Education for All” is the true value and this is what needs to be measured. It is very important to look beyond one number and see what is behind such number. Comparing educational systems between countries goes far beyond just looking at the number of years.

    • It requires again a reflection on what we value, what our true goals are.
    • If “Education for All” is the value we set then the curriculum must be focused.
    • It means, first of all, that the curriculum should not distinguish students based on their ability and performance.
    • Separate curriculum, one for those who are advanced, and one for those who are falling behind, is not an answer to this value.

    Rather, in the first six years of schooling, the curriculum must be distilled into its very basic components, thereby allowing the entire class to move as one, allowing the nation to learn as one. Fewer topics do not mean shorter instructional times. Decongesting the curriculum is not achieved by increasing the number of years of schooling but at the same time decreasing instructional times within each year.
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    Is basic education free in India?

    Departmen of School Education & Literacy The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine.

    The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

    Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘Free education’ means that no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.

    • Compulsory education’ casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group.
    • With this, India has moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation on the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child right as enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act.

    The RTE Act provides for the:

    Right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood school. It clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. ‘Free’ means that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class. It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments. It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working hours. It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief. It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications. It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d) private tuition by teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition, It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centered learning.

    : Departmen of School Education & Literacy
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    What is a basic 4 year degree called?

    Bachelor’s or Baccalaureate Degree – Bachelor’s degrees require students to complete four- or five-year programs in a specific academic discipline. The two most common types of bachelor’s degrees are bachelor of arts (BA) and bachelor of science (BS).

    Other types of bachelor’s degrees include the bachelor of fine arts (BFA), and bachelor of architecture (BArch). Because bachelor’s degrees train students to enter a specific field, many professional careers require them. Earning a bachelor’s degree can open the door to many job opportunities and increase your potential income.

    Some institutions offer a liberal arts and career combination program, also called a 3-2 program. This is a type of dual degree in which a student completes three years of liberal arts study followed by two years of professional or technical study. In the end, students earn two bachelor’s degrees, usually a BA and a BS.
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    Why basic education is so important?

    10 Facts About the Importance of Primary Education –

    Primary Education Consequences: Major life-long consequences accrue from access to primary education, The cumulative nature of the learning process, whether in literacy or numeracy, requires the early internalization of basic abstractions. Without this process at a young age, children fall behind in the trajectory of cognitive development and fail to reach their potential. Moreover, primary educational access facilitates the identification of, and assistance to, both gifted and struggling young minds. Nations’ Development: A nation’s development relies considerably on the access of its population to educational institutions. Access to primary education, regardless of class or caste or income, levels the social playing field, Gender equality, another significant marker of national development, improves alongside the universalization of access to educational institutions, including primary schools. Refugee Children: According to the United Nations, roughly 39 percent of refugee children across the globe do not receive a primary school education. This enrollment statistic contrasts sharply with that of non-refugee children, with 92 percent receiving primary school education. From 2017 to 2018, the number of unenrolled primary-school-age refugee children rose to a total of four million. Teachers: UNESCO’s Institute for Statistics calculates that ensuring primary education access for all requires roughly 24.4 million more primary school teachers. Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a scarcity of primary school teachers in more than 70 percent of its constituent nation-states. South Asia falls directly behind Sub-Saharan Africa in its primary school teacher scarcity crisis, requiring approximately four million more teachers by 2030 to attain the goal of universal primary education. Disabled Children: A UNESCO study of 37 countries determined that children with disabilities face a greater likelihood than their non-disabled peers of total exclusion from primary school and are more likely to experience fewer years enrolled in school and suffer major literacy deficits, These disadvantages are more likely to afflict disabled girls, thus sharpening gender asymmetries. Of the studied countries, Cambodia exhibited the most dramatic gap between disabled students and their peers, with 57 percent of the former unenrolled compared to 7 percent of the latter. Gender Parity Improvements: Data suggests improvements in gender parity in access to primary education. Sub-Saharan Africa features a 2 percent gap between the genders in non-delayed access to primary education, with 29 percent of girls unenrolled compared to 27 percent of boys. However, of children two or more years above the standard enrollment age, girls remain at a disadvantage compared to boys, attesting to the persistent influence of gender expectations on access to primary education. Violence and Exploitation: Children deprived of access to primary education risk a greater likelihood of suffering violence and exploitation. Where educational deprivation results from conflict or natural catastrophe, the danger of child trafficking intensifies, Conflict and natural disasters impeded educational access for approximately 39 million girls in 2015. As girls face a greater likelihood of impeded educational access than boys in conflict-ridden or disaster-affected regions, girls likewise face an increased risk of child trafficking out of proportion with their population percentage. Education Cannot Wait (ECW): On December 11, 2019, Education Cannot Wait (ECW) announced a $64 million educational funding initiative in the conflict-ridden countries of Chad, Ethiopia, South Sudan and Syria. Though targeting affected youth of all backgrounds, this project places particular focus on girls, disabled children and refugees. This initiative will facilitate teacher training and student enrollment in vulnerable regions. Ultimately, this project anticipates the mobilization of governments, NGOs and civilians for the growth and maintenance of secure and effective educational sectors. The LEGO Foundation: The LEGO Foundation announced a grant of $100 million on December 10, 2019, for an early learning solutions initiative targeting crisis-affected groups in Ethiopia and Uganda. Play-oriented learning programs will improve the skill sets of both primary-school-aged and pre-school children. These play-oriented learning strategies assist children in surmounting trauma that may otherwise impede their scholastic potential. Roughly 800,000 children will benefit from this project. The Global Pa rt nership for Education: December 10, 2019, witnessed the grant of $100 million by The Global Partnership for Education for educational initiatives across Asia and Africa. Burkina Faso, for instance, plans investment of its four-year GPE grant of $21 million toward improving primary school enrollment and developing pedagogical infrastructure. The investment of $21 million in Somalia’s Somaliland region seeks to rectify gender imparity in access to primary education.

    Access to primary education provides the foundation upon which the talents of a nation’s youth may grow. Moreover, there exists a strong relationship between primary education and the promotion of such values as gender equality and social mobility. Although an indispensable institution in the contemporary age, crises both man-made and natural threaten primary education across continents.
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    What is basic education in deped?

    The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education ( six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School ) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education,
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