What Do You Mean By Free And Compulsory Education?

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What Do You Mean By Free And Compulsory Education
Departmen of School Education & Literacy The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘Free education’ means that no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.

Compulsory education’ casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group. With this, India has moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation on the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child right as enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act.

The RTE Act provides for the:

Right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood school. It clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. ‘Free’ means that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class. It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments. It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working hours. It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief. It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications. It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d) private tuition by teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition, It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centered learning.

: Departmen of School Education & Literacy
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What is the meaning of free education?

Free education is education funded through government spending or charitable organizations rather than tuition funding. Many models of free higher education have been proposed. Primary school and other comprehensive or compulsory education is free in many countries (often not including primary textbook).

  • Tertiary education is also free in certain countries, including post-graduate studies in the Nordic countries,
  • The Article 13 of International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ensures the right to free education at primary education and progressive introduction of it at secondary and higher education as the right to education,

At the University of Oslo, there is no tuition fee except a small semester fee of NOK(600) (US$74). From 2013 in Northern Europe, Estonia started providing free higher education as well. Sweden, until the early 21st century, provided free education to foreign students but changes have been introduced to charge fees to foreign students from outside the European community,

Denmark also has universal free education, and provides a monthly stipend, the “Statens Uddannelsesstøtte” or “SU”, to students over 18 years of age or students who are under 18 and attending a higher education, Bachelor and master’s degree programmes in Denmark are offered in either Danish or English depending on the programme or university.

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Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Poland, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Lebanon, Turkey, Sri Lanka and Uruguay provide free education at all levels, including college and university for citizens.
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What does compulsory mean in education?

Definition – Compulsory Education refers to the most crucial period of formal education required by law of all children between certain ages in a given country. The period of compulsory attendance is usually determined by the government as the students’ age for beginning and ending obligatory formal education.
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Who introduced free and compulsory education in India?

The Resolutions adopted by the 22nd Indian National Congress, held at Calcutta from December 26 to December 29, 1906, pointed out that ‘Government should take immediate steps for (i) making primary education free and gradually compulsory all over the country’ (Report of the Twenty-Second Indian National Congress, 1907,
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Why education is free and compulsory in South Africa?

Basic education – The mandate of the Department of Basic Education (DBE) is to monitor the standards of the provision, delivery and performance of education annually or at other specified intervals throughout South Africa, with the objective of assessing compliance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa of 1996 and with national education policy.

National Education Policy Act of 1996, which inscribes into law the policies, legislative and monitoring responsibilities of the Minister of Basic Education, and the formal relations between national and provincial authorities. South African Schools Act of 1996, which promotes access to education, promotes quality and democratic governance in the schooling system, and makes schooling compulsory for children aged seven to 15 to ensure that all learners have access to quality education without discrimination. Employment of Educators Act of 1998, which regulates the professional, moral and ethical responsibilities of educators, and competency requirements for teachers.

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Why should education be free and compulsory?

Pros of free basic education – The idea of having every kid access free basic education is a brilliant one. This is because it has a number of benefits that include:

It offers guaranteed access to basic level of education. This means that all students in the country can have access to at least the most basic level of education. This way, no one will be illiterate.Life security. With education being a key to a better life, when kids are educated even at the most basic level, they increase their chances of fending for themselves and their families in future. These students can join the workforce or even become entrepreneurs upon completion of the basic level education or even join tertiary institutions for further studies. Either way, there will be an improvement in lifestyle which is good for the economy.The kids will have a better outlook on life. With education, these kids will be empowered to approach life positively and to be go-getters. With free education, all kids will have the same outlook to life because they got a similar exposure at a younger age. Even if they will be unable to further their studies, the basics are enough to make them mature into forward-thinking individuals.It also improves the prospects of employment. With a bot of training, these kids will be in a position where they can seek employment and be absorbed into the market forces.It fosters equality in schools. The fact that all children have access to the same quality of education is an advantage to them. It does not matter how wealthy or poor your family is, free education levels the ground for all kids, giving everyone an equal opportunity to excel. Promotes fairness. When all kids have a chance to get int a classroom and study, there is a level of fairness that is created. These kids will develop with the spirit of fairness in them and will strive to create it for others. A lot of traits are nurtured at school and the fact that no kid is being left out means everyone benefits in the long run.Helps kids concentrate and focus on their studies. As such, the children need not worry about where their fees will come from when everything is catered for. Their worry will thus be on their studies full time which enhances the possibility of them excelling.Students are guaranteed loan-free access to education. Sometimes these student loans are a burden that students have to shoulder just to get the basics. Fortunately, with access to free education, no student has to worry about securing a job and paying off a loan. Instead, they will strive hard to excel to better their lives, and not necessarily get out of debt.Open up chances for college and university. Most governments offer free basic education up to the time when kids can get to college. Kids that do well can apply for sponsorship and proceed to tertiary level and pursue their careers.Allows kids to choose their specific career. When kids are exposed to education, they can pick out areas of interest and decide what they want to become. Unfortunately, without this opportunity, most will settle for what is available as long as it fends for their daily needs. This way, great potential is often locked out.

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Why is free education important?

According to international human rights law, primary education shall be compulsory and free of charge. Secondary and higher education shall be made progressively free of charge. Free primary education is fundamental in guaranteeing everyone has access to education.

However, in many developing countries, families often cannot afford to send their children to school, leaving millions of children of school-age deprived of education. Despite international obligations, some states keep on imposing fees to access primary education. In addition, there are often indirect costs associated with education, such as for school books, uniform or travel, that prevent children from low-income families accessing school.

Financial difficulties states may face cannot relieve them of their obligation to guarantee free primary education. If a state is unable to secure compulsory primary education, free of charge, when it ratifies the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR, 1966), it still has the immediate obligation, within two years, to work out and adopt a detailed plan of action for its progressive implementation, within a reasonable numbers of years, to be fixed in the plan (ICESCR, Article 14).
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What compulsory means?

Com·​pul·​so·​ry kəm-ˈpəls-(ə-)rē : required by or as if by law. compulsory education. : having the power of forcing someone to do something. a compulsory law.
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What is meaning for compulsory?

/kəmˈpʌl·sə·ri/ (of something) that must be done; necessary by law or a rule : Education is compulsory for children between the ages of 5 and 16.
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Why compulsory education is important?

Mohini Jain v. State of Karnataka (1958) – This case has lead to the foundation of the Right to Education. In this case, Mohini Jain, a medical student filed a petition, challenging the action of a private institute which was charging higher fees from students who did not get admitted to a government seat. What Do You Mean By Free And Compulsory Education Click above The Court in the absence of any Constitutional Provision for the Right to Education held that ‘right to life and personal liberty’ under Article 21 includes ‘Right to Education ‘ as education is required for the overall development of personality without which one would not be able to enjoy one’s right to life.
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When was free and compulsory education started in India?

Departmen of School Education & Literacy The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘Free education’ means that no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.

Compulsory education’ casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group. With this, India has moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation on the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child right as enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act.

The RTE Act provides for the:

Right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood school. It clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. ‘Free’ means that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class. It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments. It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working hours. It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief. It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications. It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d) private tuition by teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition, It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centered learning.

: Departmen of School Education & Literacy
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Who created compulsory education?

Origins of Compulsory Education – In ancient Judea, even before Plato’s The Republic popularized the idea of mandatory education, Jewish leaders required parents to provide at least an informal education for their children. In fact, rabbis founded a number of schools throughout the region and encouraged parents to send their children to school beginning at the age of six.

  1. But the Aztec Triple Alliance (which ruled modern-day central Mexico in the 15th and early 16th centuries) is widely credited as being the first nation to make education mandatory for all children.
  2. With the Reformation (beginning in 1524), Martin Luther called for mandatory schooling laws to ensure that more Christians could read the Bible on their own.
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As the Reformation spread throughout Europe, so did the enactment of mandatory education laws. But while Scotland established an education mandate for the children of privileged families in 1496, this mandate didn’t include commoners until the country enacted the School Establishment Act of 1616,
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When did the act free and compulsory education came?

An Act to provide for free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years.
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Who demanded the Right to free and compulsory education?

Gopal Krishna Gokhale demanded the Right to Education for Indian children from the Imperial Legislative Assembly.
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Is compulsory education a good idea?

What is the purpose of compulsory education? – What is compulsory education and its purpose? Education is the best source to bring change to the world. Nothing can transform a person’s life like education. Inspire confidence and give people a voice. In addition to its obvious benefits for a fuller and better life.

Education can contribute to the betterment of society as a whole. It can build a society in which people are aware of their rights and duties. We think that education should influence the integral development of the person. And for this, as we pointed out in the report “Education at the center”. It is necessary to overcome more instrumental or economistic conceptions of education.

A report was made as proposal based on the four pillars of learning. Learning to learn, learning to do, learning to be, and learning to live together. Also it offered a basis for the debate on which choices should be made and perform in policy formulation.

  • These pillars must be understood as a whole and not as individual components aimed at feeding different educational strategies.
  • It would not be appropriate.
  • For example, to develop cognitive competencies disconnected from the ethical and social values ​​that guide the construction of more just societies.

This vision is closely aligned with the moral and intellectual principles that support the idea of ​​education as freedom. Who, in her model of education for democratic citizenship, points out three essential capacities that should be acquired through education.

Thought critical ability to critically examine one’s self and one’s traditions. Also global citizenship, the ability not only to perceive themselves as citizens of some local sphere but also as human beings united to others by bonds of recognition and correspondence. And creative understanding, thinking about what it might be like to be in a different person’s shoes.

In today’s world, these approaches are still fully valid. Societies face intractable questions about the future and sustainability of the planet. The innovative responses that individuals or groups can give to these changes and challenges. It will depend in part on their knowledge and capacities to understand the problems they face and to propose and implement lasting solutions from the recognition of common destiny.
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Which country has free education?

Nordic nations Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden all offer opportunities to study free or at low cost: In Norway, university study is available free of charge to all students, regardless of study level or nationality.
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What is the meaning of free SHS?

The free SHS policy aims to take out the element of cost as a barrier to education. Under this policy, ever Ghanaian child who attains the pass mark, as agreed for the year by Ghana Education Service Council, will enjoy a three-year scholarship for secondary education.
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What kind of right is free education?

The right to education The right to education is a fundamental human right.61 million children do not have access to basic education and 758 million adults in the world are illiterate because they have never got any education, according to the 2016 Global Education Monitoring Report.

  • The right to education is a fundamental human right.
  • Every individual, irrespective of race, gender, nationality, ethnic or social origin, religion or political preference, age or disability, is entitled to a free elementary education.
  • This right has been universally recognised since the and has since been enshrined in various international conventions, national constitutions and development plans.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights does not only state the right to access education, but also of the quality of education: «. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

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Is free education a right?

Protocol 1, Article 2: Right to education – No person shall be denied a right to an education. In the exercise of any functions which it assumes in relation to education and to teaching, the State shall respect the right of parents to ensure such education and teaching is in conformity with their own religious and philosophical convictions.
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