What Do You Mean By Vocationalisation Of Secondary Education?

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What Do You Mean By Vocationalisation Of Secondary Education
TVETipedia Glossary

The term vocationalization refers to efforts by schools to include in their curriculum those practical subjects which are likely to generate among students some basic knowledge, skills and dispositions that might prepare them to think of becoming skilled workers or to enter manual operations. The inclusion of practical or industrial arts subjects especially in the curriculum of secondary schools as part of a programme of general education is considered an essential element in the vocationalization of education. (Bacchus, K. (1988). The political context of the vocationalization of education in developing countries. In J. Lauglo & K. Lillis (ed.). Vocationalizing Secondary Education. An international perspective. London: Pergamon. Page 31)Source: Go further

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TVETipedia Glossary
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What is the meaning of vocational education?

Vocational education or Vocational Education and Training (VET), also called Career and Technical Education (CTE), prepares learners for jobs that are based in manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic and totally related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation, hence the term, in which the learner
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What is the meaning and objectives of vocational education?

TVETipedia Glossary

Parent terms:, Those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life. Source:

Organisation: , UN
Source: (1984)
Description: This publication is a practical terminology in the field of technical and vocational education for the purposes of international communication. After use of the original English/French version for over five years in numerous regional and international meetings, conferences, seminars and workshops held in those two languages, it was felt that publication of the guide in additional international languages would permit Unesco to contribute further to a better understanding in Member States of the Revised Recommendation concerning Technical and Vocational Education (1974), would facilitate the implementation of this instrument and would foster a more effective exchange of information in the field of technical and vocational education.

Education and training which aims to equip people with knowledge, know-how, skills and/or competences required in particular occupations or more broadly on the labour market. Source:

Organisation: , Europe
Source: (2008)
Description: This multilingual glossary of terms used in education and training policy is intended for researchers and more generally for all those involved in education and training policy. It does not represent an exhaustive inventory of the terminology used by specialists; rather it identifies a selection of key terms that are essential for an understanding of current education and training policy in Europe. This glossary is an updated and extended version of the Terminology of vocational training policy, published by Cedefop in 2004. This glossary was prepared in cooperation with the European Training Foundation (ETF), The European Commission (DG Education and Culture) and Eurydice (The information network on education in Europe).

Post-compulsory education and training, excluding degree and higher level programs delivered by further education institutions, which provides people with occupational or work-related knowledge and skills. VET also includes programs which provide the basis for subsequent vocational programs.

Alternative terms used internationally include technical and vocational education and training (TVET), vocational and technical education and training (VTET), technical and vocational education (TVE), vocational and technical education (VTE), further education and training (FET), and career and technical education (CTE).

Source:

Organisation: , Australia
Source: (2013 – online version continuously updated, Accessed in Jan.2016)
Description: The language of vocational education and training (VET) is complex and particularly prone to jargon and acronyms. The aim of this glossary is to provide a single up-to-date reference source for definitions of Australian VET-related terms, acronyms and organisations. The glossary is based on ‘A glossary of Australian vocational education and training terms’ which was published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2000. New content, sourced from recent NCVER publications, the VOCED database, websites of key Australian VET organisations, other VET glossaries and suggestions from NCVER staff, has been added.

The merging between the Vocational Education and the Vocational Training. It is a post-compulsory education and training, excluding degree and higher level programmes delivered by higher education institutions, which provides people with occupational or work-related awareness, knowledge, skills and attitude. Source: Vocational education and training, abbreviated as VET, sometimes simply called vocational training, is the training in skills and teaching of knowledge related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation in which the student or employee wishes to participate.

Organisation: , Europe
Source: (Online repository (Accessed in January 2016))
Description: The Glossary contains short definitions of all terms used in ‘Statistics Explained’ Statistics Explained is: * an encyclopaedia on European Union statistics; * a portal to further information for occasional and for regular users; * a statistical glossary.

Child terms capacity of vocational education and training to: • encourage individuals to deliberately choose vocational and training education and training; • offer quality qualifications that open up career prospects; • persuade employers to recruit holders of VeT certificates.Source:

Organisation: , Europe
Source: (2014)
Description: What is the difference between skill gap, skill needs or skill shortage? Is underqualification a synonym for undereducation or underskilling? What is the meaning of green skills? This multilingual glossary defines 130 key terms used in European education and training policy. An extended and updated version of Terminology of European education and training policy (2008) and Terminology of vocational training policy (2004), it also takes into account new priorities of European Union policy, mainly in skills and competence needs analysis. New definitions have been developed with the cooperation of experts from Cedefop’s research and policy analysis team.

Education or training after initial education or entry into working life aimed at helping individuals to improve or update their knowledge and/or skills, acquire new skills for a career move or retraining, or continue their personal and professional development. Source:

Organisation: , Australia
Source: (2013 – online version continuously updated, Accessed in Jan.2016)
Description: The language of vocational education and training (VET) is complex and particularly prone to jargon and acronyms. The aim of this glossary is to provide a single up-to-date reference source for definitions of Australian VET-related terms, acronyms and organisations. The glossary is based on ‘A glossary of Australian vocational education and training terms’ which was published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2000. New content, sourced from recent NCVER publications, the VOCED database, websites of key Australian VET organisations, other VET glossaries and suggestions from NCVER staff, has been added.

Continuing vocational training) A training process or activity which has as its primary objective the acquisition of new competences or the development and improvement of existing ones, and which is financed at least partly by the enterprises for their employees, who either have a working contract or who benefit directly from their work for the enterprise, such as unpaid family workers and casual workers.

Organisation: , Europe
Source: (2011)
Description: This glossary is one output of European Commission project EAC/11/2008, ‘Study on European Terminology in Adult Learning for a common language and common understanding and monitoring of the sector’. Two glossaries have been produced in the course of this project. The glossary presented here –the Level 1 glossary –is intended to be a practical reference tool for policy-makers and administrators that will enable better communication between the Member States. Work on this study was led by the National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy (NRDC) at the Institute of Education, University of London, and carried out in collaboration with colleagues from the Deutsches Institut für Erwachsenenbildung (DIE) in Bonn, the Agence Nationale de Lutte congtre L’illetrisme (ANLCI) in Lyon, the University of Sheffield, and the University of Warsaw.

See also: Entry level training; also: Initial training) 1.General or vocational education carried out in the initial education system, usually before entering working life.2.Pre-employment training for an occupation, generally divided into two parts; basic training followed by specialization. Source:

Organisation: , UNESCO/Australia
Source: (2009)
Description: This glossary has been published in the “International Handbook of Education for the Changing World of Work” (Vol.1, chapter 5) “The glossary aims to reflect the terminology found in the recent literature of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) research, policy and practice internationally. The most common and significant terms (including acronyms) are listed and, in some cases, national and regional variations have been included. To maintain an international perspective, other national and international glossaries and thesauri were consulted in conjunction with current TVET literature from around the world. Where definitions have been written by other organizations, the source of that definition is acknowledged. Unattributed definitions were created in-house at the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER). For some terms, where, for example, there are regional differences, more than one meaning has been provided.”

That vocational education and training which is undertaken before or upon first entering an occupation or job.Source:

Organisation: Ministry of Labour, VTC, Department of statistics, national Centre of Human Resources, Jordan
Source: (2005 – Not available online)
Description: Glossary requested by the Ministry of labour of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan – as part of its activities to foster capacity building. It was assisted in this task by the International Training Centre (ILO, Turin). The International Training Centre worked in collaboration with the local expert Ahmed Mustafa. The expert was responsible for the coordination of the project, ensuring constant communication and collaboration between the concerned authorities in Jordan, especially the following: -Ministry of labour. -VTC (Vocational training centers). -Department of statistics. -National Centre for human resources development/Al Manar-information system project development human resources

Initial vocational training) A work-based training process or activity for apprentices/trainees. It leads to a formal qualification. The activities are often financed (partly or wholly) by the enterprise, but this is not a mandatory condition. Apprentices/trainees often have a special training contractSource:

Organisation: , Europe
Source: (2011)
Description: This glossary is one output of European Commission project EAC/11/2008, ‘Study on European Terminology in Adult Learning for a common language and common understanding and monitoring of the sector’. Two glossaries have been produced in the course of this project. The glossary presented here –the Level 1 glossary –is intended to be a practical reference tool for policy-makers and administrators that will enable better communication between the Member States. Work on this study was led by the National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy (NRDC) at the Institute of Education, University of London, and carried out in collaboration with colleagues from the Deutsches Institut für Erwachsenenbildung (DIE) in Bonn, the Agence Nationale de Lutte congtre L’illetrisme (ANLCI) in Lyon, the University of Sheffield, and the University of Warsaw.

Technical and vocational education and training’ (TVET) is understood as comprising education, training and skills development relating to a wide range of occupational fields, production, services and livelihoods. TVET, as part of lifelong learning, can take place at secondary,post-secondary and tertiary levels and includes work-based learning and continuing training and professional development which may lead to qualifications.

Organisation: , UN (Head quarter, General Conference)
Source: (2015)
Description: UNESCO is responsible for monitoring the implementation of two normative instruments in the field of technical and vocational education and training (TVET): the 1989 Convention on Technical and Vocational Education; and the 2001 Revised Recommendation concerning Technical and Vocational Education. The General Conference decided at its 37th session in 2013 (37 C/Resolution 17) that the 2001 Revised Recommendation should be revised once more to reflect the new trends and issues in technical and vocational education and training.

Post-compulsory education and training, excluding degree and higher level programs delivered by further education institutions, which provides people with occupational or work-related knowledge and skills. Also: Career and technical education (CTE) (USA); Further education and training (FET) (UK, South Africa); Vocational and technical education and training (VTET) (South-East Asia); Vocational education and training (VET); Vocational and technical education (VTE) (AUS).” Source:

Organisation: , UNESCO/Australia
Source: (2009)
Description: This glossary has been published in the “International Handbook of Education for the Changing World of Work” (Vol.1, chapter 5) “The glossary aims to reflect the terminology found in the recent literature of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) research, policy and practice internationally. The most common and significant terms (including acronyms) are listed and, in some cases, national and regional variations have been included. To maintain an international perspective, other national and international glossaries and thesauri were consulted in conjunction with current TVET literature from around the world. Where definitions have been written by other organizations, the source of that definition is acknowledged. Unattributed definitions were created in-house at the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER). For some terms, where, for example, there are regional differences, more than one meaning has been provided.”

Technical and vocational education and training, used as an equivalent term for vocational education and training (VET) especially in the Asia-Pacific region.Source:

Organisation: , Australia
Source: (2013 – online version continuously updated, Accessed in Jan.2016)
Description: The language of vocational education and training (VET) is complex and particularly prone to jargon and acronyms. The aim of this glossary is to provide a single up-to-date reference source for definitions of Australian VET-related terms, acronyms and organisations. The glossary is based on ‘A glossary of Australian vocational education and training terms’ which was published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2000. New content, sourced from recent NCVER publications, the VOCED database, websites of key Australian VET organisations, other VET glossaries and suggestions from NCVER staff, has been added.

Non-academic technical education and practical training that develop the skills and knowledge of apprentices (learners of trades or crafts) working in different sectors of industry and trainees / students trained in different TVET Institutions (TVET Institutes, Centres & Schools).

The TVET is that part of the education system that provides courses and training programmes related to employment with a view to enable the transition from Secondary Education to work for young trainees / students (social objective) and supply the labour market with competent apprentices (economic objective).

The TVET is used as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life.Source: The education or training process where it involves, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills relating to occupations in various sectors of economic life and social life, comprises formal (organized programs as part of the school system) and non-formal (organized classes outside the school system) approaches.Source:

Organisation: , Philippines
Source: (2010)
Description: The Glossary of Terms, 4th edition, provides definitions of TVET terms and terminologies commonly used in education, labor and employment and other TVET related areas in the Philippines. The complexity of the environment where TVET operates requires regular review and updating of TVET terminologies as systems, standards, processes, policies and programs continue to change. The provision of this glossary is intended to facilitate comprehension and better understanding as we move together in making TVET work for our people and country.

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TVETipedia Glossary
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What is vocational education example?

Following are some examples of common vocational training programs offered in India: Makeup and beautician training. Mehendi (henna) designing. Cooking and baking classes.
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Why vocational education is important?

“Vocational education and training, allows students to gain practical experience in their chosen career path before they even graduate.” – Students who finish those rigorous programs, have the credentials and training they need to get started right away in their chosen career path.
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What is Vocationalisation of secondary education Class 12?

>> >> Overview The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary Education provides for diversification of educational opportunities so as to enhance individual employability, reduce the mismatch between demand and supply of skilled manpower and provides an alternative for those pursuing higher education. The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary Education at + 2 level is being implemented since 1988. The revised scheme is in operation since 1992-93. The Scheme provides for financial assistance to the States to set up administrative structure, area vocational surveys, preparation of curriculum, text book, work book curriculum guides, training manual, teacher training programme, strengthening technical support system for research and development, training and evaluation etc. It also provides financial assistance to NGOs and voluntary organizations towards implementation of specific innovative projects for conducting short-term courses. The Scheme, so far, has created infrastructure of 21000 sections in 9619 schools and creating a capacity of about 10 lakh students at + 2 level. The grants released so far since the inception of the scheme is Rs.765 crore. Based on the recommendations of various Committees/Review Groups, the existing Scheme is being revised Last Updated by admin on Friday, 4 March 2016 – 7:58pm :
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Why Vocationalisation of secondary education is important?

Importance of vocational training for career development – When it comes to finding a job and encouraging emerging professionals to excel in their new career path, making sure that graduates have the skills they need for the position plays an essential role.
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Why is vocational training important for secondary education?

EEA strategic framework – As part of the European Education Area strategic framework for the period 2021-2030, a Working Group on Vocational education and training and the green transition and sub-group of the group on schools focusing on education for environmental sustainability have been established.
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What is the full meaning of vocational?

: of, relating to, or undergoing training in a skill or trade to be pursued as a career.
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What trends are followed in Vocationalization of secondary education?

They report that a 10 per cent increase in the share of upper secondary students in vocational and pre- vocational programmes is associated with a 2.6 per cent increase in the secondary Page 7 UNESCO-UNEVOC | Revisiting global trends in TVET 46 school graduation rate and a 1.9 per cent increase in the proportion of 15–
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When was Vocationalisation of secondary education started?

1 The scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary Education was launched in 1988. Under the scheme since its inception, 10,000 schools have been covered with an intake capacity of about 10 lakh students. As per the evaluation study carried out in 1995-96, about 4.8% students were diverted to vocational stream.
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What are the problems of vocational education at secondary level?

​ High drop-out rate at the secondary level. Huge demand-supply of skill gap. The poor quality of mainstream education. Limited access and capacity of current VET.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of vocational education?

Union Cabinet recently approved MoUs between Australia and India and Australia, deepening the bilateral relationships in the educational sector. This new MoU is finalized so as to boost the education, research and training activities between Australia and India.

It also intends to support the vocational education and technical education sector. However, the recent census data shows that enrollment in vocational education has just surged 3% to 5% from 2001. So, do you support vocational courses/colleges? Advantages • Vocational schools impart direct skills that help largely to build a career.

The students can apply for a job in the specific field as early as six months. • Most vocational school or colleges just require high schools completion and basic knowledge of Math and English. The students don’t need to have top grades. • Vocational courses can be taken online, which supports convenience and easy learning process.

  1. The students can pursue their education along with their jobs.
  2. It saves times and transportation costs.
  3. The programs offered in vocational colleges are much shorter and less expensive.
  4. Moreover, as long as these colleges are accredited, students have access to easy loans.
  5. Disadvantages • The biggest drawback in choosing a vocational college is that the credits are not as prestigious as that of traditional colleges.

Moreover, they may not be considered as prerequisites if a person desires to attend a regular college later. • Since vocational schools focus on hands on training and typically they have minimum academic work, the courses are not seen academically on par as compared with traditional colleges.

• A disadvantage to vocational education is the low score when it comes to job competition against applicants having a traditional college degree. • Vocational college education students enter career fields faster compared to traditional college counterparts. However, many of these jobs are of lower-paying positions.

• Despite the low costs associated with vocational schools, technical programs may have higher program-related costs. The students may need to spend huge amount of money on tools and equipment and also on workshops and materials during the program. Conclusion The drawback of vocational courses is the limited flexibility they offer to students.

  • If an individual joins a diesel/auto mechanic course and realize halfway it is not what he wants, the money and time invested largely goes to waste.
  • On the other side, an individual who starts with a four-year regular course can opt for general requirements at first, while exploring available options to choose a degree program.

A career-focused degree includes an array of experiences and classes which better prepare students for diverse career options.
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What is vocational education now called?

“Woodshop” redirects here. For the 2010 American independent film, see Woodshop (film), OAC Vocational Education, 1922 (5857905487) Vocational education is education that prepares people to work as a technician or to take up employment in a skilled craft or trade as a tradesperson or artisan, Vocational Education can also be seen as that type of education given to an individual to prepare that individual to be gainfully employed or self employed with requisite skill.

Vocational education is known by a variety of names, depending on the country concerned, including career and technical education, or acronyms such as TVET (technical and vocational education and training) and TAFE (technical and further education). A vocational school is a type of educational institution specifically designed to provide vocational education.

Vocational education can take place at the post-secondary, further education, or higher education level and can interact with the apprenticeship system. At the post-secondary level, vocational education is often provided by highly specialized trade schools, technical schools, community colleges, colleges of further education (UK), vocational universities, and institutes of technology (formerly called polytechnic institutes).
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What are the effects of vocational education?

Conclusion – This paper attempted to identify the factors, which affect an individual’s participation in formal vocational training. We found that being an urban dweller increases the odds of participating in formal vocational training. It may be indicative of lack of proper vocational training facilities in the rural areas.

  1. Further, being male increases the odds of receiving vocational training, implying that certain special interventions are required to encourage the girls to enrol in formal vocational training programmes.
  2. We saw the impact of vocational training on the wages of an individual at an overall level and at the sectoral level.

We found that having formal training increases the wage by 4.7% in the overall economy as compared to a person without any training. The effect is highest in the primary sector, where the individuals with vocational training had a wage increase of 36.9%.
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What is the scope of vocational education?

Vocational courses and classes are available in many different career fields, such as health care, computer technology, office management, skilled trades. These courses are offered by career colleges, vocational schools, trade schools, and community colleges.
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What is the full meaning of vocational?

: of, relating to, or undergoing training in a skill or trade to be pursued as a career.
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What is vocational example?

What Is Vocational Training? – Also called a trade school, vocational training refers to courses and programs that provide students with the hands-on training required to work in specific careers. The term vocational training tends to bring to mind jobs such as welding, plumbing, and automotive services. However, trade schools cover a wide scope of other well-paying, satisfying jobs, such as:

  • Dental hygienist
  • Construction manager
  • Electrician
  • Computer technician
  • Aircraft mechanic
  • Information technology specialist
  • Marine mechanic

Vocational schools’ main purpose is to help students acquire the practical skills and certifications necessary to begin working and generating income as quickly as possible. This can give candidates an edge during job searches, as their hands-on experience makes them stand out among competitors who often only have theoretical knowledge.
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What is the meaning of vocational education class 9?

Vocational education is education that prepares people to work as a technician or to take up employment in a skilled craft or trade as a tradesperson or artisan.
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