What Do You Mean By Formal Education?


What Do You Mean By Formal Education
Formal education – Formal education refers to the structured education system that runs from primary (and in some countries from nursery) school to university, and includes specialised programmes for vocational, technical and professional training. Formal education often comprises an assessment of the learners’ acquired learning or competences and is based on a programme or curriculum which can be more or less closed to adaptation to individual needs and preferences.
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What is informal education short answer?

Informal education is a general term for education that can occur outside of a structured curriculum. Informal education encompasses student interests within a curriculum in a regular classroom, but is not limited to that setting. It works through conversation, and the exploration and enlargement of experience.

Sometimes there is a clear objective link to some broader plan, but not always. The goal is to provide learners with the tools they needs to eventually reach more complex material. It can refer to various forms of alternative education, such as unschooling or homeschooling, autodidacticism (self-teaching), and youth work,

Informal education consists of accidental and purposeful ways of collaborating on new information. It can be discussion-based and focuses on bridging the gaps between traditional classroom settings and life outside of the classroom.
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Who introduced formal education?

3). According to McWilliam (1962), formal education as it is known today began in 1751 when Reverend Thomas Thompson, a missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, came to Cape Coast.
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When did formal education start?

In 1600s and 1700s America, prior to the first and second Industrial Revolutions, educational opportunity varied widely depending on region, race, gender, and social class. Public education, common in New England, was class-based, and the working class received few benefits, if any.

Instructional styles and the nature of the curriculum were locally determined. Teachers themselves were expected to be models of strict moral behavior. By the mid-1800s, most states had accepted three basic assumptions governing public education: that schools should be free and supported by taxes, that teachers should be trained, and that children should be required to attend school.

The term “normal school” is based on the French école normale, a sixteenth-century model school with model classrooms where model teaching practices were taught to teacher candidates. In the United States, normal schools were developed and built primarily to train elementary-level teachers for the public schools.

The Normal School The term “normal school” is based on the French école normale, a sixteenth-century model school with model classrooms where model teaching practices were taught to teacher candidates. This was a laboratory school where children on both the primary or secondary levels were taught, and where their teachers, and the instructors of those teachers, learned together in the same building.

This model was employed from the inception of the Buffalo Normal School, where the “School of Practice” inhabited the first floors of the teacher preparation academy. In testament to its effectiveness, the Campus School continued in the same tradition after the college was incorporated and relocated on the Elmwood campus.

Earlier normal schools were reserved for men in Europe for many years, as men were thought to have greater intellectual capacity for scholarship than women. This changed (fortunately) during the nineteenth century, when women were more successful as private tutors than were men. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, newly industrialized European economies needed a reliable, reproducible, and uniform work force.

The preparation of teachers to accomplish this goal became ever more important. The process of instilling in future citizens the norms of moral behavior led to the creation of the first uniform, formalized national educational curriculum. Thus, “normal” schools were tasked with developing this new curriculum and the techniques through which teachers would communicate and model these ideas, behaviors, and values for students who, it was hoped, through formal education, might desire and seek a better quality of life.

In the United States, normal schools were developed and built primarily to train elementary-level teachers for the public schools. In 1823, Reverend Samuel Read Hall founded the first private normal school in the United States, the Columbian School in Concord, Vermont. The first public normal school in the United States was founded shortly thereafter in 1839 in Lexington, Massachusetts.

Both public and private “normals” initially offered a two-year course beyond the secondary level, but by the twentieth century, teacher-training programs required a minimum of four years. By the 1930s most normal schools had become “teachers colleges,” and by the 1950s they had evolved into distinct academic departments or schools of education within universities.

The Buffalo Normal School Buffalo State was founded in 1871 as the Buffalo Normal School. It changed its name more often than it changed its building. It has been called the State Normal and Training School (1888–1927), the State Teachers College at Buffalo (1928–1946), the New York State College for Teachers at Buffalo (1946–1950), SUNY, New York State College for Teachers (1950–1951), the State University College for Teachers at Buffalo (1951–1959), the State University College of Education at Buffalo (1960–1961), and finally the State University College at Buffalo in 1961, or as we know it more succinctly, SUNY Buffalo State College.

As early as the 1800s, visionary teachers explored teaching people with disabilities. Thomas Galludet developed a method to educate the deaf and hearing impaired. Dr. Samuel Howe focused on teaching the visually impaired, creating books with large, raised letters to assist people with sight impairments to “read” with their fingers.

  • What Goes Around, Comes Around: What Is Good Teaching? Throughout most of post-Renaissance history, teachers were most often male scholars or clergymen who were the elite literates who had no formal training in “how” to teach the content in which they were most well-versed.
  • Many accepted the tenet that “teachers were born, not made,” It was not until “pedagogy,” the “art and science of teaching,” attained a theoretical respectability that the training of educated individuals in the science of teaching was considered important.

While scholars of other natural and social sciences still debate the scholarship behind the “science” of teaching, even those who accept pedagogy as a science admit that there is reason to support one theory that people can be “born” with the predisposition to be a good teacher.

Even today, while teacher education programs are held accountable by accreditors for “what” they teach teachers, the “dispositions of teaching” are widely debated, yet considered essential to assess the suitability of a teacher candidate to the complexities of the profession. Since the nineteenth century, however, pedagogy has attempted to define the minimal characteristics needed to qualify a person as a teacher.

These have remained fairly constant as the bases for educator preparation programs across the country: knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of teaching methods, and practical experience in applying both are still the norm. The establishment of the “norms” of pedagogy and curriculum, hence the original name of “normal school” for teacher training institutions, recognized the social benefit and moral value of ensuring a quality education for all.

  • As with so many innovations and trends that swept the post-industrial world in the twentieth century, education, too, has experienced many changes.
  • The names of the great educational theorists and reformers of the Progressive Era in education are known to all who know even a little about teaching and learning: Jean Piaget, Benjamin Bloom, Maria Montessori, Horace Mann, and John Dewey to name only a few.

As early as the 1800s, visionary teachers explored teaching people with disabilities. Thomas Galludet developed a method to educate the deaf and hearing impaired. He opened the Hartford School for the Deaf in Connecticut in 1817. Dr. Samuel Howe focused on teaching the visually impaired, creating books with large, raised letters to assist people with sight impairments to “read” with their fingers.

Howe led the Perkins Institute, a school for the blind, in Boston. Such schools were usually boarding schools for students with disabilities. There are still residential schools such as St. Mary’s School for the Deaf in Buffalo, but as pedagogy for all children moved into the twentieth century, inclusive practice where children with disabilities were educated in classrooms with non-disabled peers yielded excellent results.

This is the predominant pedagogy taught by our Exceptional Education faculty today. As the reform movements in education throughout the twentieth century introduced ideas of equality, child-centered learning, assessment of learner achievement as a measure of good teaching, and other revolutionary ideas such as inquiry-based practice, educating the whole person, and assuring educational opportunities for all persons, so did the greater emphasis on preparing teachers to serve the children of the public, not just those of the elite.

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This abridged version of events that affected teacher education throughout the twentieth century mirrors the incredible history of the country from WWI’s post-industrial explosion to the turbulent 1960s, when the civil rights movement and the women’s rights movement dominated the political scene and schools became the proving ground for integration and Title IX enforcement of equality of opportunity.

Segregation in schools went to the Supreme Court in 1954 with Brown vs. Board of Education. Following this monumental decision, schools began the slow process of desegregating schools, a process that, sadly, is still not yet achieved. As schools became more and more essential to the post-industrial economy and the promotion of human rights for all, teaching became more and more regulated.

By the end of the twentieth century, licensing requirements had stiffened considerably in public education, and salary and advancement often depended on the earning of advanced degrees and professional development in school-based settings. In the second half of the twentieth century, the Sputnik generation’s worship of science gave rise to similarities in terminology between the preparation of teachers and the preparation of doctors.

“Lab schools” and quantitative research using experimental and quasi-experimental designs to test reading and math programs and other curricular innovations were reminiscent of the experimental designs used in medical research. Student teaching was considered an “internship,” akin to the stages of practice doctors followed.

  • Such terminology and parallels to medicine, however, fell out of vogue with a general disenchantment with science and positivism in the latter decades of the twentieth century.
  • Interestingly, these parallels have resurfaced today as we refer to our model of educating teachers in “clinically rich settings.” We have even returned to “residency” programs, where teacher candidates are prepared entirely in the schools where they will eventually teach.

As schools became more and more essential to the post-industrial economy and the promotion of human rights for all, teaching became more and more regulated. By the end of the twentieth century, licensing requirements had stiffened considerably in public education, and salary and advancement often depended on the earning of advanced degrees and professional development in school-based settings.

  • Even today, all programs in colleges and universities that prepare teachers must follow extensive and detailed guidelines established by the New York State Education Department that determine what must be included in such programs.
  • Additions such as teaching to students with disabilities and teaching to English language learners are requirements that reflect the changing needs of classrooms.

As the world changed, so did the preparation of teachers. The assimilation of the normal school into colleges and universities marked the evolution of teaching as a profession, a steady recognition over the last 150 years that has allowed the teacher as scientist to explore how teaching and learning work in tandem and to suggest that pedagogy is dynamic and interactive with sociopolitical forces and that schools play a critical role in the democratic promotion of social justice.

Campus Schools and Alternative Classroom Organization During the ’60s and ’70s, new concepts of schooling such as multigrade classrooms and open-concept spaces, where students followed their own curiosity through project-based learning, were played out right here at Buffalo State in what was then the College Learning Lab (Campus School).

Campus School shared many of the college’s resources and served as the clinical site for the preparation of teachers. School administration and teachers held joint appointments at the college and in the lab. Classrooms were visible through one-way glass, where teacher candidates could observe and review what they saw with the lab school teacher afterward.

Participation in these classrooms was a requirement during the junior year. (I myself did my junior participation in a 5/6 open class there.) However, as the SUNY colleges became less and less supported by New York State budgetary allocations, the Campus School was soon too expensive to staff and to maintain.

The baby boom was over, and the population was shrinking. Job opportunities for the graduates of Buffalo State were rare. A 10-year cycle of teacher shortage and teacher over-supply continues to be a trend. Standards and Norms In the 1980s, education in America once again turned to “norming,” but now the norms were not measuring one child against others; rather, each child was assessed as he or she approached the “national standards” that theoretically defined the knowledge and skills necessary for all to achieve.

  1. Fearing America’s loss of stature as the technologically superior leader of the free world, A Nation at Risk, published in 1983, cast a dark shadow over teaching and schools for many years to come until its premises were largely disrupted.
  2. During the time after this report, however, being a teacher was not a popular career choice, and teaching as a profession was called into question.

By 1998, almost every state had defined or implemented academic standards for math and reading. Principals and teachers were judged; students were promoted or retained, and legislation was passed so that high school students would graduate or be denied a diploma based on whether or not they had met the standards, usually as measured by a criterion-referenced test.

In the 1980s, education in America once again turned to “norming,” but now the norms were not measuring one child against others; rather, each child was assessed as he or she approached the “national standards” that theoretically defined the knowledge and skills necessary for all to achieve. The pressure to teach to a standards-based curriculum, to test all students in an effort to ensure equal education for all, led to some famous named policies of presidents and secretaries of education in the later twentieth century.

National panels and political pundits returned to the roots of the “normal school” movement, urging colleges of teacher education to acquaint teacher candidates with the national educational standards known as Goals 2000, The George H.W. Bush administration kicked off an education summit with the purpose of “righting the ship” since the shock of A Nation at Risk,

  • Standards-based curriculum became a “teacher proof” system of ensuring that all children—no matter what their socioeconomic privilege—would be taught the same material.
  • This “curriculum first” focus for school planning persisted through the Clinton administration with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), the George W.

Bush administration with No Child Left Behind, and the Obama administration with Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and the accompanying federal funding called Race to the Top, Such packaged standards-based curriculum movements once again turned the public eye to a need to conform, achieve, and compete.

For teachers, the most important development from this pressure to teach to the standards was the controversial Common Core, a nationalized curriculum based on standards of education that were designed to give all students common experiences within a carefully constructed framework that would transcend race, gender, economics, region, and aptitude.

So focused were the materials published on the Common Core that schools began to issue scripted materials to their teachers to ensure the same language was used in every classroom. Teacher autonomy was suppressed, and time for language arts and mathematics began to eclipse the study of science, social studies, art, music.

Now What? That takes us almost to today’s schools, where teachers are still accountable for helping student achieve the Common Core standards or more currently the National Standards. Enter the COVID pandemic. Full stop. Curriculum, testing, conformity, and standards are out the window. The American parent can now “see into” the classroom and the teacher can likewise “see into” the American home.

Two-dimensional, computer-assisted instruction replaced the dynamic interactive classroom where learning is socially constructed and facilitated by teachers who are skilled at classroom management, social-emotional learning, and project-based group work.

  1. Teacher candidates must now rely on their status as digital natives to engage and even entertain their students who now come to them as a collective of individuals framed on a computer screen rather than in a classroom of active bodies who engage with each other in myriad ways.
  2. Last year’s pedagogical challenges involved mastery of the 20-minute attention span, the teacher as entertainer added to the teacher as facilitator,

Many of our teacher candidates learned more about themselves than they did about their students. Yet, predominately, stories of creativity, extraordinary uses of technology, and old-fashioned persistence and ingenuity were the new “norm” for the old Buffalo State Normal School.

There has been nothing “normal” about these last two years as the world learns to cope with a silent enemy. There will be no post-war recovery, no post-industrial reforms, no equity of opportunity in schools around the world. But there will be teaching. And there will be learning. And the Buffalo State Normal School will continue to prepare the highest quality practitioners whose bags of tricks grow ever-more flexible, driven by a world where all that is known doubles in just a few days.

Pedagogy is still a science. Teaching is a science, but it is also a craft practiced by master craftsmen and women and learned by apprentices. Teaching has been called the noblest profession. From our earliest roots as the Buffalo Normal School to the current challenges of post-COVID America, we have never changed our dedication to that conviction.

Ultimately, however, as even the earliest teacher educators knew, the art of teaching is that ephemeral quality that we cannot teach, but which we know when we see it at work, that makes the great teacher excel far beyond the competent teacher. Teaching has been called the noblest profession. From our earliest roots as the Buffalo Normal School to the current challenges of post-COVID America, we have never changed our dedication to that conviction.

We are still doing what the words of Nobel laureate Malala Yousafzai encourage us to do: “One child, one teacher, one book, one pen can change the world.” That was and always will be the mission of Buffalo State, “the Teachers College.”
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What is formal education write its characteristics?

Characteristics of formal education It is planned and deliberate. Scheduled fees are paid regularly. It has a chronological grading system. It has a syllabus and subject-oriented.
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What is the other name of formal education?

What is another word for formal education?

schooling teaching
tutoring learning
pedagogy training
andragogy book-learning
lessons apprenticeship

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Is formal education the best?

“I wish I become the next Dancing star!” A 12-year-old boy from Delhi, Arjun want to become the next dancing sensation of the nation. He saw his favorite dance reality show on TV, which filled him with the energy, full of ambitious desires and dreams.

He read newspaper article about children achieving great heights, like Varun, aged 13 years; finest artist in the town, Sandhya aged 10 years; a well-known web developer and many more such countless kids. So, he just asked himself “why can’t I?” Well, that is very genuine question. To see his dreams come true, he just needs to join a reputed dance academy.

Formal, Informal and Non formal Education and their comparison

But what if he aspires to be a dancer only? Why does he need to go to school and get Formal mode of Education? Home schooling is also an option, right? Well, we will be talking about all this and will try to understand why formal education is important for a child.

  1. World is changing with lighting speed and there is high competition in every field.
  2. Many parents are switching to home schooling and are avoiding schooling or we say formal form of education for many reasons.
  3. We need to understand that Foundation of every human is very important for the long-term sustainability and balance in life.

Formal Education builds the core of any personality and this is what helps in keeping a strong foundation for the success of any person at his/her early age. So before proceeding further let us understand what education is all about. What education actually means? Education is not just about ability to read and write.

It refers to nourishing a person with knowledge, skills, values, building everlasting relationships with the peers, morals and creating his/her personality into a better being. This is the basic reason our education system keeps bringing different reforms to keep the system updated and give children a rock-solid foundation, so that they can sustain in the real world, set and achieve greater goals in future.

However, formal education is not just about building a constructive future, it is a continuous path to fulfilment by learning, analyzing and making some life changing decisions for self and others. With the help of formal education all aspects of life whether it is about social, economic, political, technical or moral are taken care of.

  1. Our education system is designed around all this and thus schools play a pivotal role.
  2. So first, we should learn and understand about different kind of informal and formal education system, then we will get a clear picture of what it is all about.
  3. In general, there are three types of education system, namely Informal, Non-Formal and Formal.

What does Informal Education Implies? In simple words, Informal education can be referred to learning from our surrounding and experiences. There is no structure or institution to teach or guide. Mainly parents, surroundings, books, websites, Apps, TV and from more such sources education is imparted.

  1. It has no criteria or boundary; it’s something, which you can grasp from the infinity, in other word it’s intangible.
  2. It is an important aspect for one’s development but one really can’t solely depend on it cause without basic understanding it can sometimes be misleading.
  3. Must Read: How to Gauge Your Options after Class 10th? Let us see what non-formal education refers? It is systematic, not bounded by age, it is flexible and can be molded as per individual requirements.

It works on particular skills or ability of a person and not the overall learning and knowledge. This kind of education is mainly based on practice and vocational training and it helps in developing the skills more by practical approach vis a vie theoretical learnings.

  • It may or may not have professional certification.
  • Fitness programs, community-based education courses, skill- based courses are some of the examples.
  • As we have read about Arjun in first para, this kind of education helps children who want to build their career in a specific sector like dance, acting, sports etc.

However, the real question is whether this can actually prepare the generation to face the adversities of life. We will be discussing about this but first let us see how Formal Education for a child makes the difference. Formal Education is the key to all? Formal Educations refers to the systematic studies planned by schooling system, which starts from elementary school to secondary school and then further leads to college and universities.

It is provided under a very professional atmosphere of School premises and by well-trained and professional teachers. It has a proper structure and a systematic approach. It is time bounded and does have syllabus and pattern which is designed for step-by-step development of a child. Thus, learning process is very systematic.

It aims at overall development of personality and character, with balance in knowledge, wisdom, intelligence and understanding. It conducts exams at regular intervals to keep a check on an overall development of every child and rewarding children with certifications and degree, which showcase their potential and capabilities and build their self-confidence.

It brings the discipline and balance in the mind-set of the children. Since it is structured and provided by the well- trained professional teachers, it has specific fee structure as well depending on the infrastructure of schools and the facilities provided by them. Why is Formal Education so Important? Well, in Arjun’s story, he wants to be a Dancing Star and for that he needs professional training for dance.

Thus, for him formal education might not look so important but this is where Arjun will make a mistake if he quits schooling. It is certain that to fulfil his dreams he will be required to join some dance academy and brush up his skills and talent. But to attain name and fame he also needs to be social which then makes Formal Education inevitable.

As we have read in above para that Formal Education works on the overall development of every child, it also includes basic antiquates, knowledge about surroundings and so many such important things. In addition, with proper education he will get an exposure which will help him see his dreams come true.

Other than these direct benefits, formal education also provides a psychological environment for children for better understanding & growth. In classroom, there are children from different communities, regions and of different potential, talent and capabilities.

  1. Formal Education helps in building competitive approach, creating a social atmosphere, learning and understanding different cultures and giving unique experiences, which is not possible with just Informal and Non-Formal education.
  2. This in turn boost the confidence of the children and expand their circle of knowledge more than just textbooks.

For children like Arjun and their parents it is important to know and understand that school these days understands the importance of extra circular activities. Many different subjects like sports, music, computer, health and fitness, dance, acting, languages etc are also the part of formal education.

In addition, they even take part in various competition at various level, which also brings exposure for them. Therefore, if they skip school, they may lose great opportunities to compete, perform and shine. These days almost everything is just a click away and everyone wants the short cut for success, but success is not just achieving a particular goal.

Real success refers to enjoying the cup of coffee at the peak of your career, with dignity and fearless attitude. Formal Education does nurture such sustainability for longer run. Here it doesn’t mean the Informal and Non-formal education are not important or doesn’t have any requirements or have any less importance.

However, Formal education or Schooling shouldn’t be compromised for them, for any reasons like saving monthly fee or so on, because there is no replacement for formal education. So schooling is really important for every child as they deserve to get best education. Other education system can co-exist with academic/ schooling.

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It is good to refine potential and talent at young age but it should work with proper academics, as that is what give strong foundation to the Core of a Child’s Personality. Also Read: How to Fill Admission Form of Nursery Schools in Delhi School Admission Interview Questions and Answers for Parents Schedule for Delhi Nursery Admissions 2022-23 Announced All Documents Required for Nursery Admissions in Delhi Delhi School Admission Eligibility for 2022-23 | Nursery Selection Criteria
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What is formal education in history?

What is Formal Education? – Formal education refers to the systematic and sequential acquiring of knowledge and skills – usually at a school, university, or college. For a large part of history, formal education has been taught using a set of lectures, reading assignments, homework, and exams.

This approach was beneficial because it allowed students to develop their knowledge. In this way, students worked to gain the skills to help them succeed in life. Although there are many ways to approach education, it is important to remember that this learning style imparts the skills and knowledge needed to lead successful lives personally and professionally.

Formal education programs like the NCERT are recognized by the relevant national educational authorities or equivalent. Formal learning is typically associated with ‘doing’. Students participating in formal learning activities are given instructional goals and objectives.

It can be as simple as reading an article or as complex as earning a Ph.D. The learning process is guided by established criteria consistent with the goals and objectives. Lastly, when learning through formal education, students have the incentive to receive a degree or certificate at the end successfully.

India has a strong tradition of formal education. The education levels in India range from primary school to high school, then onwards to college and/or university education.
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Why is formal education the best?

The education production function – Formal education increases individuals’ well-being primarily through their acquisition of skills, both cognitive (e.g. literacy and numeracy) and non-cognitive (e.g. social and organizational skills). Thus an understanding of the process by which formal education produces those skills is crucial for crafting effective education policies.

  • Economists characterize this process as education production,
  • Economists have studied factories, farms and other productive organizations for more than two centuries.
  • They have gradually developed a comprehensive yet flexible framework for thinking about production processes.
  • At first glance, depicting education as a production process may seem strange, but upon further reflection this approach is useful because it provides a comprehensive framework for thinking about how cognitive and non-cognitive skills were generated through formal education.

Most importantly, this framework provides crucial guidance on how to use education data to estimate the impact of education policies (and other causal factors) on students’ acquisition of skills. The process by which both cognitive and non-cognitive skills are learned is determined by many different factors.

  1. Production functions simply depict this process as a mathematical relationship between inputs and skills acquired.
  2. This relationship can be very flexible, allowing for almost any learning process.
  3. In this sense, an education production function always exists, although the fact that it exists does not guarantee that one can estimate it.

Everything that determines learning, henceforth referred to as “factors” or “inputs” in the production process, can be divided into school, child and household variables. A simple yet flexible skills production function is: (15.1) A = a ( S, Q, C, H, I ) where A is skills learned (“achievement”), S is years of schooling, Q is the set of all school and teacher characteristics (“quality”) that affect learning, C is all child characteristics (including “ability”) and H is all household characteristics that affect learning, and I is educational “inputs” that households contribute, such as children’s daily attendance and purchases of textbooks and other school supplies.

While years of schooling (S) and educational inputs ( I ) can be grouped with child or household variables, Eq. (15.1) separates them from C and H because they are almost always under parents’ control. Eq. (15.1) shows how each variable affects learning holding other variables constant, This qualification is important.

Consider an improvement in one school quality variable, call it Q j, such as a reduction in class size. Eq. (15.1) shows how changing Q j affects learning for given values of the other variables, But changing Q j (or any school quality variable) could change household behavior, that is change S or one or more I variables.

For example, parents may keep children in school longer (increase S) or reduce educational inputs (reduce I variables) in response to improved school quality. Thus the “full” impact of changing Q j on skills (A) is not entirely captured by the impact of that variable as depicted in Eq. (15.1), To obtain the “full” impact of changing school quality, one must know how changes both in the Q variables and in other variables affect S and I in Eq.

(15.1), These relationships can be expressed as: (15.2) S = f ( Q, C, H, P ) (15.3) I = g ( Q, C, H, P ) where P denotes the prices relevant for these household decisions, such as tuition, prices of school supplies, and even child wages (the “price” of children’s time spent in school).

Inserting (15.2) and (15.3) into (15.1) gives another expression for skills acquired (A): (15.4) A = h ( Q, C, H, P ) which economists call a “reduced form” relationship, the right-hand side of which involves only exogenously determined variables (but not endogenous “choice” variables, S and I ).

It shows the full causal impact of school quality variables (and other variables) on learning. Eq. (15.4) is not a production function because it depends on households’ preferences (which guide households’ decisions) and because it includes prices, which, in theory, should not have direct impacts on learning.

While the production function in (15.1) shows the “direct” impacts of all variables that influence learning, when analyzing policy impacts one must estimate the “full” impact depicted in (15.4), which includes not only direct impacts captured in (15.1) but also indirect impacts that work by changing variables that are under households’ control.

Which equation, (15.1) or (15.4), should education policymakers focus on estimating? In fact, estimates of both (15.1) and (15.4) are useful for policymakers. Eq. (15.4) is useful because it shows actual changes in A after the Q and P variables change, and government policies primarily affect these two sets of variables.

Yet the impacts of Q on A in Eq. (15.1) are also important because they better capture overall welfare effects. Intuitively, if increases in Q j induce parents to reduce educational inputs ( I ), household welfare increases because savings from these reduced purchases can be spent on other goods. Eq. (15.4) captures the drop in A from reducing I, but not the increased household welfare from purchasing other goods.

In contrast, the structural impact measured in (15.1) ignores both effects. Since they have opposing impacts on household welfare, they largely cancel each other out. Thus overall welfare effects are better approximated by changes in A measured in (15.1) ; see Glewwe, Kremer, Moulin, and Zitzewitz (2004) for details.

  1. Of course, some government policies cannot be described as changes in school quality ( Q ) or schooling prices ( P ).
  2. Examples are policies that decentralize decision-making processes or change teachers’ contracts.
  3. Such policies affect schooling outcomes by changing what happens in classrooms, or changing prices for education goods and services.

Glewwe and Kremer (2006) explain that one can depict Q and P as determined by (functions of) education policies, and perhaps by community characteristics as well. Ultimately, both skills (A) and years of schooling (S) are determined by child and household characteristics, education policies, and community characteristics.
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What is formal in simple words?

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Formal is a word used to describe anything that has form or structure, So it is something which is used or done in accordance with rules or ceremonies, Formal events have rules. ‘Formal clothes’ or ‘formal attire’ is a way of dressing to meet the rules for an event, such as a party or wedding.

‘Formal attire’ can be a suit, a tuxedo or a dress. People from all over the world have their own ideas about ‘formal attire’. Most of the time formal attire clothes are the most beautiful or the best clothes a person owns. The opposite of “formal” is informal, Informal clothes are comfortable clothes for general use, e.g.

T shirt and jeans, An informal ceremony might be a ceremony which is very relaxed instead of following an exact plan. An informal way to greet a friend might be: “Hi, John!” Examples:

Formal can be the way a person speaks or acts. To act in a formal way a person will follow the social rules of their culture or country. For example, they might greet each other by bowing, and they might address one another by their family name and their title (e.g. “Professor Smith”).

A formal agreement is one which is explicit (written down) and reached by a formal discussion or negotiation, That means the negotiation is also done by set rules or procedures,

In mathematics, formal logic is a way of thinking about mathematics questions using strict rules.

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