What Do You Understand By Universalization Of Elementary Education?

0 Comments

What Do You Understand By Universalization Of Elementary Education
Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) is a constitutional provision and a national commitment in India. Universalization implies educating all children upto the age of 14 which is equivalent to completion of upper primary level of education.
View complete answer

What do you mean by universalization of education?

Answer (Detailed Solution Below) – Option 1 : availability of education everywhere according to the specific need of the children and place Free 80 Questions 80 Marks 50 Mins Education is the basic requirement for the success of democracy and the progress of the nation.

Elementary education is the basic education that should be given to children up to the age of 14 years. Universalization of Education has been accepted as a national goal in India since Independence, It is significant for the economic development of the nation and also the working of a democratic nation.

Indian Constitution has the provision of free and fair education in order to curb illiteracy in rural areas. Key Points Universalization of education means providing the free and necessary education to every child of the age group 6-14. Universalization of Elementary Education has always been a matter of great concern for policy planners even in the pre-independence era. The need for the Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) was recognized immediately after the independence of our country.

After becoming independent, India, as a democratic welfare state, announced the Universalization of Elementary Education and equal opportunity for all as its basic principles. In India, the Right to Education Act (RTE) makes education a fundamental right of every child between the ages of 6 and 14 and specifies minimum norms in elementary schools. Article 45 of the Directive Principles of state policy envisages universalization of elementary education for all children up to the age of 14 years within a time frame of ten years since the commencement of the Constitution​.

Thus it can be concluded that universalization of education means the availability of education everywhere according to the specific need of the children and place. Last updated on Sep 30, 2022 The Delhi Subordinate Services Selection Board (DSSSB) has released the final result and cut-off marks for the DSSSB PRT,
View complete answer

What is universal elementary education India?

Challenges in Universalization of Education – The Constitution of India provides for free and compulsory education for all children up to 14 years of age. In pursuance of this Government of India has enacted the Right to Education Act, 2009. However, the goal of universalization of primary education is still far from our reach. The factors that can be attributed to this are as follows:

Low Public Spending: The Incheon Declaration to which India is a signatory, expects member states to spend 4-6% of their GDP on education to achieve SDG4. to this declaration. However, the Union Budget 2021 budget allocates only 2.75 percent of the GDP to education. Exclusive Private Sector: Many reports and available data shows a rise in the privatization of education with a large number of children being eliminated from the system at early stages, cost of education going up due to systemic inefficiencies, and students committing suicide for want of data and laptops. Qualitative Issue: Universalization of compulsory education has failed to catch up to the desired target because quality control of primary education has not been maintained.

The successive ASER survey reflects the poor state of learning outcomes in primary education.

Other Factors: Factors like ignorance and illiteracy of parents, lack of cooperation between school and local community, and corruption in recruitment of teachers affects the goal of universalization of education.

View complete answer

What is the need of universalisation of education?

Students and teachers in Ghana in a parade for inclusive education. Cienfuegos, a non-profit group teaching art to people with disabilities in Cuba. Universal access to education is the ability of all people to have equal opportunity in education, regardless of their social class, race, gender, sexuality, ethnic background or physical and mental disabilities,

  • The term is used both in college admission for the middle and lower classes, and in assistive technology for the disabled.
  • Some critics feel that this practice in higher education, as opposed to a strict meritocracy, causes lower academic standards.
  • In order to facilitate the access of education to all, countries have right to education,

Universal access to education encourages a variety of pedagogical approaches to accomplish the dissemination of knowledge across the diversity of social, cultural, economic, national and biological backgrounds. Initially developed with the theme of equal opportunity access and inclusion of students with learning or physical and mental disabilities, the themes governing universal access to education have now expanded across all forms of ability and diversity.

  • However, as the definition of diversity is within itself a broad amalgamation, teachers exercising universal access will continually face challenges and incorporate adjustments in their lesson plan to foster themes of equal opportunity of education.
  • As universal access continues to be incorporated into the U.S.

education system, professors and instructors at the college level are required (in some instances by law) to rethink methods of facilitating universal access in their classrooms. Universal access to college education may involve the provision of a variety of different assessment methods of learning and retention.

For example, in order to determine how much of the material was learned, a professor may enlist multiple methods of assessment. Methods of assessment may include a comprehensive exam, unit exams, portfolios, research papers, literature reviews, an oral exam or homework assignments. Providing a variety of ways to assess the extent of learning and retention will help identify the gaps in universal access and may also elucidate the ways to improve universal access.

According to UNESCO.org, women, (and then children) comprises a major bulk of the category of people in the society who lack access to quality education with the staggering record of 131.7 million children who have dropped out of school or who didn’t have a chance of starting school in the first place at all.
View complete answer

What is the need and importance of universalization of elementary education in India?

Universalization of Elementary Education in India India is a democratic country. Today adult franchise has been granted to every individual irrespective of caste, creed, religion and sex. Unless the people of India grow in enlightened judgment and character, the democratic ideals cannot be made a living reality.

  • India has been a land of learning throughout the ages, not in the sense that education has been universal, but in the sense that learning has always been highly valued.
  • It is interesting to watch pageant of Indian education more from ancient forest schools to the modem and fully- equipped schools of today.

It is against the background that every problem of education in primary, secondary and higher education must be studied. Primary education deserves the highest priority for arising the competence of the average worker and for increasing National productivity.

  • The provision for Universal Elementary Education is crucial for spreading mass literacy, which is a basic requirement for economic development, modernization of social structure and the effective functioning of democratic institution.
  • It also represents an indispensable first step towards the provisions of equality of opportunity to all citizens.

The Constitution of Independent India provides for free and compulsory education for all children up to the age. Of 14 years. Article of 45 of the Directive Principles of State Policy lays down,” The State shall endeavour to provide, within ten years from the commencement of the Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they attain the age of 14 years.” Though ambitious targets of enrolment have been fixed from time to time to fulfil this directive, the desirable goal is still far from our reach.

  • The problems and issues are as follows:
  • Issues and attempts towards its realisation:
  • The problems of Universal Compulsory Primary Education require:
  • (a) Universal provision of school facilities,
  • (b) Universal enrolment of pupils.
  • (c) Universal retention of pupils.
  • (d) Qualitative improvement of education.
  • (a) Universal provision of school facilities:

Universal provision of school facilities means that school facilities should be provided to all children between the age 6-14 in the country and that the school be within the walking distance from the home of children. To provide this facilities primary schools have set up in all the villages.

  1. To a fairly large extent we have succeeded in this direction.
  2. B) Universal Enrolment of pupils: Next to the provision of school facilities comes this universalization of enrolment which means all children between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary schools.
  3. In order to achieve this end, States have brought into force Compulsory Primary Education Act.

It is a sad commentary on our social system that the desired targets have not yet been published. The problem of universal enrolment in rural areas is more complicated.

  1. The following factors push back the pace of progress:
  2. (i) Ignorance and illiteracy of parents.
  3. (ii) Lack of co-operation between school and local community.
  4. (iii) Indifferent attitude of authority towards the desired enrolment.
  5. (iv) Finance difficulties.
  6. (c) Universal retention of the enrolled children:

Universal retention means that after joining school, the child should remain there till he completes his primary school course. If the child leaves the primary school without completion of his course, the ideal of universalization of primary education stands defeated.

Universal retention means to ensure that every child progresses regularly from year to year, so that there is no stagnation and that lie dose not leave the school before the completion of the prescribed age and class. So there is no wastage. But it is found that most of the children leave schools at any stage before completion of their courses.

This ultimately results in the problems of wastage and stagnation. If a child leaves the primary school before the completion of his primary education course, we are talking in terms of wastage. In other-words, wastage means number of dropouts. But if a child takes more than the required time in a class to clear, it is a case of stagnation.

  • Most important suggestions put-forth by NCERT are as follows:
  • (i) Adjustment of school schedules.
  • (ii) Adjustment of school vocation.
  • (iii) Parental indifference to education.
  • (iv) Increasing, attracting and holding power of schools.
  • (d) Qualitative Improvement of Education:

Universalization of compulsory education has failed to catch up the desired target, because quality control of primary education has not been maintained. It is an open secret that the quality or standard has been neglected. Now it is time to think about quality with quantity. We cannot afford to slow down the pace of expansion. We need to provide good education for every child.

  1. Following are some of the pressing Problems for qualitative improvements:
  2. (i) Problem concerning teachers.
  3. (ii) Problem concerning ancillary services.
  4. (iii) Problem of classification of primary schools.
  5. (iv) Problem of curriculum.
  6. (v) Problem of school building.
  7. (vi) Problem of school facilities.
  8. (vii) Problem of administration.
  9. (viii) Problem of Finance.
  10. If we are really keen to improve the quality of primary education, we must attach highest importance to the teachers.
  11. Following attempts should be undertaken to improve the status of the teachers:

(i) Remuneration of the teachers should be enhanced to attract better persons to the profession. The National Policy on Education, 1986 has also endorsed the review by stating that, “the pay and service condition of teachers have to be commensurate with their social and professional responsibility and with the need to attract talent to the profession.” (ii) To make education universal the state must find resources to provide ancillary services such as school health, mid-day meals, free supply of text books, writing materials, school uniform etc.

Recently, in the year 1995, the present governments have introduced to provide mid-day meals to all primary school children of our country to meet the desired goal. Let us hope that the best possible result will come out from this programme. (iii) All primary schools should be classified on the basis standards on a five-point scale-A, B, C, D and E.

It is hoped that if this idea is sincerely implemented, it will help materially in raising the standards. (iv) The primary school curriculum should be covered through well planned projects. (v) The Governments should provide suitable building to all the primary schools.

  • For this purpose, village community should be persuaded to provide all the school facilities such as furniture’s, chalks and blackboards etc.
  • NPE, 1986 has pledged to provide essential school facilities to the primary schools over the country on priority basis, calling it as “Operation Black Board.” (vi) There should be Village School Committee in each village.
You might be interested:  What Is The Objective Of Environmental Education?

Such a committee would look after the construction and maintenance of buildings, playground and school garden, provision for ancillary services, the purchase of equipment etc. To discharge the duties, the committee will have sufficient funds by way of donations and grand-in- aid from the state government.
View complete answer

What are the features of Universalisation of elementary education?

Based on the observations of the Education Commission, the Seventh Plan Working Group for Elementary Education delineated the three components of the programme of universalisation of elementary education: (i) universal provision of facilities; (ii) universal enrolment, attendance and retention; and (iii) successful
View complete answer

What is the universalisation of elementary education discuss its objectives and functions?

UNVIERSALISATION OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION – Universalisation of elimentary education means universal access,enrolement,retention,and qualitative education up to the age of 14. Elementary education has become a justifiable Fundamental Right. The provisions contained in the Constitution of India, insists on providing elementary education to all children.
View complete answer

When was Universalisation of elementary education introduced?

It was launched to achieve the goal of Universalisation in NPE, ( 1986 ). It is a centrally sponsored scheme for bringing about improvement in primary education by providing additional facilities to the schools which are already established.
View complete answer

What are the causes Universalisation of elementary education?

11 important Problems of Universalization of Education and their Remedies Universalization of Elementary Education is Constitutional directive. Education is every body’s birth-right and it is binding on any government to provide facilities for education for children who are born and reach the school-going age.

It was stipulated to achieve Universalization within 10 years from the introduction of Constitution and that is by 1960. But it is now more than three decades after the scheduled time. Now the problems with certain possible remedies to solve them have been discussed as follows: (1) Faulty Policy of Government: The constitutional directive is that states shall endeavour to provide free and compulsory education to all children until they complete the age of 14 years.

But it is a matter of regret that the prescribed goal has not been reached as yet. The main cause for this is that the policy of Government was based on idealism. Basic education was accepted as the form of national education. Being inspired with this aim, work started to convert the existing primary schools into basic schools.

India is a vast country with a very large population. Money was too much in shortage for implementation of so expensive a scheme of conversion of a large number of Elementary Schools. Government has also admitted this. In such a situation, the best policy would have been to make separate treatment for the basic schools along with the general primary and middle schools.

(2) Political Difficulties: Education is the basis of democracy. It is necessary to educate the citizens in order to make democracy a success. But so far the Government of India has not been able to devote their full attention towards education. Main reason is that since the attainment of Independence, Government had to face the problems of food, of inimical neighbours, the problem of Kashmir, the problem of linguistic states etc.

  1. Those problems still exist and these problems have all along forced to allocate so much money that Government has not been able to devote their due attention for elementary education.
  2. The Government is responsible to solve the political problems; the Government is also duty-bound for smooth progress of public education.

On no account, this indifference of Government towards universal primary education could be justified. (3) Faulty Administration of Education: In most of the states the responsibility of universal primary education is on the authorities of Blocks, Municipalities and Educational Districts.

The progress of expansion of primary education gets slow because of the indifference and incapability of these institutions. In fact, it is the responsibility of the nation to educate its citizens. It is necessary that the Government of India should take upon itself the sacred work of universal enrolment and universal retention at the Elementary stage.

In fact it is the responsibility of the action to educate its citizens. (4) Dearth of Money: Inadequacy of money is a serious problem that confronts primary schools. Income of the local institutions responsible for primary education is so much limited that they are totally incapable of meeting the expenditure of compulsory education.

  • To meet the requirements of compulsory basis education it was estimated that an annual expenditure of Rs.269.5 crores will be required.
  • But in the First Five Year Plan the allocation was Rs.93 crores and this allocation was reduced to Rs.89 crores in the Second Plan.
  • So sincere and honest efforts should be made to educate as many children as possible so as to banish illiteracy to the maximum extent possible.

Only after abolition of illiteracy, quality of education as a matter of importance should come. (5) Dearth of Trained Teachers: There is shortage of trained teachers to make Elementary Education Universal and compulsory. Nowadays, the young teachers do not wish to work in rural areas.

But the fact remains that majority of Primary Schools are in rural areas. The chief reason of non-availability of suitable teachers is that teaching work is not attractive for many persons, since the salary of primary teachers is hopelessly low. The condition of Scheduled areas is still more miserable.

The hilly and impassable jungle areas with very poor communication and transport facilities fail to attract the present day luxury-loving young men. Teachers should be provided with proper residence in the villages of their work. The question of Women teachers is very much special.

  1. So the question of teacher’s quarters, residential schools, especially residential Ashram Schools in the Scheduled areas should be provided.
  2. The quality of teachers can be improved by executing a training progrmme for the untrained teachers in service on basis of study-leave basis.
  3. 6) Establishment and School Buildings: Even the Third and Fourth All India Educational Surveys indicate that even now there are lakhs of villages and habitations without schools.

There are nearly 4 lakhs schoolless villages in India which are to be given schools. It is not that easy to provide necessary funds for setting up such a large number of schools with buildings and other equipments. In order to meet this problem of new buildings along with the existing schools in private houses, temples, verandah of rich persons, residence of teachers etc.

Should be met by construction of low cost houses of thatch or tile with local materials; looking to the weather conditions of certain places open air stands may be taken up in the Shanti-Niketan pattern. All the same, the Primary schools should have accommodations of their own as far as practicable. Problem of school houses along with the problem of lack of teachers in all the primary schools can be solved through shift system in the existing schools.

In order to enrol the additional age-group 6-14 children additional section rooms should be constructed. (7) Unsuitable Curriculum: The curriculum for primary schools is narrow and unsuitable to the local needs. The curriculum should be interesting for the children for its continuance.

Learning by work should replace the emphasis on monotonous bookish knowledge. Education of craft should be given in the primary schools in accordance with the local needs and requirements. But the schemes of craft education in the primary schools should not of highly expensive ones. (8) Wastage and Stagnation: It is another major problem and great obstacle for universalization of Elementary Education.

Out of every 100 students enrolled in class – I more than half leave schools by Class IV, only 32 pupils reach class V and only 26 reach class VIII. This is due to the lack of educational atmosphere, undesirable environment, lack of devoted teachers, poor economic condition of parents, absence of proper equipment etc.

In order to check such massive wastage and stagnation at the primary stage, existing educational system and curriculum should be reformed, teaching method should be interesting, school buildings should be adequate and neat and clean, and the parents should be educated. These may help the problem of wastage and stagnation to be solved.

(9) Natural Obstacles: Natural barriers are the great obstacles in the way of expansion of compulsory education. The village and small habitations in areas of Himalayan regions, Kashmir, Garhwal, Almora with less population are situated in distances apart.

  1. So also the desert areas in Rajasthan, the dense forest areas in Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Assam and many Southern States create problems for expected enrolment.
  2. These are very very difficult areas with lack of communication and of Education and School Organization absence of transport.
  3. It is desirable to make provision, for schooling facilities even in small habitations without leaving much for mobility of small children in the severe cold, heat or heavy rains (10) Social Evils: Social evils like superstition, illiteracy faith in ancient conventions and customs, child marriages, untouchability, pardah system etc.

create innumerable obstacle in the expansion of compulsory primary education. Still man; persons get their sons and daughters married at a very minor age against the Child Marriage Prohibition Act and deprive these school-going children of the fruits of education.

Because of illiteracy and ignorance these social evils grow. The educated young men and women should volunteer themselves to remove these evils of society in their neighbourhood. Against these social evils, the work of expansion of universal enrolment should not be slackened, since social evils flourish because of illiteracy and ignorance.

(11) Language Problem: 1961 Census reports about 826 languages and 1652 dialects in the country. The Constitution of India, 1950 mentions 14 languages, which can be made medium of education. Compulsory education has not been fully introduced among the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and denotified tribes in the country.

  • This is due to the hindrances of languages as medium of education.
  • In the Five Year Plans the incentive programmes of free text-books, free uniform, stipends in hostels, and conversion of Residential Ashram Schools etc.
  • Do not improve matters much.
  • The responsibility of education of these castes and tribes, who are staggering under the weight of misery and poverty for centuries, should not be left alone on Govt.

Voluntary and philanthropic organization and people should come forward to assist the Government in this sacred and significant work of the nation. : 11 important Problems of Universalization of Education and their Remedies
View complete answer

Who gave the concept of universalization?

Universalisation (cultural studies) – Lorna Jean Edmonds and WE (Ted) Hewitt introduced a definition of universalization as an incipient concept describing the next phase of human development, marking the transition from trans-national to interplanetary relations and much more aggressive exploitation of opportunities that lie beyond the confines of Earth.

As both a process and an end state, universalization implies an increasingly pervasive, abiding and singular human focus not only on global issues per se but on social, technological, economic and cultural challenges and opportunities extending into our solar system, our galaxy, and well beyond, where cooperation supersedes conflict negotiation.

Its origins are associated with the incipient expansion of social, economic, and political relationships that have emerged in the wake of globalization and that increasingly define the planet, its place within the broader universe and the sustainability of humanity and our diversity.

For many, the concept was inspired by Kwame Anthony Appiah ‘s work on cosmopolitanism, and particularly his emphasis on the need to develop a transcendent, collaborative model of human interaction that looks beyond the limited confines of current human relationships. Underlying principles and activities associated with universalization have also been discussed in a number of works dealing with prospective human exploitation of natural resources in space.

Evidence of the transition from globalisation to the century of “universalization” is provided by the exponential growth in outer space activity across all sectors of human endeavour, including exploration (global investments by national governments and consortia of $65 billion annually), governance (the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, the International Association for Space Safety), commerce (aerospace industries such as Boeing, Teledyne, MDA ), resource exploitation ( Moon Express ), Tourism ( Virgin Galactic, XCOR ), communications (satellites, probes, inter-planetary internet), education (the International Space University, Singularity University, International Institute of Space Commerce ), research (observatories at Hawaii, Chile, the Square Kilometer Array, the Hubble Space Telescope, and settlement ( Mars One ).

Another reading of “universalization” has been suggested by Gregory Paul Meyjes. Questioning the various processes (economic, political, cultural) by which globalization or globalisation has favored expeditious Anglo-cultural dominance at the expense of a more broadly-based, gradually-emerging world civilization, Meyjes argues for cultural policies that support “ecological” relations between local ethnocultural traditions, to protect cultural specificity in the short term and thus to allow as great a variety of groups as possible to voluntarily and organically contribute to the global whole.

Meyjes thus proposes universalization as a process of (largely) unfettered yet non-threatening exchange (such as with the aid of an International Auxiliary Language ) between and among the world’s state-level and sub-state-level groups and “nations” – i.e.
View complete answer

You might be interested:  How Is Physical Education Different From Academic Classroom?

What are the problems of universalization of elementary education?

Universalization of Primary Education: Problem # 2. – Universal Enrolment of Children: It means that all children in the age group of 6-14 years should be enrolled by the primary schools. The Kothari commission feels that the problem of enrolment in class 1 is of great significance. In order to achieve this end, states have brought into force compulsory primary education Act.

  • But the problem of universal enrolment in rural areas is more complicated due to following reasons:
  • (i) Ignorance and illiteracy of parents.
  • (ii) Lack of coordination between school and local community,
  • (iii) Indifferent attitude of high officers and school authorities towards the desired enrolment.
  • (i) Lack of adequate funds
  • (v) Poverty of Parents

View complete answer

What is universal elementary education Upsc?

SSA – Universalization of Elementary Education – The cause of UEE has been backed up in the through the following:

Constitutional Mandate of 1950 It mentioned that the State should provide free and compulsory education to all children until they attain 14 years of age. Note: The mandate mentioned that the State should endeavour to do this within ten years of the commencement of the Indian Constitution
National Education Policy, 1986 The policy mentioned the universal retention of the children in schools until they attain 14 years of age. It also mentioned a resolve that children up to the age of 14 should be given free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality before India reaches the 21st Century.

View complete answer

What are some examples of universalization?

Define, give an example, and state the significance to globalization and identity: digital divide The digital divide refers to the gap that separatespeople who do – and do not – have access to up-to–date digitaltechnology (communication technology,Internet, etc.) Example: In North America, 69.7% of the population has access to the Internet, while in Africa, only 3.6% of the population does. Propaganda -Ideas and information spreadfor the purpose ofachieving a specific goal. Often, propaganda is characterized by dishonesty (omission of facts) and emotional appeal (rather than logicalreasoning to persuade) Example: Some people believe the television station Al-Jazeera provides nothing but propaganda. Pop culture is a short form for “popular culture,” whichis the culture of the people. Thisterm often refers to current culturaltrends thatare spread by commercial mass media. Example: A good example of pop culture is the show Simpsons or the movie Hunger Games. Universalization is the spread of culture,trends, customs, and practices around the world. They key term within the word is “universal.” Example : Walt Disney is a transnational corporation that produces children’s media that has been universalized -it is viewed all around the world. Hybridization is the combining of elementsof two or more different things to create something new. Forour purposes, hybridization refers to the combination of elements of Americanculture withthose of the country in which a show is produced. Example : Sesame Street offers a good example of hybridization of American and host country cultures. Thanks to satellite technology, such as the Canadian satellite Anik A1, television shows and media in general can be broadcast throughout the world. This broadcast of media has both a positive and negative affect on identity. One negative may be cultural homogenization, media cross-ownership Which 6 transnational corporations are said to control 85% of the world’s media? (media concentration on the global scale) 1. Vivendi International 2. AOL Time Warner 3. Disney 4. News Corporation 5. Viacom 6. Bertelsmann How might media concentration on the global and national scale affect the (1) formation of identity and the (2) practice of democracy ? 1. If identities are in part formed by the media we consume, then we might expect an i ncreasing similarity between people (cultural homogenization) who consume the same media with the same values worldwide (e.g. Late 2001- censorship of journalists by CanWest Global Communications, They asked their journalists to report the same view, regardless of their regional differences, or be fired. After some journalists were fired, there was a public outcry. What made it possible for Al-Jazeera to broadcast its programs internationally, and in what year? Why is Al-Jazeera controversial in Canada? What is the significance of this controversy? Al-Jazeera is controversial in Canada because it is an Arabic media channel, It is said by some to broadcast only propaganda about Muslim brotherhood and Islamic extremism.

However, others argue that Al-Jazeera is not that extreme. These people argue it offers a legitimate perspective that should be heard. Currently, no Canadian cable company has agreed to broadcast Al-Jazeera because of strict conditions applied to it by the CRTC. The significance of Al-Jazeera is that perhaps some perspectives are being censored or so heavily policed that they are never heard.

On the other hand, others would argue censorship is needed to maintain peace and order. Which people in Canada are the least satisfied with the Internet, and why? French and Aboriginal Canadians are least satisfied with the Internet because it is predominantly English. They worry about cultural homogenization, They worry their voices, in their languages, will not be heard on the Internet. Define, give an example, and state the significance to globalization and identity: techno-isolation Techno-isolation refers to the idea that technology actually increases distance between people because it causes us to become ” technological hermits ” Example: You are walking down the street and need to ask for directions, but you find it impossible to communicate with the people passing by who are listening to their ipods. In November, 1963, the president of the USA, John F. Kennedy, was assassinated. The significance of the event includes: 1) It was one of the f irst events watched worldwide via media technology.2) It shaped American identity as global “policeman.” Explain and state the significance to globalization and identity: September 11, 2001 On September 11, 2001 four airplanes were hijacked and two were flown into the World Trade Center in New York, The other planes crashed into the Pentagon. A total of more than 3,000 people were killed in the attacks. The significance of this event includes: 1) Another event watched by the world.2) It revealed cultural clashes when certain people in other parts of the world celebrated the attacks.3)It changed the identities of Muslims in North America.

Increasingly, Muslims were viewed with suspicion. Some were harassed. Others were detained and imprisoned for “terrorist” activities ( Arar ). Some mosques were firebombed. In general, islamophobia became an international issue that needed to be addressed by the United Nations. Explain and state the significance: Maher Arar Maher Arar was a Syrian-born Canadian citizen detained by Americans and imprisoned and tortured in Syria for alleged terrorist activity.

He was later found innocent and released Significance: 1) Headlines of his detention in Syria showed bias, This makes us wonder if all media can be trusted, and it reminds us that media is produced from a certain point of view.2) It shows that the global event of 9/11 affected the Muslim identity.3) It raises questions about how the i dentity of people can easily be changed by the media (e.g.

  • The Japanese viewed with suspicion after Pearl Harbor and detentions).
  • Who said this? “Since the September 11 attacks on the United States, many Muslims, particularly in the West, have found themselves the objects of suspicion, harassment and discrimination.
  • Too many people see Islam as a monolith and as intrinsically opposed to the West.

Caricature remains widespread, and the gulf of ignorance is dangerously deep.” Kofi Annan, then secretary general of the United Nations Explain and state the significance to globalization and identity: Make Poverty History and Live 8 Make Poverty History was a series of concerts organized to eradicate poverty worldwide. It was held in the top 8 industrialized countries- the Live 8 – as a reference to the G8 countries. It was also held in July when the G8 was meeting. About 3 billion of people around the world participated in the concerts either in person or via various forms of media.

  • Significance- 1.
  • Another example of globalization facilitated by communication technologies.2.
  • Possible example of worldwide discrimination against people of colour.
  • Nelson Mandela spoke to concert-goers, but, apart from him, there were only two other black people in the spotlight.
  • Some believe this to represent a global bias towards Africans.3.

A positive movement generated via globalization. What, according to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, causes some disasters to attract media coverage? Disasters that attract the most coverage are those that are unusual but can be explained. Disasters that don’t have clear causes or solutions attract less media attention. What are some examples of the universalization of pop culture? Sesame Street, Walt Disney movies, Friends, Simpsons, any other TV show or movie played around the world. Is hybridization a positive thing? It depends on your perspective: Positive – It allows cultures to interact with global media while keeping elements of theirs. Negative – It is too much of a loss of culture. The elements of host culture incorporated into American shows is not enough. Cultural homogenization will still be the result. Can you give an example of another culture’s media being consumed widely in America ? Yes. Manga and anime are good examples of foreign media widely consumed in our globalized world. These Japanese shows/cartoons represent the Japanese response to WWII: These comics grapple with issues of morality, good versus evil, and the role of technology in our lives.

These values or questions do influence North American teens, for example. MAJOR QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER 3: 1. How is identity affected by opportunities to communicate with people around the world? 2. How is diversity influenced by the media and communication technologies? 3. How is identity affected by media convergence of world events ? 4.

How is diversity affected by the dominance of American media ? Answers will vary. Review pages 68- 87 of your textbook for answers. Define, give an example, and state the significance to globalization and identity: cultural content laws Laws passed by a government to prevent agroup’s cultural identity –including its artists, performers, songs, movies and literature – from beingoverwhelmed by the media of a more dominant culture. Examples : CRTC in Canada; in France, theatres must play French movies 20 weeks a year; in Australia, 55% of TV programs must be made in Australia; in China, the government has created a list of 20,000 English words that must be translated into Chinese. Varietyin cultures and identities. Examples : In Canada, we live in a multicultural society. In 2001, UNESCO adopted the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity which includes the motto: The cultural wealth of the world is its diversity in dialogue. Therevitalization of a language through conscious effort by a person or community. Examples : The teaching of Native languages in Northwest Territories schools. La Francophonie, which on a global scale, promotes French language and culture. The attempt to revitalize Inuktitut among the Inuit. •Theright to speak a language. Examples : The Charter of Rights of Freedoms in Canada allows citizens to speak our two national languages: French and English. It also requires signage in both languages. In 1971, Pierre Trudeau made Canada the first country to adopt a multicultural policy, which gave Canadian citizens the right to speak their own languages. CRTC (CanadianRadio/televisionTelecommunicationsCommission) The goal of the CRTC rules isto protect and preserve Canada’s cultural identity by ensuring that Canadians hear Canadianvoices and see Canadian stories. According to the CRTC, media is considered Canadian only if it meets 2 of 4 requirements of MAPL (M- music, A- artist, P- performance, L- lyrics Canadian). MAJOR QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER 4: 1. How do people affirm and promote their language and culture in a globalizing world? 2. How do governments affirm and promote their languages and cultures in a globalizing world? 2. How do i nternational organizations affirm and promote languages and cultures in a globalizing world? Answers will vary. Review pages 90-109 of your textbook.

View complete answer

What is mean by universalization of secondary education?

Universalizing secondary education – Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) is an initiative of the Government of India, in partnership with State governments, which seeks to universalize enrolment in grades 9 and 10 across the country. It supports the expansion of existing schools, the building of new schools to reach underserved areas, investments in quality improvement, and contributions to recurrent and capital costs.

  1. The is to universalize entry into secondary school by the end of 2017 and achieve universal completion of grade 10 by 2020.
  2. RMSA responds to the fact that no more than 60% of all Indian children complete secondary school and net enrolment rates are little more than 40%.
  3. Around half of those completing secondary school fail to acquire high level Board qualifications and demonstrate mastery of the national curriculum.

In the Northern states, less than half of all children make the transition to secondary school. Those from Scheduled Tribes and Castes and other educationally marginalised groups are especially disadvantaged. Only 11% of children in the lowest quintile of household expenditure are likely to reach secondary school whilst almost all of those in the richest quintile complete grade 10.
View complete answer

When was universalisation of education started?

The NPE (1986) repeated the issues of equality of educational opportunity and free and compulsory education for all children up to 14 years. The Policy of 1986 was modified in 1992 and was tabled in the parliament on 7th May 1992.
View complete answer

You might be interested:  How To Start Overseas Education Consultancy?

What are some examples of universalization?

Define, give an example, and state the significance to globalization and identity: digital divide The digital divide refers to the gap that separatespeople who do – and do not – have access to up-to–date digitaltechnology (communication technology,Internet, etc.) Example: In North America, 69.7% of the population has access to the Internet, while in Africa, only 3.6% of the population does. Propaganda -Ideas and information spreadfor the purpose ofachieving a specific goal. Often, propaganda is characterized by dishonesty (omission of facts) and emotional appeal (rather than logicalreasoning to persuade) Example: Some people believe the television station Al-Jazeera provides nothing but propaganda. Pop culture is a short form for “popular culture,” whichis the culture of the people. Thisterm often refers to current culturaltrends thatare spread by commercial mass media. Example: A good example of pop culture is the show Simpsons or the movie Hunger Games. Universalization is the spread of culture,trends, customs, and practices around the world. They key term within the word is “universal.” Example : Walt Disney is a transnational corporation that produces children’s media that has been universalized -it is viewed all around the world. Hybridization is the combining of elementsof two or more different things to create something new. Forour purposes, hybridization refers to the combination of elements of Americanculture withthose of the country in which a show is produced. Example : Sesame Street offers a good example of hybridization of American and host country cultures. Thanks to satellite technology, such as the Canadian satellite Anik A1, television shows and media in general can be broadcast throughout the world. This broadcast of media has both a positive and negative affect on identity. One negative may be cultural homogenization, media cross-ownership Which 6 transnational corporations are said to control 85% of the world’s media? (media concentration on the global scale) 1. Vivendi International 2. AOL Time Warner 3. Disney 4. News Corporation 5. Viacom 6. Bertelsmann How might media concentration on the global and national scale affect the (1) formation of identity and the (2) practice of democracy ? 1. If identities are in part formed by the media we consume, then we might expect an i ncreasing similarity between people (cultural homogenization) who consume the same media with the same values worldwide (e.g. Late 2001- censorship of journalists by CanWest Global Communications, They asked their journalists to report the same view, regardless of their regional differences, or be fired. After some journalists were fired, there was a public outcry. What made it possible for Al-Jazeera to broadcast its programs internationally, and in what year? Why is Al-Jazeera controversial in Canada? What is the significance of this controversy? Al-Jazeera is controversial in Canada because it is an Arabic media channel, It is said by some to broadcast only propaganda about Muslim brotherhood and Islamic extremism.

However, others argue that Al-Jazeera is not that extreme. These people argue it offers a legitimate perspective that should be heard. Currently, no Canadian cable company has agreed to broadcast Al-Jazeera because of strict conditions applied to it by the CRTC. The significance of Al-Jazeera is that perhaps some perspectives are being censored or so heavily policed that they are never heard.

On the other hand, others would argue censorship is needed to maintain peace and order. Which people in Canada are the least satisfied with the Internet, and why? French and Aboriginal Canadians are least satisfied with the Internet because it is predominantly English. They worry about cultural homogenization, They worry their voices, in their languages, will not be heard on the Internet. Define, give an example, and state the significance to globalization and identity: techno-isolation Techno-isolation refers to the idea that technology actually increases distance between people because it causes us to become ” technological hermits ” Example: You are walking down the street and need to ask for directions, but you find it impossible to communicate with the people passing by who are listening to their ipods. In November, 1963, the president of the USA, John F. Kennedy, was assassinated. The significance of the event includes: 1) It was one of the f irst events watched worldwide via media technology.2) It shaped American identity as global “policeman.” Explain and state the significance to globalization and identity: September 11, 2001 On September 11, 2001 four airplanes were hijacked and two were flown into the World Trade Center in New York, The other planes crashed into the Pentagon. A total of more than 3,000 people were killed in the attacks. The significance of this event includes: 1) Another event watched by the world.2) It revealed cultural clashes when certain people in other parts of the world celebrated the attacks.3)It changed the identities of Muslims in North America.

  • Increasingly, Muslims were viewed with suspicion.
  • Some were harassed.
  • Others were detained and imprisoned for “terrorist” activities ( Arar ).
  • Some mosques were firebombed.
  • In general, islamophobia became an international issue that needed to be addressed by the United Nations.
  • Explain and state the significance: Maher Arar Maher Arar was a Syrian-born Canadian citizen detained by Americans and imprisoned and tortured in Syria for alleged terrorist activity.

He was later found innocent and released Significance: 1) Headlines of his detention in Syria showed bias, This makes us wonder if all media can be trusted, and it reminds us that media is produced from a certain point of view.2) It shows that the global event of 9/11 affected the Muslim identity.3) It raises questions about how the i dentity of people can easily be changed by the media (e.g.

  • The Japanese viewed with suspicion after Pearl Harbor and detentions).
  • Who said this? “Since the September 11 attacks on the United States, many Muslims, particularly in the West, have found themselves the objects of suspicion, harassment and discrimination.
  • Too many people see Islam as a monolith and as intrinsically opposed to the West.

Caricature remains widespread, and the gulf of ignorance is dangerously deep.” Kofi Annan, then secretary general of the United Nations Explain and state the significance to globalization and identity: Make Poverty History and Live 8 Make Poverty History was a series of concerts organized to eradicate poverty worldwide. It was held in the top 8 industrialized countries- the Live 8 – as a reference to the G8 countries. It was also held in July when the G8 was meeting. About 3 billion of people around the world participated in the concerts either in person or via various forms of media.

  • Significance- 1.
  • Another example of globalization facilitated by communication technologies.2.
  • Possible example of worldwide discrimination against people of colour.
  • Nelson Mandela spoke to concert-goers, but, apart from him, there were only two other black people in the spotlight.
  • Some believe this to represent a global bias towards Africans.3.

A positive movement generated via globalization. What, according to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, causes some disasters to attract media coverage? Disasters that attract the most coverage are those that are unusual but can be explained. Disasters that don’t have clear causes or solutions attract less media attention. What are some examples of the universalization of pop culture? Sesame Street, Walt Disney movies, Friends, Simpsons, any other TV show or movie played around the world. Is hybridization a positive thing? It depends on your perspective: Positive – It allows cultures to interact with global media while keeping elements of theirs. Negative – It is too much of a loss of culture. The elements of host culture incorporated into American shows is not enough. Cultural homogenization will still be the result. Can you give an example of another culture’s media being consumed widely in America ? Yes. Manga and anime are good examples of foreign media widely consumed in our globalized world. These Japanese shows/cartoons represent the Japanese response to WWII: These comics grapple with issues of morality, good versus evil, and the role of technology in our lives.

  1. These values or questions do influence North American teens, for example.
  2. MAJOR QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER 3: 1.
  3. How is identity affected by opportunities to communicate with people around the world? 2.
  4. How is diversity influenced by the media and communication technologies? 3.
  5. How is identity affected by media convergence of world events ? 4.

How is diversity affected by the dominance of American media ? Answers will vary. Review pages 68- 87 of your textbook for answers. Define, give an example, and state the significance to globalization and identity: cultural content laws Laws passed by a government to prevent agroup’s cultural identity –including its artists, performers, songs, movies and literature – from beingoverwhelmed by the media of a more dominant culture. Examples : CRTC in Canada; in France, theatres must play French movies 20 weeks a year; in Australia, 55% of TV programs must be made in Australia; in China, the government has created a list of 20,000 English words that must be translated into Chinese. Varietyin cultures and identities. Examples : In Canada, we live in a multicultural society. In 2001, UNESCO adopted the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity which includes the motto: The cultural wealth of the world is its diversity in dialogue. Therevitalization of a language through conscious effort by a person or community. Examples : The teaching of Native languages in Northwest Territories schools. La Francophonie, which on a global scale, promotes French language and culture. The attempt to revitalize Inuktitut among the Inuit. •Theright to speak a language. Examples : The Charter of Rights of Freedoms in Canada allows citizens to speak our two national languages: French and English. It also requires signage in both languages. In 1971, Pierre Trudeau made Canada the first country to adopt a multicultural policy, which gave Canadian citizens the right to speak their own languages. CRTC (CanadianRadio/televisionTelecommunicationsCommission) The goal of the CRTC rules isto protect and preserve Canada’s cultural identity by ensuring that Canadians hear Canadianvoices and see Canadian stories. According to the CRTC, media is considered Canadian only if it meets 2 of 4 requirements of MAPL (M- music, A- artist, P- performance, L- lyrics Canadian). MAJOR QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER 4: 1. How do people affirm and promote their language and culture in a globalizing world? 2. How do governments affirm and promote their languages and cultures in a globalizing world? 2. How do i nternational organizations affirm and promote languages and cultures in a globalizing world? Answers will vary. Review pages 90-109 of your textbook.

View complete answer

Who gave the concept of universalization?

Universalisation (cultural studies) – Lorna Jean Edmonds and WE (Ted) Hewitt introduced a definition of universalization as an incipient concept describing the next phase of human development, marking the transition from trans-national to interplanetary relations and much more aggressive exploitation of opportunities that lie beyond the confines of Earth.

As both a process and an end state, universalization implies an increasingly pervasive, abiding and singular human focus not only on global issues per se but on social, technological, economic and cultural challenges and opportunities extending into our solar system, our galaxy, and well beyond, where cooperation supersedes conflict negotiation.

Its origins are associated with the incipient expansion of social, economic, and political relationships that have emerged in the wake of globalization and that increasingly define the planet, its place within the broader universe and the sustainability of humanity and our diversity.

  • For many, the concept was inspired by Kwame Anthony Appiah ‘s work on cosmopolitanism, and particularly his emphasis on the need to develop a transcendent, collaborative model of human interaction that looks beyond the limited confines of current human relationships.
  • Underlying principles and activities associated with universalization have also been discussed in a number of works dealing with prospective human exploitation of natural resources in space.

Evidence of the transition from globalisation to the century of “universalization” is provided by the exponential growth in outer space activity across all sectors of human endeavour, including exploration (global investments by national governments and consortia of $65 billion annually), governance (the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, the International Association for Space Safety), commerce (aerospace industries such as Boeing, Teledyne, MDA ), resource exploitation ( Moon Express ), Tourism ( Virgin Galactic, XCOR ), communications (satellites, probes, inter-planetary internet), education (the International Space University, Singularity University, International Institute of Space Commerce ), research (observatories at Hawaii, Chile, the Square Kilometer Array, the Hubble Space Telescope, and settlement ( Mars One ).

Another reading of “universalization” has been suggested by Gregory Paul Meyjes. Questioning the various processes (economic, political, cultural) by which globalization or globalisation has favored expeditious Anglo-cultural dominance at the expense of a more broadly-based, gradually-emerging world civilization, Meyjes argues for cultural policies that support “ecological” relations between local ethnocultural traditions, to protect cultural specificity in the short term and thus to allow as great a variety of groups as possible to voluntarily and organically contribute to the global whole.

Meyjes thus proposes universalization as a process of (largely) unfettered yet non-threatening exchange (such as with the aid of an International Auxiliary Language ) between and among the world’s state-level and sub-state-level groups and “nations” – i.e.
View complete answer