What Education Did Shivaji Receive In His Childhood?


What Education Did Shivaji Receive In His Childhood
MP Board Class 7th Social Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Rise of the Sikh and Maratha Power Choose the correct alternatives: Question 1. Khalsa group was organised by: (a) Guru Govind Singh (b) Guru Teg Bahadur (c) Banda Bahadur (d) Gum Hargovind. Answer: (a) Guru Govind Singh Question 2. The credit of organisation of Maratha power goes to: (a) Sambaji (b) Shahji (c) Shivaji (d) Peshwa. Answer:

  • (c) Shivaji
  • Question 3. To Supress the power of Shivaji the Sultan of Bijapur sent: (a) Afzal Khan (b) Adil Shah (c) ShaistaKhan (d) Hasan Khan Answer:
  • (a) Afzal Khan

Question 4. At the highest position of Shivaji’s Ashta Pradhan was: (a) Amatya (b) Secretary (c) Panditrao (d) Peshwa. Answer: (d) Peshwa. Fill in the blanks:

  1. The title of Sachcha Padshah was conferred on
  2. was fee first Guru of the Sikhs.
  3. Shivaji adorned fee title of, after his coronation.
  4. . was the source of income of Shivaji’s Kingdom.


  1. Banda Bahadur
  2. Guru Nanak
  3. Chhatrapati
  4. land revenue

MP Board Class 7th Social Science Chapter 24 Short Answer Type Questions Question 1. What efforts was made by Guru Govind Singh to make the Sikhs powerful? Answer: Gum Govind Singh transformed the Sikhs into a separate community and named them Khalsa.

  1. He prescribed the five K’s-Kara, Kripan, Kesh, Kachacha, and Kangha for the Sikhs.
  2. He transformed the Sikhs into a powerful military organization.
  3. Question 2.
  4. What education did Shivaji receive in his childhood? Answer: Shivaji was taught to be independent.
  5. His mother instilled inspiration and determination in him to defend his people and his country.

Question 3. Why did Shivaji kill Afzal Khan? Answer: Afzal Khan was sent to capture Shivaji. He plotted to kill him. Shivaji came to know about his plan and killed him in order to save his own life. Question 4. Write short notes on:

  1. Ashta Pradhan.
  2. The military administration of Shivaji.

Answer: 1. Ashta Pradhan: Shivaji had appointed a council of eightministers. It was called Ashta Pradhan. Their main function was to advise Shivaji in carrying out the administration of his territories. Each person was the head of his department. However all worked under the chairmanship of Shivaji. These Ashta Pradhan were –

  • Peshwa (Prime Minister)
  • Amatya (Finance Minister)
  • Sumant (External Affair Minister)
  • Mari
  • Sachiv (Secretary)
  • Panditrao (Purohit)
  • Senapati (army general)
  • Nyayadhish (Judge)

2. The military administration of Shivaji: Shivaji had maintained discipline in his army. His army comprised of cavalry, infantry, artillery and navy. The soldiers were under control. They never tried to break the rules of discipline. Beside other duties, they also protected the holy books and safeguarded the women, children or old people from abuse.

  1. MP Board Class 7th Social Science Chapter 24 Long Answer Type Questions Question 1.
  2. Clarify the Mughal and the Sikh relations.
  3. Answer: The Skihs were the followers of Guru Nanak.
  4. By the seventeenth century, Sikhism (new religion) had become the religion of the peasants and artisans in many parts of the the Punjab.

After Gum Nanak, there were other nine Sikh Gurus. The earlier Gums concentrated mainly on Sikhism But the later Gums became the military leaders of the Sikhs also. They did so because they had to defend themselves from the atrocities of the Mughals. The fifth Gum Aijundev was accused by Jahangir for helping his son Khusro in the revolt against him and was killed.

The confrontation and martyrdom of the gurus transformed die Sikhs into a military brotherhood. To curb the growing power and strength of the Sikhs, Aurangzeb ordered the execution of Gum Tegh Bahadur in 1675 A.D. This enraged the Sikhs. As a result, the tenth and last Gum Govind Singh organised the Sikhs as soldiers and prepared them for a long battle against the Mughals.

Like Maratha, the Sikhs carried out raids in various places, but unlike Maratha, they could not establish an independent state during the reign of Aurangzeb. Thus we see that the relations between the Mughals and the Sikhs were not friendly. They were always on fighting terms. Question 2. Shivaji had excellent administrative ability. Explain? Answer: Shivaji was not only a great general but also a good administrator of top order. Shivaji’s administration was of high order which inspired by ideals of public welfare. Though Shivaji was all in all, in all matters, he kept a committee of 8 persons to advise him on the affairs of the state.

This committee came to be known as Ashta Pradhan. This was file main feature of Shivaji’s administration. The main source of income was the tax on the land which amounted to two – fifths of file land produce. Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were also levied on those living outside Maratha kingdom. Chauth was one fourth of the tax which farmers paid such kingdoms by their peasants.

Sardeshmukhi was over and above this tax. It was one tenth of the total revenue, from which these taxes were collected, remained free from the Maratha looting’s and attacks. For the smooth and efficient administration, Shivaji divided his kingdom into a number of provinces known as prants, and each prant into districts and parganas.
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What did Shivaji do in his childhood?

Shivaji was the founder of the Maratha Empire in the Indian subcontinent, The early life of Shivaji is a topic of great interest in the popular culture of India, especially in the Maharashtra state, where he spent most of his life. This article describes.

  • Shivaji’s life from his birth until the age of 19 years (1630-1649).
  • Shivaji was born at the hill fort of Shivneri on 1 March 1630, which corresponds to 19 February 1630 of the Julian calendar used by the contemporary English traders in India.
  • At the time of his birth, both the families of his father Shahaji and his mother Jijabai, served the Ahmednagar Sultanate in military and administrative capacities, although they subsequently transferred their allegiance to the Mughal Empire and the Bijapur Sultanate at different times.

As a servant of Bijapur, Shahaji was deputed in southern Deccan after 1636, and did not see Shivaji for several years. Shivaji and his mother remained in Pune in northern Deccan, where Shahaji’s subordinate Dadoji Kondadeo administered the family’s jagir (feudal land grant) in Shivaji’s name.

  1. As a teenager, Shivaji started acting independently of the Bijapur government, against the advice of Shahaji and Dadoji.
  2. He captured several hill forts at the expense of other vassals of Bijapur, and by the age of 15.
  3. After Dadoji’s death in 1647, Shivaji assumed full control of his father’s jagir in the Pune region, and eliminated local challenges to his authority.

He then invaded the northern Konkan region, making inroads into the territory of the Siddis of Janjira, He subsequently tried to form an alliance with Mughals against Bijapur, and ultimately ended up fighting both these powers to establish a kingdom that evolved into the Maratha Empire,
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At what age did Shivaji early education start?

Shivaji’s education began when he became seven years old. Soon, Shivaji became skilled in the art of reading and writing. He began to read the stories from ‘Ramayan’, ‘Mahabharat’ and ‘Bhagwat’, on his own. To teach him warfare, Shahaji Raje had appointed some teachers.
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Where did Shivaji Maharaj lived in his childhood?

Shaistakhan set up his camp at Lal Mahal in Pune where Shivaji Maharaj had lived his childhood.
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Who is the childhood teacher of Shivaji?

Life lessons from Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Indians have gone through the worst phase during the Mughal invasion. They exploited us economically, socially, converted many Hindus, robbed rich resources and earnings of every class of society, treated our women badly, and destroyed temples, our cultural heritage sites, holy books.

  • People were highly demoralized that time; they had no vigor to retaliate against the barbaric Mughals.
  • Then in 17th century, a great leader, the warrior was born who is still an inspiration to millions on this planet and will remain so.
  • He was Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj who was a child of great mother Jijamata and Shahaji Bhosale.

Jijamata had great influence on Shivaji Raje, she taught him Ramayana, Mahabharata, Gita since childhood, developed to believe in culture and accompanied great saints during his growing period. Dadoji Konddev trained Raje in weapons especially Danpatta.

He began the movement called “Hindavi Swarajya Abhiyan”. What are the lessons we should learn from the life of great king and warrior? These lessons should be part of curriculum for students. Youngsters should get inspiration from great leaders and learn the various management and life skills that are essential for the growth in material, spiritual and in social life.

Lessons to be learnt; Respect own Culture Raje brought back Sanskrit and Marathi as the official language in his court. This demonstrates that how local languages are important to preserve our culture; it makes communication easier with every segment of society that helps to grow socially and economically.

  1. Be alert and aware; develop a team with the right knowledge and skills Battle of Pratapgad Fort: It was the first significant victory.
  2. The murky plot by Adil Shahi general Afzal Khan was given a befitting reply by Raje and his army.
  3. He was aware about the peace negotiation offered by Afzal Khan was mere an eyewash to kill him.

Maharaj with his alertness, intelligence, effective leadership and guerrilla warfare tactics planned the events. He armed himself and put his army in dense forest and hilly areas of Pratapgad to block the escape route for enemy soldiers. One of the best qualities of a leader is to keep right person for right job at right time.

Raje took Jiva Mahal with him knowing his skills and work before joining army. When Afzal Khan tried to kill Raje with dagger during their hug, vibrant Raje immediately acted with stabbing Afzal Khan using tiger claws. At the same time, when Sayyad Banda tried to attack Raje, Jiva Mahal responded quickly with Danpatta, killing Banda and saving life of Raje.

Confidence and courage are very important during adversities and troubles, believe in yourself, believe in God. When Raje and his son were under house arrest in Agra for almost three months. Aurangzeb had a plan to weaken Raje mentally and physically and then kill them.

  • However, even knowing the possible threat, Raje had high confidence in himself and God.
  • He showed us the path of having balanced approach-keeping peace in mind when faced with adversities.
  • Rather than getting bogged down and worrying about the situation, he planned and worked on how to escape.
  • When the right time arrived, with his meticulously planned events, he and his son escaped through sweet baskets.

When he returned to Raigad after almost six months, he was crowned. How life can change if we have patience, courage, confidence, strategy against odds, goal oriented approach, love for society and nation and commitment then god takes care of you. Be innovative, creative and think with open mind with big vision to overcome challenges.

Raje is known as father of the Indian Navy. He was the one who realised the importance of the Naval force. It was very difficult to fight a strong enemy army owing to adverse geographic conditions especially in Konkan region. He converted this threat into opportunity by building naval force and forts along coastline that helped him to win over strong army of Mughals.

The intellect with balanced mindset with bigger vision will always be innovative, creative to achieve the ultimate goal. Respect Women He opposed all kinds of violence, harassment and dishonour against women. He used to punish anyone who used to disrespect women and in few cases, a punishment used to be very severe.

  1. Since childhood, Jijamata taught him about bravery of goddesses and how Sanatan Dharma values women.
  2. To win over “Adharma” one needs to be diplomatic It was a difficult job for Shivaji to defeat the Mughals in direct war.
  3. Mughals had much superior army, arm, and ammunition.
  4. He had to fight on several fronts at a time with Mughalshahi.

Jijamata taught him Gita since childhood. Bhagwan Krishna with his diplomatic tactics defeated Adharmi Kauravas. Acharya Chanakya made a poor boy, Chandragupta Maurya, King of Magadh Empire to defeat Adharma. Just think, what would have happened with this great country if Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj would have been defeated by Mughals? Diplomatic moves are sometimes necessary to defeat enemy with erroneous intents towards society and nation.

So, Chhatrapati Shivaji Majaraj used Guerrilla tactics (Ganimi Kava) were in contour with dharma to win over adharma. Nation and Dharma (Righteous path to uphold values) first, self-last At the age of 15, when everyone believes in enjoying life, Raje Shivaji started his fight against Mughal invasion to bring back glory to our nation and free society from Mughal injustice and agony.

Until his last breath, Raje thought and worked for the welfare of society and dharma. When one is on the path of success, be humble and grounded. Raje had love and belongingness towards each section of society. He never discriminated anyone rich or poor, white or black or belonging to any particular caste.
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Did Chhatrapati Shivaji eat meat?

Meat the many foods of India: Bringing different food histories to the table Legend has it that in 1757, following the victory of the British in the Battle of Plassey, the Debs of Kolkata’s Shovabazar, a powerful clan of moneylending princes, invited Lord Robert Clive for a celebration.

A grand Durga Puja pandal was set up. Beef and alcohol, among other “blasphemous” items, were served even though the pundits conducting the puja rebelled. This version has been officially denied by the Deb family, but there is little doubt that the family patriarch Nabakrishna Deb’s friendly gesture to a small, powerful group of foreigners not only did wonders for his fortunes, but went a long way in influencing how Bengalis would celebrate Durga Puja in the years to come.

Cut to 2015. Three Indian states, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat and the city of Bangalore have banned the slaughter of animals and sale of meat so as not to offend the Jains, a powerful, vegetarian minority, during Paryushan, their eight-day festival.

  1. The ban was also in place in Maharashtra, until Bombay High Court stayed it last week.
  2. The politics of food runs deep.
  3. Based social activist Shabnam Hashmi says that in India, home to various religions and divergent cultures, it is believed that we are what we eat.
  4. There has been a concerted attempt to project India as a vegetarian nation.

The success can be attributed to the fact that the public space and popular culture have, for long, been dominated by Brahmins, a largely vegetarian community among the Hindu majority, and the culture they propagate,” she explains. What Education Did Shivaji Receive In His Childhood An array of non-vegetarian dishes on offer at Bhatiyargali Consumption of non-vegetarian food, especially beef, has often been at the root of communal and caste politics and has been used to demonise the weaker sections of the society, such as Dalits and Muslims.

  1. In India, a rumour of cow slaughter is enough to trigger communal disturbance such as the riots in 2007.
  2. Many gau rakshak committees across India use this to extract money from butchers.
  3. Trucks carrying bovines, with legit paperwork, will be stopped and harassed and threatened till they grease palms,” says Hashmi.

*** Nativist and communal politics, however, would falter when confronted with the mindboggling variety of Indian cooking. Gitika Saikia, who organises food pop-ups under the name Gitika’s PakGhor in to introduce the locals to the many culinary delights from the Northeast, says, “There are about 20 tribes in Assam and they all have distinct food habits.

  • So those living near freshwater bodies will have fish, frog legs, mud eels and even water bugs.
  • Larger protein sources include pork, goose, pigeon, duck and chicken.
  • Some of these proteins are nothing more than side dishes or accompaniments, but others form a major part of the meal.” For instance, a particularly spicy preparation, which has red ant eggs, known as Amlori, as its principal ingredient, forms an essential part of Bihu celebrations in Upper Assam, which is where Saikia is from.

The way we eat has evolved due to geographical and climatic circumstances — fish and sea food are part of the daily diet of people living along India’s long coastline. Freshwater fish is eaten a lot more in the eastern and Northeastern stretch of India.

  • Historically, people who live in northern and central India relied on vegetables and other agricultural produce.
  • On the other hand, meat was eaten during the cold months in these areas as it was believed to induce heat.
  • Maharashtrians, including certain Bramhin communities, thus, are largely non-vegetarians.

Even Shivaji, the cultural symbol of the community, or the Peshwas, were not vegetarians. “For instance, Konkani brahmins view fish as a vegetable from the sea and it forms an integral part of their diet,” says Dr Suhas Awchat, who co-owns Diva Maharashtracha, a popular Maharashtrian cuisine restaurant in Mumbai, along with his wife Deepa, a Konkani brahmin. What Education Did Shivaji Receive In His Childhood Polu leta, a curry made if silkworm pupae is an Assamese speciality Food show host Kunal Vijaykar, a Maharashtrian from the Pathare Prabhu community, says mutton, a part of the food of his childhood, can be found across traditional Maharashtrian cuisines.

  1. There are, after all, only so many Brahmins,” he says.
  2. He grew up relishing sookha mutton (an onion-tomato stir fry sans coconut) and the uncommon tazlyatya mutton (wok-fried mutton with full Madras onions, asafoetida and a hint of vinegar) and mutton paffat (mutton masala served with diced and sauteed French beans, carrots and potatoes), a dish they have in common with the Parsis.

“On long drives to, mom would pack the sookha and tazlyatya mutton. Wherever we would find a nice, shaded tree, we’d park the car, bring out the picnic basket and dig in,” he recalls. *** Cuisines have, since time immemorial, been also influenced by a confluence of cultures.

Potatoes, tomatoes and green chillies, today integral to Indian cooking, were introduced by the Portuguese. Another example is the cuisine from the Malwa Plateau. Mumbai-based home cook Anuradha Joshi Medhora runs Charoli, which organises pop-up meals based on recipes from the royal cuisines of central India.

She grew up in Indore, a microcosm of the various culinary traditions that flowered in Malwa, particularly in the various thikanas or feudal estates that once dotted the region. The Malwa region was controlled by the Mughals, Rajputs and the Marathas at various points, in history.

  • The royal kitchens in the dozens of small holdings — Indore, Gwalior, Ratlam, Sailana, among others — all developed their own style of cooking.
  • Red chillies are used liberally, especially a spicy regional variety called the nemadi lal mirch.
  • This gives off a lot of heat as well as a vibrant red colour, which is enhanced by the use of oil,” she says.

As befits food from the royal kitchens, ingredients like saffron, nuts and dry fruits are also used, although these Afghani influences get stronger the closer one gets to, Shikar was a major activity and game was abundant, so besides mutton, jangli maas like deer, rabbit and peacock were also consumed.

These were cooked simply with three basic ingredients — ghee, salt and whole red chilli. “It was nonetheless delicious because over the centuries the technique had been perfected,” she says. No Indian state is entirely vegetarian, not even Gujarat, although the annual ban has been in place in the state for years now.

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By 8 pm, ‘s oldest and most popular street for non-vegetarian food, Bhatiyargali, is bustling with activity. Giant tawas flank both sides of the lane, red-hot chicken churn in the tandoors and rows of tables and chairs are haphazardly organised along the sidewalk.

On offer are paya mutton, mutton chop fry, chicken achari and other mouthwatering delicacies. Situated in a Muslim-dominated locality and surrounded by Teen Darwaja, Relief Road, Gandhi Road and Bhadra fort, the tiny street is a popular destination for students for its affordable pricing. The month of “Shravan” and the Paryushan festival have always meant that business dips at this time of the year, but the restaurant owners take it in their stride.

“The meat ban affects those who offer beef. We only have goat meat, chicken and fish on our menu,” says 36-year-old Mohammad Zuber Shaikh, who runs Akbari hotel in the Bhatiyargali. *** The forced abstinence as a mark of respect to Paryushan was implemented in Maharashtra in 1994, under Congress leadership four years ago.

  • But the meat ban took off after the local Mira-Bhayandar municipal body announced an eight-day prohibition on animal slaughter.
  • Similar bans in other -governed states Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan and Congress-led were announced.
  • These were soon followed by the and Kashmir High Court order prohibiting cow slaughter in Muslim-dominated Jammu and Kashmir, supported by the region’s Kashmiri Pandits.

Traditionally, Kashmiris prefer mutton over beef, especially in the urban centres. But with soaring prices of mutton in the Valley, which makes it unaffordable for many families, the trend is slowly changing. A kilogram is sold at Rs 400 as against Rs 200 of beef.

When Srinagar-based Riyaz Ahmad Sheikh’s sister was getting married in 2007, his father threatened to break off the engagement if beef could not be served at the celebration. “The groom’s family from the Habakadal area of the old city didn’t eat beef but they had to relent,” says Sheikh, who lives in Humhuma, a city suburb.

In his family, beef is a staple, be it at weddings, Eid or other celebrations. The High Court’s direction asking the government to strictly implement the ban on sale of beef in the state directly hits people like Riyaz. “It is not only an attack on our right to choose our cuisine but also an interference in our religion,” says Ajaz Ahmad, a businessman, from Solina, Srinagar.

  • Why should courts decide what we eat and what we shouldn’t?” *** Social scientists point out that at its core, the politics of food deals with the more complex issue of “purity’, that is at the heart of the caste system.
  • Pune-based Deepa Tak closely studied the correlation between food and caste while co-writing late academic Sharmila Rege’s Isn’t This Plate Indian? Dalit Histories and Memories of Food, along with Sangita Thosar and Tina Aranha.

She cites the example of baluta in Maharashtra, the Dalits’ share in village produce in exchange for their services. “The Dalits and Valmikis are relegated to dealing with manual scavenging and carcasses of animals. Therefore, consumption of the flesh of the dead cow (beef) or the ‘unhygienic’ pig (pork) was forced upon them as were the goat innards.

  1. This impurity, in turn, added to their ‘untouchability’,” says Tak, adding that today, these meats are part of their cultural practices.
  2. Likewise, onion and garlic are considered aphrodisiacs and hence, their consumption is considered improper.
  3. The Jain diet, similarly, prohibits consumption of vegetable produce that grows below the earth, including potatoes.

In metros, however, meat has found a following among the well-travelled. A swish Mumbai restaurant, Bombay Canteen, is hosting a special food festival to mark Bakr-Eid where it will serve “delicacies” from every part of the goat, “from the nose to the tail”.

Elsewhere, meat plays an important role in caste assertion. “Serving beef has emerged as a mark of protest in Tamil Nadu, a state where the popular culture has been dominated by the upper caste Iyers and Iyengars,” says freelance journalist Kavitha Muralidharan, whose 2002 report on a Kanchipuram math with separate dining spaces for Brahmin and non-Brahmin students brought caste discrimination in urban spaces into sharp focus.

While Tamil Nadu is chiefly perceived as a vegetarian state, in truth, this dietary preference is limited to the Brahmin population of the state. Home to the Dravidian movement which used non-vegetarian food as a counter-argument against the Brahmin discourse of “purity”, the state is famous for its Chettinad preparations of chicken, mutton and beef.

  1. Beef is also consumed as a stir fry with desiccated coconut (Hindus), tikka and kebabs (Muslims) and red chilli roast (Christians).
  2. A few months ago, at one of the country’s premier educational institutions, IIT Madras, the Ambedkar Periyar Study Circle (APSC), an independent student body, was briefly derecognised by the dean following complaints regarding their “political activities”.

Among other things, this included circulars opposing the shutting down of the non-vegetarian mess on campus. “IIT Madras served only vegetarian food at its main mess since it began. This changed after a lot of struggle two years ago, but the rule was reinstated earlier this year.

The institute is home to students from all parts of India and many consume non-vegetarian food,” says Akhil Bharathan, a member of APSC. As dhoklas replace samosas in central government canteens, Madhya Pradesh leaves out eggs from midday meals of poor tribal children, the debate over food politics is only going to intensify.

In the latest, amidst all the anti-meat sentiment, a Hindu outfit has demanded a meat ban in West Bengal for the duration of the Durga Puja next month. The move, however, has united Bengalis across religions and caste, to protest the call for ban. Food forms an important part of the Durga Puja celebrations.

At the community pandals, friends and families get together to savour street food such as rolls, cutlets, biryanis among other items. While the food consumed on Ashtami is vegetarian, mutton is considered a must on Navami. The most common preparation is kosha mutton, a spicy mutton curry best had with steamed rice.

“We forge a bond with and through food,” says 32-year-old Sudeep Chakravarty, a Mumbai-based banker. “During Durga Puja, most Bengalis like to return home and food is the centrepiece of the celebrations, especially the non-vegetarian dishes,” he says.
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Who was Shivaji Class 7 short answer?

Hint: Chatrapati Shivaji, originally named, Shivaji Bhosale. He was born in the city of Mumbai, as early as in 1630 and passed away in the year 1680 at the Raigad Fort. Complete Step by Step answer: Chatrapathi Shivaji also known as Shivaji Bonsale was the founder of the Maratha Empire.

Shivaji Bhonsale was an Indian empire and the greatest known Warrior king. He was an official member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adil Shahi Sultanate of Bijapur. This was what had formed the beginning of the Maratha Empire. In the year 1674, he was officially crowned as the Chatrapati of his realm in the city of Raigad.

Throughout the course of life, Shivaji had engaged in alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, the Sultanate of Golkonda and the Sultanate of Bijapur. He also engaged with the colonial powers of the Europeans. Chhatrapati Shivaji’s military forces were the reason for the expansion of the Maratha sphere of influence, for capturing and building various forts and forming a huge Maratha navy in India.

  • He had established the most competent and progressive civil rule along with well-structured administrative organisations in his empire.
  • He revived various ancient Hindu political traditions and also court conventions and had promoted the usage of Marathi language and Sanskrit in his kingdom rather than the use of the Persian Language.

Note: Chatrapati Shivaji being one of the greatest and mightiest empires of his time, was immensely popular. His birthplace, the city of Mumbai, even today celebrates his reign. There are statues and even the Mumbai airport is named after the emperor Chatrapathi Shivaji.
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Who is the father of early childhood education?

Jean Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau

Born: 1712 Died: 1778 Nationality: French Occupation: philosopher, social and political theorist, musician, botanist, writer Philosophical/Educational School of Thought: Existentialism Publications: Discourse on the Arts and Sciences (essay) Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality La Nouvelle Heloise Lettre sur les spectacles The Social Contract Emile Confessions Rousseau, juge de Jean Jacques Reveries Les Muses galantes (opera)

Educational Viewpoint: Rousseau’s theory of education emphasized the importance of expression to produce a well-balanced, freethinking child. He believed that if children are allowed to develop naturally without constraints imposed on them by society they will develop towards their fullest potential, both educationally and morally.

This natural development should be child-centered and focused on the needs and experiences of the child at each stage of development. Educational Impact: Rousseau is known as the father of early childhood education. As a result of his educational viewpoint, early childhood education emerged as a child-centered entity rich in unlimited, sensory-driven, practical experiences.

Active participation in drawing, measuring, speaking, and singing also emerged as a result of Rousseau’s educational viewpoint. Today, many elements of Rousseau’s educational principles remain as a dominant force in early childhood education. References: Harrison, P.
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Who is the founder of early childhood education?

Early Education Teaching Theories – The concept of educating young children within the family has been happening for many, many years, but the evolution of early childhood education within an outside setting has many different theories and facets. The studies conducted by Jean Piaget along with the work he did with children, paved the way for educators to create different styles of teaching to use within programs.

  • The Montessori Method: Maria Montessori was the first woman in Italy to receive a medical degree with areas of study in psychiatry, education and anthropology. Her belief was that every child was born with potential and that children should be allowed to be free to explore and play within their environment. In the early 1900’s, Montessori visited the United States to share her unique style of teaching, The main focus is to always be attentive to the child and follow the child in the direction they chose to go when learning. The Montessori Method is practiced within many preschools around the country.
  • Reggio Emilia Approach: Begun in Italy after World War II in the city of Reggio Emilia, this preschool teaching style is based on children’s symbolic language and the context of project-oriented curriculum, With the Reggio Emilia approach, community is a large part of the educational process and with opportunities for educational experiences for teachers to maintain their abilities and to enhance and dedicate themselves as educators to the development of the young child. The environment of the educational setting is also considered to be an important aspect of the child’s development and often considered as the “third teacher.” Along with Piaget’s constructivist thought, the Reggio Emilia Approach, the community as well as teachers believe the child to be interested in learning and experimenting through inner motivation, promoting educated and productive future adults.
  • Play-Based Learning: The concept of play-based learning is exactly what it sounds like, playing to learn. Many educators have helped pave the way to understanding the wonders of allowing children to learn through their play. Bev Bos, both an educator and writer, has been sharing her ideas and concepts through books and lectures for over 40 years. Her suggestions of teaching with a hand’s off style encourages teachers to let children lead themselves through problem solving and discovery with minimal intervention, and to learn through play.
  • Direct Instruction: Siegried Engelmann and Wesley Becker coined this teaching concept in the 1960’s. The goal is for children to be directed through their development with teachers leading activities directed toward specific learning, Often drilling methods are used as well as rote learning. Other characteristics of direct instruction are fast-paced learning activities, active involvement between teachers and children, and positive reinforcement offered often and mistakes corrected immediately.

Early childhood education is an important step in educating children and offering stimulating opportunities for exploring and learning.
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Who started first education in India?

How does the Indian education system work in modern times? – It’s an undeniable fact that education in modern India is different from that of the “Gurukula.” The curriculum is mostly taught in English or Hindi, computer technology and skills have been integrated into learning systems, and emphasis is more on the competitive examination and grades rather than moral, ethical and spiritual education.

The modern school system was brought to India, originally by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay, in the 1830s. “Modern” subjects like science and mathematics took precedence, and metaphysics and philosophy were deemed unnecessary. Up until July 2020, the schooling system in India was based on the 10+2 system, which rewarded Secondary School Certificate (SSC) once completing class 10 th and Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) by completing class 12 th,

As a result of the new National Education Policy (NEP), this has been replaced with the 5+3+3+4 system. The division of stages has been made to fall in line with the cognitive development stages that a child naturally goes through. India’s four-level compulsory education 1.

Foundation stage (ages 3 to 8) The five-year foundational stage of education, as per the NEP, comprises three years of preschool followed by two years of primary classes. This stage will involve age-appropriate play or activity-based methods and the development of language skills. For those working in early education, we have a course, English in Early Childhood: Learning Language Through Play, which can help you understand the role of play in language development and how to use play to teach language skills in a fun way to children.

You can also learn how to Prevent Manage Infections in Childcare and Pre-School with our free online course.
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Who slept instead of Shivaji Maharaj?

Hiroji farjand and Madari Meheter slept in place of Shivaji Maharaj and Sambhaji raje, when they were escaping in sweet basket/boxes.
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Who did Shivaji love?

Marriage – Saibai and Shivaji were married while still in their childhood on 16 May 1640 at Lal Mahal, Pune, The marriage was arranged by his mother, Jijabai ; but was evidently not attended by his father, Shahaji nor his brothers, Sambhaji and Ekoji,

  1. Thus, Shahaji soon summoned his new daughter-in-law, son and his mother, Jijabai, to Bangalore, where he lived with his second wife, Tukabai.
  2. Shahaji held a grand wedding ceremony at Bangalore.
  3. Saibai and Shivaji shared a close relationship with each other.
  4. She is said to have been a wise woman and a loyal consort to him.

By all accounts, Saibai was a beautiful, good-natured and an affectionate woman. She is described as having been a “gentle and selfless person.” All of her endearing personal qualities, however, were a sharp contrast to Shivaji‘s second wife, Soyarabai, who was an intriguing lady.

She also had significant influence over her husband and the royal family as well. Saibai is reported to have acted as a counsel to Shivaji when he was invited by Mohammed Adil Shah, the king of Bijapur, for a personal interview. During Saibai’s life time, the entire household of Shivaji bore a homogeneous atmosphere despite the fact that most of his marriages were performed due to political considerations.

After Saibai’s untimely death in 1659 followed by Jijabai’s death in 1674, Shivaji’s private life became clouded with anxiety and unhappiness. Although Soyarabai had gained prominence in the royal household following their deaths, she was not an affectionate consort like Saibai, whom Shivaji had dearly loved.
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How many wives do Shivaji had?

10 Facts You Didn’t Know About Shivaji – the lowdown A lot has been written about Chhatrapati Shivaji’s battles and military successes, viz. the slaying of the giant Afzal Khan, the night raid on Shaista Khan, the defeat of Kartalab Khan in Umbarkhind and many such battles.

A lot too has been written about his escape from Agra and his coronation. These are the stories we grew up on but let me share some of the lesser known facts about Chhatrapati Shivaji with you: Shivaji’s birth and siblings Shivaji was the second son of his mother Jijabai. Shivaji’s elder brother was Sambhaji Bhosale.

Jijabai, unfortunately, lost several children after Sambhaji’s birth. At long last, a child born on 19 th February 1630, survived. According to legend, Jijabai named him ‘Shiva’ after the Goddess Shivai, to whom she had begged for a son. This son went on to change the history of the country! Shivaji’s elder brother Sambhaji died in battle in 1654 and it is widely believed that Afzal Khan plotted his downfall.

  1. Shivaji’s elder son was born in 1657 and was named after his deceased uncle as ‘Sambhaji’.
  2. Shivaji’s half-brother Shivaji’s father Shahaji Bhosale had a second wife, Tukabai, who bore him a son named Vyankoji, Shivaji’s half-brother, who was younger than him.
  3. Vyankoji remained firmly in the service of Bijapur’s Sultan Adilshah and never joined Shivaji in his freedom struggle.

In fact, Vyankoji fought several battles against Shivaji as an officer in the Adilshahi army. Shivaji’s ‘other’ half-brother When Shivaji escaped from Agra, a man named Hiroji Farzand had taken his place as his double. This is a well-known fact. What is less well known is that Hiroji was possibly Shivaji’s half-brother, born to one of Shahaji’s unwedded women.

  1. This fact is not confirmed, but is mentioned in the Shedgavkar chronicle.
  2. Shivaji’s family Shivaji had eight wives, whose names are as follows: Saeebai, Soyarabai, Putalabai, Sakvarbai, Sagunabai, Kashibai, Laxmibai and Gunwantabai.
  3. Saeebai is widely believed to have been his first wife and the one he was most attached to.

She bore him a son (Sambhaji) and three daughters (Sakhubai, Ranubai, Ambikabai). Soyarabai bore him a son (Rajaram) and a daughter (Deepabai). His other children were : Rajkunvarbai (born of Sagunabai) and Kamlabai (born of Sakvarbai). Saeebai died after a prolonged illness in 1659.

  1. Another Queen died in 1674, just before his coronation (though we do not know for sure which one).
  2. Putalabai immolated herself in the ritual of ‘Sati’ after Shivaji’s death in 1680.
  3. Shivaji’s early conquests Contrary to popular belief, Shivaji accomplished his earliest conquests without actual battle, either by bribing enemy commanders or through some diplomatic ruses.

Thus, Torna, the first fort he usurped from Adilshah was acquired by bribing the Adilshahi fort commander, and Kondhana (Sinhagad) was acquired through a diplomatic move. Shivaji fought his first real battle in 1648, when Adilshah sent a force under Fateh Khan to eliminate him.

  • Shivaji’s Navy Shivaji was the first indigenious ruler of medieval India to build his own naval force.
  • The western shores of India were, in Shivaji’s time, controlled by foreign powers: the English, the Dutch, the Portuguese and the Abyssinians (Siddis).
  • Shivaji had realized very early in his career that to control the western shores of Konkan and the trade movements off this shore, he would have to invest in his own naval force and he did, as early as in 1658.

He ran into may hurdles in this endeavor, finance being only one of them. His first full fledged naval expedition materialised in 1665, which he led himself. Shivaji’s administration Shivaji laid the foundation for a robust administrative system to govern his fief.

  1. He revised and upgraded his government at regular intervals and at the time of his coronation, had eight ministers in his cabinet.
  2. The hallmark of his administration was decentralisation.
  3. His ministers usually had full authority to take administrative decisions, especially in his absence.
  4. When leaving on dangerous missions, he would make complete arrangements for the machinery to work in his absence and even in the event that he died during the campaign.

He had taken such extreme steps before leaving for the meeting with Afzal Khan and again before leaving for Agra to attend Aurangzeb’s court. Jijabai prepares to rescue Shivaji Shivbharat, a poetic biography of Shivaji in Sanskrit, mentions an interesting incident about the time when Shivaji was besieged by Siddi Jauhar’s troops in Panhala fort (circa 1660).

  1. Having received news of her son’s helplessness and inability to break out of the fort, Jijabai (who was then on Rajgad) prepared to go to war herself, in an attempt to rescue her son.
  2. Shivaji’s commander Netoji Palkar was then on campaign in Adilshahi territory and delayed his return to Rajgad.
  3. When he eventually did, he had to face a wrathful Jijabai who was fully ready to ride out in armour, holding a sword in her hand.
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She angrily admonished her commander and said that she would now set out to do what was his job. Netoji Palkar begged her forgiveness and somehow convinced her to stay back while he himself tried to rescue his King. Shivaji’s respect for women Shivaji upheld the highest respect for women throughout his life.

  • During his military campaigns, not just the common soldiers but even the officers were forbidden to take their women along, which is in stark contrast to the imperial armies of his time, which moved with their zenanas.
  • His men were strictly forbidden from womanising of any sort, paid or otherwise.
  • They were also under strict orders not to molest women and would be severely punished, even with death, if they did.

He never allowed the taking of women captives. He himself, led by example and never kept any (unwedded) concubines and never filled his harem with captured women. Shivaji’s secularism Shivaji’s war was against the oppressive Sultanates founded by, what he decreed, foreign invaders.

He was never at war with a religion. Testimony of this is the fact that he had several Muslims in his service; infantry commander Nur Khan Baig and naval commanders Darya Sarang and Maynak Bhandari, just to name a few. There is also an unconfirmed story about him having employed a platoon of Pathans who had defected from Bijapuri service.

There is no record ever, of Shivaji having demolished non-Hindu places of worship, or wilfully having oppressed the Muslims or Christians in his dominions. A doctor by profession, Gautam Pradhan has been completely enchanted by the Maratha warrior Chhatrapati Shivaji all his life.300 Brave Men is his first novel, a historical fiction he worked on for close to eight years, in order to help the people rediscover the clever tactician and diplomat that Shivaji was.
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Who gave Shivaji good education?

The efforts Veermata Jijabai took for Shivaji Maharajs education.
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Was Shivaji Maharaj a feminist?

Shivaji Maharaj was a Feminist – Chattrapati Shivaji was one of the few rulers of his time who fought for the honour of women and demanded equal rights for them. Born and raised by a strong Marathi woman, JeejaBai, Shivaji Maharaj opposed violence or harassment against women. It is also believed that under Shivaji’s rule women of the captured territories were never harmed or taken as prisoners.
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How many bodyguards did Shivaji Maharaj have?

Combat of Chhatrapati Shivaji and Afzal Khan –

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Shivaji raje sent an emissary to Afzal Khan, stating that he did not want to fight and was ready for peace. A meeting was arranged between Shivaji raje and Afzal Khan at a shamiyana (highly decorated tent) at the foothills of Pratapgad. It was agreed that they would each bring only ten personal bodyguards with them.

  1. All the ten bodyguards would remain ‘one arrow-shot’ away from the pair.
  2. Shivaji raje chose Sambhaji Kondhalkar, Jiva Mahala, Siddi Ibrahim, Kataji Ingle, Kondaji Kank, Yesaji Kank, Krishnaji Gaikwad, Surji Katake, Visaji Murambak & Sambhaji Karvar for the meet.
  3. Afzal Khan hid a katyar (a small dagger) in his coat, and Shivaji raje wore armour underneath his clothes and carried a concealed in one hand.

As the two men entered the tent, the 6’7″ tall Afzal Khan embraced Shivaji raje. He then tried to strangle Shivaji raje in his vice-like grip and pierced his dagger in Shivaji raje. But the armour under Shivaji raje’s clothes saved him. Shivaji raje retaliated by using his “wagh nakh” (tiger claws) to slash Khan’s stomach and disemboweled Khan.

  1. Thereupon, Afzal Khan’s bodyguard Bada Sayyed attacked Shivaji raje with a sword but Shivaji raje’s personal bodyguard, Jiva Mahala, fatally struck him down.
  2. Also the lawyer of Afzal Khan, Krishna Bhaskar Kulkarni attacked Shivaji raje.
  3. Shivaji raje killed Krishna Kulkarni with his sword.
  4. Afzal Khan managed to hold his gushing entrails and hurtled, fainting and bleeding, outside the tent and threw himself into his,

The bearers hastily lifted their charge and began moving rapidly away down the slope. Sambhaji Kavji Kondhalkar, Shivaji raje’s lieutenant and one of the accompanying guards, gave chase and beheaded Afzal Khan. The severed head was later sent to to be shown to Shivaji’s mother,,

She had long wanted vengeance for the deliberate maltreatment of Shahaji raje (Shivaji raje’s father) while a captive of Afzal Khan, and for his role in the death of her elder son, Sambhaji Shahaji Raje Bhosle. Shivaji raje sped up the slope towards the fortress and his lieutenants ordered cannons to be fired.

It was a signal to his infantry, hidden in the densely forested valley, to raid the Adilshahi forces.
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Did Shivji eat non veg?

A few days ago, a Left-leaning website published an article attacking Lord Shiva. According to the article, Shiva was originally Rudra, a minor Vedic deity. Then when he became associated with a non-Aryan deity, he became malicious and created trouble.

  1. Besides, this he was a non-vegetarian and was later ‘tamed’ by the Brahminical tradition.
  2. The reason for this diatribe against Shiva was a brief ban on non-vegetarian food in the small town of Haridwar for a brief period during the Kanwar Yatra, an annual march to the Ganga.
  3. So, the occasion was used to launch a colonial missionary-like diatribe against Shiva by presenting a carefully constructed narrative of the deity’s evolution through Vedic literature.

Ironically, it ends with a superficial quoting of Appar – one of the three primary mystic seers of Tamil Saivism, about which we will deal later. The data, presented in the article, is itself made of half-truths marshalled typically in the fashion of ‘suggestio falsi; suppressio veri’.

For example, in the article, the importance of Rudra in Vedic literature is dismissed and he is considered a minor deity “with only two and a half hymns dedicated to him”. This is symbolic of a bygone colonial, Indological approach. The Indian philosopher, yogi and guru, Sri Aurobindo had once pointed out in detail: That Sri Aurobindo is correct in his approach, than the Indologists who labour under the frameworks of colonialism and Marxism, is evident from the way in which these ‘scholars’ have to distort, hide and overplay data so that they can cling on to their binaries of major-minor, Aryan-non-Aryan Deities in Vedic literature.

What Sri Aurobindo says is reinforced by another eminent scholar, Stella Kramrisch, who too exhibits an ability to penetrate the language of symbolism employed in Vedic literature and see the rich, organic interconnectedness between various planes of consciousness.

However, only a few scholars of non-Indic persuasion have been able to go beyond the mundane and outdated psychological frameworks to look into what is conveyed in the truest sense by the poets who composed the Vedic hymns. Kramrisch, who was invited by none other than the poet and literary genius Rabindranath Tagore to teach at the Visva-Bharati University in Santiniketan, was one such scholar.

In her in-depth study of Shiva, she points out: A hymn to Agni, the Fire (RV 1.71) shed light on His nature whose name the raudra brahman withholds. The mystery of the raudra brahman embraces the cosmic creative act together with the form-engendering creation of the poem.

  1. The brahman tells of the mystery and at the same time tells of its mode of telling.
  2. It shrouds and at the same time conveys His name in the form it gives to him by calling itself raudra brahman, a wild creation or Rudraic creation, for the poem and the creation are of Rudra, the Wild God, Raudra, an adjective from Rudra, means wild, of Rudra nature.

(Stella Kramrisch, Presence of Shiva, Princeton University Press, 1981, p.4 and 5) A collection of half-truths and distortions The unscholarly negative tone integral to the Left discourse on Indic themes pervades the entire article of the left-leaning website.

The result is that honesty becomes economical. For example, consider what the article says: “His role as a destroyer becomes more prominent in Puranic literature. The supreme being of fierce wrath, Rudra-Shiva now holds a trident, is dressed in tiger skin and sits next to his powerful consort, Shakti (known variously as Parvati and Uma).

His macabre traits are heightened in the Mahabharata, with references to him being “extremely violent in temper, fully armedgreedy of cooked meat and ricequarrel makerhungry for foetus-flesh like a jackal”.” The ‘references’ are hyperlinked to ‘Rudra from the Vedas to the Mahabharata’, a paper by Sukumari Bhattacharji from the ‘Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute’, (Vol.41, No.1/4 (1960), pp.85-128), made available online by JSTOR.

  1. Even the discovery that Rudra was “a minor god, with only two-and-a-half hymns dedicated to him” originates from this paper.
  2. What is interesting is that the factoids from the same paper, which the author of the article on the website chose to hide, are very relevant to the discussion.
  3. Consider the following from the same paper, which gets edited out in the article: From all this emerges a powerful and benevolent god, like most of the gods in the earliest pantheon in the RV.

He has a minor position, but in essence is not different from the major gods. He is attractive, not repulsive; fierce and powerful, yet with no dark or evil associations about him. (Sukumari Bhattacharji, 1960, p.86) Now consider this in the article: Now read below the passage which describes all these ‘macabre traits’ from the original paper.

This pararaph lists many benevolent qualities, but they are carefully edited out to show him as ‘macabre’: all-hearing, all-pervading, with pointed ears, the lord of elephants (12-283 ), greedy of cooked meat and rice, fond of lutes and lyres, having fine raiments and garlands, quarrel-maker, a Pāncāla, greedy of foetus-flesh like a jackal, with a thousand pointed pike, preserver of children and their keeper, a toy to the youngsters, pleased with the six rites, engaged in the three activities, the subject and discourser of talks centring round Dharma, Karna, Artha and Moksha.

(Sukumari Bhattacharji, 1960, p.109) When only selected attributes are highlighted — like “greedy of fetus flesh like a jackal” — it is definitely ‘macabre’ but when Shiva also becomes “a preserver of children and their keeper, a toy to the youngsters”, the verse attains a deeper meaning, which a Hindu can understand instinctively.

It is no more ‘macabre’. But to create a feeling of such grisliness, the author of the article edits out the unsuitable information. In Hindu symbolism and puranic tradition, it is a natural process to harmonise two seemingly opposite qualities. So, when a deity eats meat that does not mean it will not be worshipped in certain modes as a purely vegetarian deity.

And a deity worshipped as a bachelor through one puranic tradition, can also be worshipped with the most amorous of hymns, as in the case of Skanda-Muruga. In fact, as Kramrisch rightly points out, even as Rudra appears in Rig Veda, he also carried with him the basic mystery of creation and existence and as such was, in a way, fully formed.

He has in him all the attributes which would be elaborated further and further by his devotees throughout the spiritual history of India. Note how refreshing and profound are the following observations of Kramrsich, which combine the spiritual, psychological, historical, and cosmological dimensions of the Rudra and the Pashupathi imagery of Shiva: If one compares this passage with the way Rudra is described in the article in question, then one will realise the inadequacy of scholarship and the utter inability of Marxist tools to comprehend the Indic spiritual literature even in their historical plane and temporally related dimensions.

It is perfectly understandable that the Western mind of the colonial era Indologists could not comprehend such harmonising of extremely diverse qualities in a divinity. But it is unfortunate that even after Independence, such scholarship of narrow colonial inabilities, which fails to understand the grandeur of harmonising diverse elements in the Indian culture, masquerades as academic scholarship and is perpetuated by vested political interests.

  1. Vegetarianism As Part Of Saivite Spiritual Tradition The article again postulates the unscientific Marxist thesis that the production relations in the society solely decide its spiritual dimensions.
  2. Regarding why deities became ‘vegetarian’?, the article contends: Yet, the author is still confused regarding the vegetarian nature of Shiva.

The author, who asked the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh to study the Tamil Saivite texts, should have done it herself. Had she done it, she would have found that in the Sangam literature itself (300 BCE to 300 CE) Shiva appears as a great god with all the characteristics with which he is venerated today.

If one is to make a compilation of all the attributes of Shiva as presented in Sangam literature, then this is the picture we get: he sits under the banyan tree imparting Vedic wisdom; from his mouth emanates the four Vedas; he has three eyes and a blue throat; he lives in the Himalayas with his consort Uma and tamed Ravana when the demon tried lifting the Himalayas; he is an archer with fiery arrows who destroyed the three demonic worlds with the Himalayas as the bow and the cosmic serpent as his bow string; he has five heads and from him came Muruga of six heads; He is both a consummate lover and also a great yogi,

He has three eyes and eight hands. (Prof M Shanmugam Pillai, International Institute of Tamil Studies, 1996, pp.87-95) The interesting thing is that his worship is so ingrained in the Tamil society that his features are used as similes and metaphors when referring to the ‘secular’ aspects of life.

  • For example, when a specific king among the three Tamil kings was to be praised, he is compared to the third eye of Shiva.
  • All these show how much the Rudra-Shiva imagery is integrated into the Tamil cultural matrix.
  • Tamil literature also shows that the worship of varied types – from shamanic to ascetic to yogic and tantric – were all practised in the devotion of not only Shiva but also his son, Skanda-Muruga.

While in the Sangam literature we see the Vedic system itself having varied worshipping modes, gradually, we see vegetarianism becoming a venerated social norm. Contrary to the Hindu-phobic, where the Jain-Buddhists are hailed as egalitarian, rebellious, heterodox systems against the Vedic system of social hierarchy and stratification, in Tamil society we are able to see diametrically different dynamics.

The Jains insisted that vegetarianism be the most venerated of all social norms and regarded communities involved in hunting and fishing as of inferior birth. Classic Sangam literature, Thirukkural, which refers explicitly to Vedic deities like the avatars of Vishnu and Sree, has a separate chapter on abstaining from meat.

Saivism by the fifth century had produced canonical scriptures which necessitate vegetarianism. Thirumoolar’s Thirumantiram, a yogic text of Tamil Saivism, says that those who indulge in meat-eating would be tied and thrown into hell fire. (199). Yet, the greatness of Hindu pluralism insists throughout that both vegetarian and non-vegetarian worships of Shiva are recognised as equally pleasing to Him.

  • Gnana Sambandar (seventh century) says that Shiva is common to those who consider meat eating as abhorrent and who offer him meat with love.
  • Thirumurai,3.53.9) Interestingly, in Tamil Nadu, those who spearheaded the reform movement to stop the ritual killing of animals in temples were mostly non-Brahmin seers like Ramalinga Vallalar and Thiru Muruga Kirupananda Vaariyar.

The dogmatic association of vegetarianism with ‘high religion of Brahmins’ is just that – historically false, untenable dogma. So, when for a specific ritual of Shiva abstinence from meat is required, the devotees of Shiva can understand that as natural and not imposed vegetarianism.

But then, what value do a few truths of a pagan religion like Hinduism hold to Marxist vested interests? Just like human beings fall prey to the murderous lust of Marxist storm troopers in the Stalinist killing fields of Kerala, facts, truths and the high poetry of pagan Hinduism fall prey to academic storm troopers of Marxist variety.

Ultimately, the hatchet job on Shiva by a scholar on religion shows how degraded the academic standards of present Indic studies are because of Marxist stranglehold. It also shows that now it is the Hindutvaites who carry on their shoulders the responsibility of reviving Indic studies and push it to the standards of excellence which it had under scholars like Ananda Coomarasamy, Stella Kramrisch and Kapila Vatsyayan.
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Which God is non-vegetarian?

‘ Rama, Krishna & Valmiki were non-vegetarians’
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What did Shiva eat?

Meat matters – Another aspect of Bhogayya’s tale also stands in contrast to the story in India today. Last week, several publications reported that the government in Uttar Pradesh had banned the sale of meat and eggs in Dadri. This was done to facilitate the Kanwar Yatra, an annual march to the Ganges in Haridwar, where devotees collect water from the holy river in pots that is then offered to Shiva.

The pilgrimage is undertaken during the month of Shravan (which falls in July-August), dedicated to Shiva. The ban is ironical and highlights how Hindutva’s forced vegetarianism runs contrary to the beliefs and practices of several Indic sects. Shiva, a Puranic god, started small as Rudra (meaning savage or wild) in the Rig Veda,

A minor god, with only two and a half hymns dedicated to him, Rudra is attractive, with a tawny complexion and matted hair. A forest dweller and an ace archer, he hunts and eats his prey. Rudra gains prominence in the Yajur Veda (particularly the Krishna Yajur Veda, one of the two sections the text is grouped into) where he acquires several names, including Shiva, and many traits perceived as sinister.

Much like how Krishna was transformed from a tribal deity to a supreme god in the Puranic tradition, here Rudra is merged with a non-Aryan mountain deity. Thus, from being a well-built muscular god, he becomes an old and poor dwarf with disheveled hair. Interestingly, he also starts displaying opposing characteristics such as being the protector of cattle ( pashupati ) as well as the slaughterer of cattle ( pashughna ), traits that signify and embody in Shiva the duality of the world.

In the Atharva Veda, the gruesome associations multiply. Rudra is said to delight in the offering of certain body parts, such as the liver of sacrificial victims. He is also hailed as the god of thieves and cheats and the lord of demons. His role as a destroyer becomes more prominent in Puranic literature.

  • The supreme being of fierce wrath, Rudra-Shiva now holds a trident, is dressed in tiger skin and sits next to his powerful consort, Shakti (known variously as Parvati and Uma).
  • His macabre traits are heightened in the Mahabharata, with references to him being “extremely violent in temper, fully armedgreedy of cooked meat and ricequarrel makerhungry for foetus-flesh like a jackal”.

In another episode, Bhishma explains the function of Shiva as one who would end the world by “devouring the creation”. Shiva’s fondness for meat is further emphasised when Jarasandha, a devotee of Shiva, keeps kings as captives only to kill them and offer their flesh to Shiva.

  • Shiva’s meat-eating habits find a clear voice in the Vedas as well as the Puranas, but his association with wine-drinking seems a later appendage.
  • Although Shiva lives in Mount Mujavat, which is also the place where the intoxicating Soma plant grows, he is not described as consuming the Soma drink in the Puranic literature.

In post-Puranic literature, Shiva not only consumes intoxicating drinks but also smokes marijuana. Furthermore, his consort, Shakti, complements Shiva’s preference for meat by consuming the flesh of humans and animals alike.
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Who died to save Shivaji?

But, this vision of Shivaji’s Swaraj would have been long lost in 1660, when General Siddhi Johar laid the siege of Panhalgad to capture the Maratha warrior. But the sacrifice of a barber, Shiva Kashid, foiled Johar’s attempt, saving Shivaji. – What Education Did Shivaji Receive In His Childhood Statue of Shiva Kashid at Panhala Fort. Photo Credit: This is his story. The Panhalgad fort, located in Panhala, 20 kilometres northwest of Kolhapur in Maharashtra, has witnessed some historical skirmishes. In 1659 Shivaji had recently defeated Bijapur general Afzal Khan and conquered the Panhalgad fort.

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To avenge this defeated battle, Adil Shah II of Bijapur sent his uncle Siddi Johar to lay siege on Panhala and capture Shivaji in 1660. This army was further strengthened when Afzal Khan’s son, Fazal Khan, decided to join them to avenge his father’s death. So armed with 40,000 soldiers and British cannons, Siddhi Johar laid siege to Panhalgad.

Shivaji and his soldiers knew they were outnumbered and stuck inside the fort. Though the humongous granaries inside the fort helped Shivaji and his soldiers survive for five months, the risk of capture was ever present. The vast army outside cut off all their supplies, which made it difficult for the ruler and his soldiers to sustain themselves.

  • But Shivaji refused to give up.
  • The Maratha ruler refused to bow down or surrender and hatched a plan to escape from Panhalgad to Vishalgad instead.
  • His main confidants in this elaborate plan were his commander-in-chief Baji Prabhu Deshpande and his personal barber Shiva Kashid.
  • Shivaji knew he had to escape before the monsoons ended.

The torrential rains did not deter Siddi Johar’s army, who came prepared with waterproof tents but did mask all sound and movement. It would be impossible to sneak out once the loud rains stopped. The first step was to send an emissary to General Siddi Johar, asking for a meeting.

  • Meanwhile, Shivaji’s Chief of Intelligence, Bahirji Naik, mapped an alternative and lesser-known route out of the fort.
  • A date for the meeting for soon settled.
  • As anticipated, the chosen night was dark and rainy – thanks to the monsoon.
  • Now events from that night remain shrouded in mystery, and there was a great deal of confusion.

The original plan seemed to be to distract the enemy forces with talks of a meeting long enough for Shivaji to escape through a hidden route through some thick forests. However, the plan quickly fell apart. Some of Johar’s soldiers spotted the palanquin and raised the alarm.

There was a brief fight, and the soldiers chased down the small party fleeing the fort, nabbed Shivaji, and had him brought before General Siddi. Now General Siddi had never seen Shivaji before. So he had the prisoner paraded before several captured Maratha soldiers and others. They all agreed that this was indeed Shivaji.

Shivaji Maharaj Biopic| Maratha empire

All this verification took time but seemed to be heading in the right direction. But, as it turned out, Siddi was right in having his doubts. News soon reached him that a wholly different palanquin, accompanied by a strong force of 500 soldiers, was quickly making its way to Vishalgad.

  • In their haste to capture ‘Shivaji’, the original party had nabbed the first palanquin with a ‘Shivaji’ inside it and had not checked further.
  • Outraged, Siddi sent huge forces racing towards Vishalgad, and ordered the ‘imposter’ beheaded.
  • This brave man, who gave his life so that Shivaji may live, was, in fact, the barber Shiva Kashid, who bore a striking resemblance to the Maharaj.

This similarity was noticed by commander-in-chief Deshpande who first suggested the idea of using a body double as the last resort. Knowing the fate of the man should he be caught, Shivaji was reluctant. But the barber bravely agreed for the suicidal mission.

  1. So he was dressed up like the warrior king and taken along with Shivaji on the secret route.
  2. Read more: The worst that was feared did happen – they were spotted, and the Shiva was left behind as bait for Siddi, even as the real Shivaji raced to Vishalgad.
  3. He was nearly there when the Siddi’s army, thousands strong, caught up with him.

But Commander in Chief Baji Prabhu Deshpande took personal charge of some 300-400 men at the Ghod Khind, a narrow pass in the mountains before Vishalgarh. These few hundred fought bravely against Siddi Johar’s army of thousands.
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Who was Gopal answer?

NCERT Solutions for Class 7th English Chapter 3 Gopal and the Hilsa Fish Working with the Text Answer the following questions. Question 1: Why did the king want no more talk about the Hilsa fish? Solution: Everyone around the king was talking about Hilsa fish. This had infuriated the king so he didn’t want anyone to talk about the Hilsa fish.

  • Question 2: What did the king ask Gopal to do to prove that he was clever?
  • Solution:
  • Question 3: What three things did Gopal do before he went to buy his Hilsa fish?
  • Solution:
  • Question 4: How did Gopal get inside the palace to see the king after he had bought the fish?
  • Solution:
  • Question 5: Explain why no one seemed to be interested in talking about the Hilsa fish which Gopal had bought.
  • Solution:
  • Question 6: Write True or False against each of the following sentences.

The king asked Gopal to buy a huge Hilsa fish from the market and to ensure that no one should talk to him about the fish on the entire way from the market to the palace. Gopal half-shaved his face. Smeared ash on his body himself and wore rugs before going out to buy Hilsa fish.

Gopal started singing and dancing in front of the palace at a loud voice. The king heard the noise and asked the man to be brought inside. No one was interested about the Hilsa fish. Gopal had bought because of Gopal’s condition. He was wearing rugs, his face was half-shaven and ash was smeared over his body.

People were more interested in his appearance than the fish.

  1. The king lost his temper easily
  2. Gopal was a madman
  3. Gopal was a clever man
  4. Gopal was too poor to afford decent clothes
  5. The king got angry when he was shown to be wrong


  1. True
  2. False
  3. True
  4. False
  5. False

Working with Language Question 1: Notice how in a comic book, there are no speech marks when characters talk. Instead what they say is put in a speech ‘bubble’. However, if we wish to repeat or report what they say, we must put it into reported speech. Change the following sentences in the story to reported speech. The first one has been done for you.

  1. How much did you pay for that Hilsa?
  2. Why is your face half-shaven? Gopal’s wife asked him.
  3. I accept the challenge, Your Majesty. Gopal told the king,
  4. I want to see the king. Gopal told the guards,
  5. Bring the man to me at once. The king ordered the guard,


  1. The woman asked the man how much did he pay for that Hilsa.
  2. Gopal’s wife asked him why his face was half-shaven.
  3. Gopal told the king that he accepted the challenge.
  4. Gopal told the guards that he wanted to see the king.
  5. The king ordered the guard to bring the man to him at once.

Question 2: Find out the meaning of the following words by looking them up in dictionary. Then use them in sentences of your own. Solution: Challenge: A call to take part in a contest or competition. Vikram accepted the challenge of his teacher and won prize in the annual day celebrations.

  1. Mystic: Spiritual, occult
  2. Comical: Funny
  3. Courtier: A person, who attends a royal court as a companion or advisor to the king or queen.
  4. Smearing: Coat or mark carelessly with grease or oil.
  5. Picture Reading
  6. Question 1: Look at the picture and read the text aloud. What Education Did Shivaji Receive In His Childhood

The sufi saints like Salim Chishti were mystic. Mr Bean is one of the most famous comical characters on television. Birbal was one of the most important courtiers in Akbar’s court. Before the game, Rakesh smeared his body with oil.

  1. Now ask your partner questions about each picture. (a) Where is the stag? (b) What is he doing? (c) Does he like his antlers (horns)? (d) Does he like his legs? (e) Why is the stag running? (f) Is he able to hide in the bushes? (g) Where are the hunters now? (h) Are they closing in on the stag? (i) Is the stag free? (j) What does the stag say about his horns and his legs?
  2. Now write the story in your own words. Give it a title.


  1. (a) The stag is standing by the side of a pond. (b) The stag is about to drink water when he saw his reflection in the pond. (c) Yes, he finds them beautiful. (d) No, the stag finds his legs to be thin and ugly. (e) The stag is running because he has been chased by the hunters. (f) No, he is not able to hide in the bushes because his horns got stuck in them. (g) The hunters are just behind the stag. (h) Yes, they are closing in on the stag. (i) The stag was able to run fast because of his legs and is free now. (j) The stag says that he was proud of his horns, but he would have been killed because of them. He was ashamed of his legs, but they saved his life.
  2. There was a stag, he lived in a jungle. One day he went to drink water in a pond. He saw his reflection in the pond. He felt proud of his beautiful antlers. Then he saw his legs, he was upset because they were thin and ugly. Suddenly, there were hunters behind him. The stag ran to save his life. He wanted to hide in the bushes, but couldn’t as his antlers were stuck in them. He found the hunters just behind him. He ran for his life and was finally saved. At the end he realised that he was feeling proud of his antlers, but he would have been killed because of them. He felt ashamed of his legs, but was able to save his life ultimately because of them. The title is The Stag and his Beautiful Horns’.

Question 2: Complete the following word ladder with the help of the clues given below. What Education Did Shivaji Receive In His Childhood

  1. Mother will be very If you don’t go to school.
  2. As soon as he caught, of the teacher, Mohan started writing.
  3. How do you like my Kitchen garden? Big enough for you, is it?
  4. My youngest sister is now a old.
  5. Standing on the, he saw children playing on the road.
  6. Don’t make such a, Nothing, will happen.
  7. Don’t cross the, till the green light comes on.


  1. cross
  2. sight
  3. tiny
  4. year
  5. roof
  6. fuss
  7. street
  • Very Short Answer Type Questions
  • Question 1: How did the fishmongers lure the customers to buy Hilsa?
  • Solution:
  • Question 2: Who was Gopal?
  • Solution:
  • Question 3: What did Gopal’s wife think about him?
  • Solution:
  • Question 4: What were the remarks of two men on seeing Gopal in the market?
  • Solution:
  • Question 5: What was the king’s reaction when he came to know that he had lost the challenge?
  • Solution:
  • Short Answer Type Questions
  • Question 1: What happened when the king hear his courtiers talking about Hilsa fish?
  • Solution:
  • Question 2: Why did Gopal’s wife find his activities strange?
  • Solution:
  • Long Answer Type Questions

The fishmongers lured the customers by saying that the price had been down that day. Gopal was a courtier in the king’s court known for his wisdom and presence of mind. Gopal’s wife thought that her husband had gone mad. On seeing Gopal a man said that he must be a madman while the other called him a mystic.

The king was happy about it and congratulated Gopal for winning the challenge. When the king heard his courtiers talking about Hilsa fish, he lost his temper and warned them that they were courtiers and not fishermen. But the king soon felt guilty, looking at his nervous and humble courtier when he had rebuked.

His tone changed and he said that it was the season of Hilsa and nobody could be stopped from talking about it. Gopal had half-shaven his face. Smeared ash over himself. Had put on rags and was looking disgraceful. She asked Gopal the reason for such weird acts.

She stopped him from going out like that but Gopal told her that he was going to buy Hilsa fish. At last she concluded that Gopal had gone mad. Question 1: Who was Gopal? What was the challenge given to him by the king? How he won it? Solution: Gopal was one of the wise men in the king’s court. When the king was fed up with ongoing talks about Hilsa fish he challenged Gopal.

Gopal happily accepted the challenge of buying a huge Hilsa fish from the market and to ensure on the way from the market to the palace no one should talk to him about the fish. He was an intelligent man. He dressed up like a mad man and his appearance caught everyone’s attention.

  1. Solution:
  2. When Gopal reminded him of his challenge and proved that he had fulfilled it the king was surprised and burst into laughter.
  3. Value Based Question

Gopal looked suspicious or rather mystic since he had dressed himself filthly. Moreover his beared was half-shaved and ash was smeared on it. Therefore the guards barred his entry to the palace. He started dancing and singing loudly so that the king might hear him and call him inside.

The king ordered him to be taken inside but he could not recognise him. Question 1: We should not give up in any situation. If we try hard we can definitely find a solution. Why do you think so? Solution: Yes, we should not give up in any situation. We should find out a solution to come out of it. Sometimes, it might be tough to find the solution, but if we try hard, nothing is impossible.

We learn from the efforts we make in life. If we won’t make efforts then our learning will stop. It is OK to commit mistake but we should learn bur lesson from them and must not repeat them again. The world remember the great people because they did things differently and took up those risks in life.

  • Solution:
  • Question 2: Who is going to buy Hilsa fish?
  • Solution:
  • Question 3: Why the man is dressed up like that?
  • Solution:
  • Question 4: What does the woman think about the man finally? (a) He is an intelligent man (b) He has gone mad (c) She doesn’t think anything (d) None of the above Solution: (b) He has gone mad

Copal’s wife is speaking in these lines. Gopal is going to buy Hilsa fish. Gopal dressed up like that to catch everyone’s attention so that people will talk about him and not about the Hilsa fish. Question 5. Why does the man want to buy Hilsa fish? (a) To win the challenge (b) Because everyone was talking about the fish (c) Price of the Hilsa fish has gone down (d) Because to please his wife Solution: (a) To win the challenge Question 6: Find out one word from the above lines that means ‘shameful’.

  1. Are you a courtier or a fisherman? I am sorry I lost my temper, it’s the season for Hilsa fish and no one
  2. Question 1: Who is the speaker of the above lines?
  3. Solution:
  4. Question 2: Why is he feeling sorry?
  5. Solution:
  6. Question 3: What is the speaker asking to be stopped?
  7. Solution:

The king is the speaker of the above lines. He is feeling sorry for being rude to his courtier. He wants the talks about the Hilsa fish to be stopped for a while as everyone wanted to speak about ‘Hilsa fish’ only. Question 4: What did the speaker want? (a) To eat Hilsa fish (b) Someone to stop the talks about Hilsa fish for a while (c) The season for the Hilsa fish to go (d) He himself was not clear Solution: (b) Someone to stop the talks about Hilsa fish for a while.

Question 5: What made the speaker upset? (a) A fisherman entered his court. (b) Gopal was not present in the court. (c) Everyone including the courtiers were talking about Hilsa fish. (d) He wanted to discuss serious matter. Solution: (c) Everyone including the countiers were talking about Hilsa fish. Question 6: Find a word from the above lines is synonym of ‘anger’.

(a) Rage (b) Ire (c) Frenzy (d) Ill-temper Solution: (a) Rage : NCERT Solutions for Class 7th English Chapter 3 Gopal and the Hilsa Fish
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Who was Shivaji 4 marks question?

Q Who was Shivaji? Ans: Shivaji Raje Bhosle with title of Shivaji Maharaj founded Maratha empire. He successfully fought with Mughals and remained a challenge for Auranzeb. He was crowned as a King in 1674.
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What did Shivaji do for his?

Shivaji I
Shakakarta Haindava Dharmoddharak
Portrait of Shivaji ( c.  1680s ), British Museum
1st Emperor ( Chhatrapati ) of the Maratha Empire
Reign 1674–1680
Coronation 6 June 1674 (first) 24 September 1674 (second)
Predecessor Position Established
Successor Sambhaji
Peshwa Moropant Trimbak Pingle
Born 19 February 1630 Shivneri Fort, Ahmadnagar Sultanate (present-day Pune, Maharashtra, India )
Died 3 April 1680 (aged 50) Raigad Fort, Mahad, Maratha Empire (present-day Maharashtra, India )
  • Sai Bhonsale
  • Soyarabai
  • Putalabai
  • Sakvarbai
  • Kashibai Jadhav
Issue 8 (including Sambhaji and Rajaram I )
House Bhonsle
Father Shahaji
Mother Jijabai
Religion Hinduism

Shivaji Bhonsale I ( Marathi pronunciation: ; c.19 February 1630 – 3 April 1680 ), also referred to as Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, was an Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan, Shivaji carved out his own independent kingdom from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur which formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire,

In 1674, he was formally crowned the Chhatrapati of his realm at Raigad Fort, Over the course of his life, Shivaji engaged in both alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, the Sultanate of Golkonda, Sultanate of Bijapur and the European colonial powers, Shivaji’s military forces expanded the Maratha sphere of influence, capturing and building forts, and forming a Maratha navy,

Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with well-structured administrative organisations. He revived ancient Hindu political traditions, court conventions and promoted the usage of the Marathi and Sanskrit languages, replacing Persian in court and administration.
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What kind of life did Shivaji live?

Shivaji breathed new life into a moribund race that for centuries had resigned itself to abject serfdom and led them against Aurangzeb, a powerful Mughal ruler. Above all, in a place and age stained by religious savagery, he was one of few rulers who practiced true religious tolerance.
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What games did Shivaji and the children?

Hide-and-seek, ball, or top is the correct answer The Chhatrapati Shivaji and the Mavlas children used to play hide-and-seek or games with a ball or a top.
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What is the greatest achievement of Shivaji?

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present significant events, personalities, issues. The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.1.

  1. Underlining the achievements of chatrapati Shivaji, describe how his policy was helpful in the expansion of Marathas? Also discuss the reasons for the fall of the Marathas.
  2. 250 words) Reference: Modern Indian history by Spectrum publications Why this question: The question underlines the contributions of Shivaji to the construction of Maratha empire as well as expects one to present reasons for the fall of the empire.

Key demand of the question: The answer must discuss the significant contributions made by Shivaji in building the Maratha empire and the causative factors that led to its decline. Directive: Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them.

You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments. Structure of the answer: Introduction: Briefly explain about Chatrapati Shivaji. Body: Shivaji was an able general and a skilled politician who, through his efforts, laid the foundation for a strong Maratha empire. Briefly present his achievements – he increased the influence of the Maratha Empire from Deccan to Karnataka and gave it a place at the all India level, he built an efficient administrative system,set up an authentic revenue system for income and broadened the economic base of the empire throughChauth along with Sardeshmukhi, army based on cash payment etc.

Then move onto discuss the factors that led to fall of the Maratha empire. Conclusion: Conclude by reasserting the significance of his contributions in the Indian modern history.
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