What Are The Major Development Of Indian Education After Independence?


75 years of independence: How India has progressed in field of education What Are The Major Development Of Indian Education After Independence Representational Image. ANI At the time of independence, India was lagging behind on a number of developmental indicators. The British government had not prioritised educating the general population. It was up to the leaders involved in the freedom struggle to deal with these challenges and come up with a way to make India a modern, educated and developed nation.

  • Whether it was primary education, growth of schools and universities or other educational indicators, India has progressed in leaps and bounds since it became independent in 1947.
  • The establishment of the University Grants Commission, All India Council of Technical Education, Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management and more in the decades after independence has helped India become a powerhouse of learning.
  • Here is the data on how the nation has progressed in the field of education in 75 years on independence:
  • Gender parity and gross enrolment ratio:

Female education was not given much importance at the time of independence. Most people in the country were extremely reluctant to send their girls to school. However, the situation has changed. According to data by the Press Information Bureau, girls now outnumber boys in school education.

The wide gender gap in the field has been closed off for students in classes I to VIII. For primary school (class I to V) students, there are now 1.02 girls for every boy, a sharp jump from 0.41 girls in 1950-51. For upper primary (classes VI to VIII) the number is 1.01 girls per boy. Literacy rate: The literacy rate in India jumped from 18.3 percent in 1951 to 74.4 percent in 2018.

Female literacy saw the most remarkable turnaround in the period, surging from 8.9 percent to 65.8 percent in the same period. Number of schools and colleges: Every government of independent India has focused on making educational facilities more available to the general public.

  1. The number of schools has increased to over ten times from 1.4 lakh at the time of independence to 15 lakh in 2020-21.
  2. The number of colleges has also witnessed a steep rise.
  3. From 578 colleges in 1950-51, India now has 42,343 colleges.
  4. The number of universities in the same period surged from 27 to 1,043.

One significant sector that has seen a surge is medical education. The number of medical colleges has increased over 21 times in the last 70 years. From 28 medical colleges in 1951, the number has gone up to 612 colleges.

  1. Another cornerstone of India’s education sector is the National Education Policy 2020 which has been brought out by the current Union government.
  2. The policy aims to revolutionise education in India especially through regional language becoming a medium of instruction in schools.
  3. The policy will also pave the way for an increased role for foreign universities in India.
  4. The benefits of the National Education Policy 2020 will decide where the nation stands in the next few decades.

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What were the developments took place in Indian education after independence?

Development of Education in India after Independence After the implementation of plans, efforts were made to spread education. Government decided to provide free and compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14. But this aim could not be achieved yet.

In First Five Year Plan 7.9% of total plan outlay was allocated for education. In Second and Third Plan, the allocations were 5.8% and 6.9% of the total plan outlay. In Ninth Plan only 3.5% of the total outlay was allocated for education. To streamline the education, the Govt. implemented the recommendations of Kothari Commission under ‘National Policy on Education’ in 1968.

The main recommendations were universal primary education. Introduction of new pattern of education, three language formula, introduction of regional language in higher education, development of agricultural and industrial education and adult education.

  1. To combat the changing socio-economic needs of the country, Govt.
  2. Of India announced a new National Policy on Education in 1986.
  3. Universalisation of primary education, vocationalisation of secondary education and specialisation of higher education were the main features of this policy.
  4. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) at National level and State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT) at State level were established to maintain the standard of education.

University Grants Commission (UGC) was instituted to determine the standard of higher education. The followi ng points explain the development of education in India after independence: 1. Expansion of General Education: During the period of planning there has been expansion of general education.

  • In 1951, the percentage of literacy was 19.3.
  • In 2001 the literacy percentage increased to 65.4%.
  • The enrolment ratio of children in the age group of 6-11 was 43% in 1951 and in it became 100% in 2001.
  • Primary education – been free and compulsory.
  • Midday meal has been started in schools since 1995 to check drop-out rate.

The number of primary schools has risen by three times from 2.10 lakh (1950-51) to 6.40 lakhs (2001-02). There were only 27 universities in 1950-51 which increased to 254 in 2000-01.2. Development of Technical Education: Besides general education, technical education plays important role in human capital formation.

These are given below: (a) Indian Institute of Technology: For education and research in engineering and technology of international standard, seven institutes have been established at Mumbai, Delhi, Kanpur, Chennai, Khargpur, Roorkee and Gauhati, Technical education is imparted here both for graduation and post-graduation and doctorate level. (b) National Institute of Technology (NIT):

These institutes impart education in engineering and technology. These were called Regional College of Engineering (REC). These are 17 in number throughout the country. There are other institutes in the country to teach engineering and technical education.

C) Indian Institute of Management: These institutes impart education in business management and administration. These institutes are located at Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore and Kozhikode. (d) Medical education: There were only 28 medical colleges in the country in 1950-51. There were 165 medical and 40 dental colleges in the country in 1998-99.

(e) Agricultural education: Agricultural Universities have been started in almost all States to improve production and productivity of agriculture. These universities impart education and research in agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry and veterinary sciences etc.3.

  • Women education: In India, literary among women was quite low.
  • It was 52% according to 2001 census.
  • While the literacy among men was 75.8%.
  • Women education was given top priority in National Policy on Education.
  • Many State Governments have exempted the tuition fee of girl’s up to university level.
  • Separate schools and colleges have been established to raise level of literacy among women.4.

Vocational education: National Policy of Education, 1986, aims at vocationalisation of secondary education. Central Govt. has been giving grants to State Governments to implement the programme since 1988. Agriculture, Pisciculture, diary, poultry, typing, electronics, mechanical and carpentry etc.

  • Had been included in higher secondary curriculum.5.
  • Growth of higher education: In 1951, there were 27 universities.
  • Their number increased to 254 in 2001.
  • In Orissa state, there was only one university in 1951.
  • Now there are 9 universities.6.
  • Non-formal education: This scheme was launched on an experimental basis from the Sixth plan and on regular basis from Seventh plan.

The aim was to achieve universal elementary education to all children in the age group of 6-14 years. The scheme was meant for those children who cannot attend schools regularly and for full time due to poverty and pre-occupation with other works. The Central Govt.

  • Is providing assistance to State Govt.
  • And voluntary organisation to implement the scheme.
  • Non-formal education centres have been set up in remote rural areas, hilly and tribal areas and in slums.
  • These impart education to children of 6-14 age group.7.
  • Encouragement to Indian Language and Culture: After the adoption of National Policy of Education 1968, regional language became the medium of instruction in higher education.

Syllabus on science and technology, dictionaries, books, and Question Papers are translated into regional languages. Indian history and culture have been included in school and college curriculum.8. Adult education: Simply speaking adult education refers to the education for the illiterate people belonging to the age group of 15-35 years.

The National Board of Adult Education was established in the First Five Year Plan. The village level workers were assigned the job of providing adult education. The progress remained not too good. The National Adult Education Programme was started in 1978. The programme is considered as a part of primary education.

National Literary Mission was also started in 1988 to eradicate adult illiteracy particularly in rural areas. The Centre gives assistance to states, voluntary organisations and some selected universities to implement this programme. There were 2.7 lakh adult education centres working in the country in 1990-91.

  • This programme helped to raise the literacy rate to 65.38% in 2001.9.
  • Improvement of Science education: Central Govt.
  • Started a scheme for the improvement of science education in schools in 1988.
  • Financial assistance is given to provide science kits, up gradation of science laboratories, development of teaching material, and training of science and mathematics teachers.

A Central Institute of Educational Technology (CIET) was set up in NCERT to purchase equipment for State Institutes of Educational Technology.10. Education for all: According to 93rd Amendment, education for all has been made compulsory. The elementary education is a fundamental right of all children in the age group of 6-14 years.

It is also free. To fulfill this obligation Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) has been launched. The above discussion makes it clear that a lot of development in education has been made in India after Independence. There is wide growth in general education and higher education. Efforts have been made to spread education among all sections and all regions of the country.

Still our education system is ridden with problems. : Development of Education in India after Independence
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What is the development of education in India?

Development of Education In India

1950-51 2000-01
Percentage Literacy 19.3% 65.4%
Enrollment Ratio of Children (6-11 Year age group) 43% 100%
Primary Schools 2.1 Lakh 6.4 Lakh
Universities 27 254

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What are the developments taken place in higher education during the post independence period?

During the five decades of Independence (since 1947), India has built up a massive system of higher education (in 1998-99, there were 214 universities, 198 State Government established and 16 Central Government established), 38 institutions ‘deemed-to-be universities’, 1 1 institutes of national importance, 9,703
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What are the major changes that you found in the policies towards education over the period in this discussion?

New Education Policy: Five big changes in school, higher education explained The Indian government Wednesday replaced a 34-year-old National Policy on Education, framed in 1986, with the New Education Policy of 2020. The NEP, approved by the union cabinet, makes sweeping reforms in school and higher education including teaching.

  1. Some of the biggest highlights of the NEP 2020 are, 1) a single regulator for higher education institutions, 2) multiple entry and exit options in degree courses, 3) discontinuation of MPhil programmes, 4) low stakes board exams, 5) common entrance exams for universities.
  2. New Education Policy 2020: Important highlights Schooling starts at the age of 3 years now The New Education Policy expands age group 6-14 years of mandatory schooling to 3-18 years of schooling.

The NEP introduces hitherto uncovered three years of pre-schooling, age group of 3-6 years under the school curriculum. The new system will have 12 years of schooling with three years of Anganwadi/ pre-schooling. With an emphasis on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE), the 10+2 structure of school curriculum is to be replaced by a 5+3+3+4 curricular structure corresponding to ages 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years respectively.

Mother tongue as medium of instruction The NEP puts focus on students’ mother tongue as the medium of instruction even as it sticks to the ‘three language formula’ but also mandates that no language would be imposed on anyone. The NEP only recommends the mother tongue as medium of instruction, and not make it compulsory.

The policy document states that children learn and grasp non-trivial concepts more quickly in their home language. “Wherever possible, the medium of instruction until at least Grade 5, but preferably till Grade 8 and beyond, will be the home language, mother tongue, local language or the regional language.

  1. Thereafter, the home or local language shall continue to be taught as a language wherever possible.
  2. This will be followed by both public and private schools,” the policy states.
  3. NO UGC, AICTE, NCTE Higher Education Commission of India(HECI) will be set up as a single overarching umbrella body for entire higher education, excluding medical and legal education.
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Public and private higher education institutions will be governed by the same set of norms for regulation, accreditation and academic standards. Govt will phase out the affiliation of colleges in 15 years and a stage-wise mechanism is to be established for granting graded autonomy to colleges.

Science, arts, commerce gets blurred Under NEP 2020, there will be no rigid separations between arts and sciences, between curricular and extra-curricular activities, between vocational and academic streams. Students can select subjects of their liking across the streams. Vocational education will start in schools from the 6th grade, and will include internships.

FYUP Programme Returns & No More Dropouts Under the NEP, undergraduate degree will be of either 3 or 4-year duration with multiple exit options within this period. College will be mandated to give certificate after completing 1 year in a discipline or field including vocational and professional areas, a diploma after 2 years of study, or a Bachelor’s degree after a 3-year programme.
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What are the development after Independence?

Development in India After Independence India, which has now turned into a significant nation internationally has grown a ton since it got its freedom from the frontier rule. Yet, very much like all the other things, various individuals have various sentiments about it.

While some think that it has seen huge development, others are of the view that the development is delayed when contrasted with what it ought to be. Regardless of these differentiating sees, the way that remains is that the India we see today is unique in relation to what it was during autonomy. It has created regarding the foundation, schooling, medical care, science and innovation, and in practically any remaining areas.

Yet, it is viewed as a non-industrial country. This infers that the nation is requiring some investment to find the created world. Allow us now to take a gander at the improvements that India has made in various areas in the beyond seventy years: Two Phases of Economy A free India was granted a broke economy, broad ignorance, and stunning destitution.

Contemporary financial specialists partition the historical backdrop of India’s monetary development into two stages – the initial 45 years after autonomy and very nearly thirty years of the unrestricted economy. The years going before the financial progression were predominantly set apart by cases wherein monetary improvement got deteriorated because of an absence of significant strategies.

The financial changes acted the hero with the starting of a strategy of progression and privatization. An adaptable modern permitting strategy and a casual FDI strategy began getting positive reactions from worldwide financial backers. Among the main considerations that drove India’s economic development following the financial changes of 1991 were expanded FDI, reception of data innovation, and expanded homegrown utilization.

Administration Sector Growth A significant improvement in the country’s administration area has been noticeable in the telecom and data innovation areas. A pattern that began exactly twenty years back is currently well thriving. A few worldwide firms keep on re-appropriating their tele administrations and IT administrations to India, bringing about the development of ITES, BPO, and KPO organizations.

The securing of mastery in data innovation has prompted the age of thousands of new positions, which thus expanded homegrown utilization, and normally, more unfamiliar direct speculations ended up satisfying the needs. As of now, the administration area utilizes over 30% of the Indian labor force and this course of improvement began, thinking back in the 1980s.

During the 60s, the area utilized just 4.5% of the functioning populace. As per the Economic Survey 2021-22, the administration area represented over half of Indian GDP, and the figures are supposed to fill from now on. Development of the Agriculture Sector Since the 1950s, the advancement in agribusiness has been fairly consistent.

The area developed at around 1% per annum in the main portion of the twentieth hundred years. During the post-Independence time, the development rate bumped around 2.6 percent per annum. The central point of development in agrarian creation was the extension of cultivating regions and the presentation of high-yielding assortments of harvests.

  1. The area could figure out how to end its reliance on imported food grains.
  2. It has advanced both concerning yield and underlying changes.
  3. Reliable interest in research, land changes, development of degrees for credit offices, and improvement in the provincial foundation were some other deciding variables that achieved an agrarian upset in the country.

The nation has likewise developed further in the agri-biotech area. The Rabobank report uncovers that the agri-biotech area has been developing at 30% in a couple of years. The nation is likewise liable to turn into a significant maker of hereditarily changed/designed crops.

  1. Foundation Development The Indian street network has become one of the biggest on the planet with the all-out street length expanding from 0.399 million km in 1951 to 4.70 million km starting around 2015.
  2. Also, the complete length of the country’s public thruways has expanded from 24,000 km (1947-69) to 1,37,625 km (2021).

Legislative endeavors have prompted the extension of the organization of State parkways and significant local streets, which thus has straightforwardly added to modern development. As India needs the ability to drive its development motor, it has set off a critical improvement in the accessibility of energy by embracing a multi-pronged methodology.

  1. After just about seventy years of Independence, India has arisen as the third biggest maker of power in Asia.
  2. It has expanded its power age limit from 1,362 MW in 1947 to 3,95,600 MW starting around 2022.
  3. By and large, the power age in India has expanded from 301 billion units (BUs) during 1992-93 to 400990.23 MW in 2022.

With regards to provincial jolt, the Indian government has figured out how to carry lights to each of the 18,452 towns by April 28, 2018, when contrasted with 3061 every 1950. Progress in Education Sector Hauling itself out from far and wide ignorance, India has figured out how to carry its school system at standard with the worldwide norm.

  • The number of schools saw a sensational increment during the post-freedom period.
  • The Parliament made rudimentary training a major ideal for youngsters in the age gathering of 6-14 years by passing the 86th amendment to the Constitution in 2002.
  • At freedom, India’s education rate was a miserable 12.2 % which expanded to 74.04% according to the 2011 evaluation.

Accomplishments in the Field of Healthcare A reduction in death rates is viewed as one of the significant accomplishments that came in India’s direction in this area. While the future was close to 37 years in 1951, it nearly multiplied to 65 years by 2011.

  1. In 2022, it was expanded to 70.19 years.
  2. Comparative improvement was seen in the maternal death rate too.
  3. India’s maternal death rate likewise declined from 212 passings for every 100,000 live births in 2007 to 103 passings in 2017-19, according to a report by The Hindu.
  4. Logical Achievements Autonomous India has taken certain steps on its street to logical turn of events.

Its ability is being appeared in a steady increase of aggressive ventures. India invests wholeheartedly in its space programs, which started with the send-off of its most memorable satellite Aryabhatta in 1975. From that point forward, India has arisen as a space power that has effectively sent off unfamiliar satellites.

Through Chandrayaan-1, India turned into the fourth country on the planet to establish its banner on the lunar surface in 2008. Its most memorable mission to Mars was sent off in November 2013 which effectively arrived at the planet’s circle on 24 September 2014. In June 2015, ISRO sent off 104 satellites (most noteworthy on the planet) from a solitary rocket through PSLV-C37.

India is additionally forcefully seeking after both atomic and rocket programs. That has all the while expanded the country’s safeguard strength also. BrahMos drafted into the safeguarding framework is the world’s quickest voyage rocket that has been together evolved by India and Russia.
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What was the major achievement of India since Independence?

Top 10 Achievements of India after Independence – Given below are the primary achievements of India after Independence since 1947. It includes building up of a new Indian constitution, green revolution, development of science and technology, etc. Indian Constitution:

The first in the list of India achievements after Independence is when it launched its Constitution on 26th January 1951.It laid down the framework that demarcates the fundamental political code, rights, and duties of the government and the citizens.Our Constitution earned us the title of the largest secular, democratic country in the world.

Green Revolution:

The Green Revolution was introduced in the year 1967.Despite being an agricultural state, India was food-deficient and relied heavily upon imports of food grains to feed the large population.The Green Revolution made India a self-sufficient nation.Today, India is the largest producer of pulses and the second-largest producer of rice, wheat, and sugarcane globally.

Polio Eradication:

In 1994, India accounted for 60% of the world’s Polio cases.Within two decades, India got the “Polio-free certificate” from the World Health Organization in 2014.The vigilant movement to prevent Polio dramatically increased the life expectancy from 32 years (1947) to 68.89 years.

Space and Technology:

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was founded on 15th August 1969, giving new flight to space research in India.In 1975, India launched its first space satellite, “Aryabhata”, and never looked back. Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian to go to Space in 1986, and at present, the best indigenous technology-based launch vehicles have been manufactured under the Make in India programme.In 2008, India set a world record of sending 10 satellites in orbit in a single mission through PSLV-C9.We successfully launched satellites like Chandrayaan to the moon and became the first country to reach Mars in our first attempt through Mangalyaan.

Right to Education:

India has come a long way in making education a crucial part of Indian development.The Right to Education Act, 2010 affirms education as a fundamental right of every child, providing free and compulsory elementary education to all.

Powerful Defence:

After independence, India strengthened its defence so that history does not repeat itself.In 1954, India launched the Atomic Energy Program, becoming the first nation to do so.In 1974, India conducted “Smiling Buddha”, its first nuclear test, making its place on the list of five nuclear-powered nations.This is one of the biggest achievements of India since 1947.Today, India has the 2nd largest military force and largest voluntary army in the world.

Gender Justice:

India has taken progressive steps to promote gender equality.The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 and Domestic Violence Act, 2005 have discouraged social evils.Many government programs like Beti Bachao Beti Padhao work on eliminating gender bias in the country.

Nuclear program:

India experimented with its first nuclear bomb in Rajasthan’s Pokhran in 1974.India became the world’s sixth nuclear power with the operation “Smiling Buddha.”AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) and DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organization) executed more nuclear studies called “Pokhran-II” in Rajasthan in 1998.

Operation Flood or White Revolution:

Operation Flood was the world’s most prominent dairy evolution program, established in 1970.National Dairy Development Board of India achieved milestones with the project.India evolved into a self-sufficient milk production country due to the White Revolution, among the largest rural development agendas.

Advancement in life expectancy:

One of the achievements of India is making considerable progress in enhancing the life expectancy of Indians over the years.In 1947, the average life expectancy of Indians was roughly 32 years. But in 2022, it has increased to 70 years.India has tremendously improved its people’s health results as per WHO.

ISRO formation and satellite launch:

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was created in 1969.ISRO replaced Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR).Vikram Sarabhai provided ISRO with a critical path to operate as an agent of growth.India launched its first native satellite called Aryabhatta in 1975 with the help of the USSR, which was manufactured entirely in India.

The achievements of India since 1947 are bright examples of our great potential. Be it Mangalyaan or Yoga, Olympics or Beauty Pageants, India is constantly breaking records and making history. With thriving cultures and beliefs, India moves further, united, to new heights of success.
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What is the development of education?

Development education has been a feature of education in the Republic of Ireland for over thirty years. Annette Honan explores the development education opportunities within the formal education sector in the contemporary Irish context. Setting the context “.development education is an educational process aimed at increasing awareness and understanding of the rapidly changing, interdependent and unequal world in which we live.

  1. It seeks to engage people in analysis, reflection and action for local and global citizenship and participation.
  2. It is about supporting people in understanding and in acting to transform the social, cultural, political and economic structures which affect their lives and the lives of others at personal, community, national and international levels” (Development Cooperation Ireland 2003:12).

Development education has been a feature of education in the Republic of Ireland for over thirty years. From its origins as a marginal ‘tag-on’ to the curriculum, mainly promoted by returned development workers and non-governmental development organisations (NGDOs), development education today has ‘come in from the cold’ with both its content and methodologies evident across the curriculum at both primary and post-primary levels.

  1. In recent years, a consciousness of the global context in which education takes place has been much in evidence in the debate on educational reform.
  2. The outward-looking character of contemporary Irish education is evident in official policy documents and educational discourse.
  3. This is due to a variety of factors, such as, the multiplicity of cultural ties and political relationships which Ireland enjoys, the work of Irish non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and more recently, the growth in ethnic and cultural diversity brought about by increased movement from an enlarged European Union, as well as an increase in asylum seekers and those issued with work permits from around the world.
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Commenting on the context in which Irish education takes place the Government’s White Paper on Education, Charting our Education Future (1995:ch 17), noted: “Recent geopolitical developments, including major changes in Eastern Europe, concern about an apparent resurgence of racism, violence and xenophobia in many countries, and the focus on conflict resolution in the island of Ireland, serve to underline the importance of education in areas such as human rights, tolerance, mutual understanding, cultural identity, peace and the promotion of co-operation in the world among people of different traditions and beliefs.

  • The threat to the global environment has focused attention on the importance of environmental education.” In this context, the need for education to cultivate an awareness of global issues is affirmed.
  • An important component of the international dimension of education is making young people aware of the nature and causes of underdevelopment in the world and about what needs to be done to bring about change in relation to the imbalance in wealth between rich and poor countries.

An aim informing policy formulation, educational practice and curriculum development at the different levels will be to create an awareness of global issues, including the environment and third-world issues. The objective will be to stimulate a commitment, by individuals and society as a whole to necessary actions that respond to specific crises and equally importantly to search for and promote long-term solutions to the underlying problems.” At the outset it must be emphasised that the kinds of dispositions, understanding, values and attitudes central to development education are, in the first instance laid through the encounter of the learner with the individual teacher, through the relationship experienced, through the teaching approaches and finally, through the actual curriculum (in the narrow sense) itself.

enable the learner to come to an understanding of the world through the acquisition of knowledge, concepts, skills and attitudes and the ability to think critically enable children to develop a respect for cultural difference, an appreciation of civic responsibility and an understanding of the social dimensions of life past and present enable children to children to develop skills and understanding in order to study their world and its inhabitants and appreciate the interrelationships between them enable children to develop personally and socially and to relate to others with understanding and respect.

The above aims emphasise the importance and relevance of a development education perspective in implementing the Curriculum. The specific opportunities for incorporating a global dimension in the Curriculum were explored in detail in The World in the Classroom – Development Education in the Primary Curriculum (Ruane et al, 1999).

  1. This guide illustrates how a development education perspective can be incorporated into each of the seven curricular areas – Language, Mathematics, Social, Environmental and Scientific Education, Arts Education, Physical Education, Social, Personal and Health Education and Religious Education.
  2. It also suggests appropriate methodologies and teaching resources to support the integration of development education within the Curriculum.

The Primary Curriculum Support Programme (PCSP) has been charged with the responsibility for delivering in-service training to all primary teachers in the State. Every teacher in every school receives one day’s in-service on each subject area. The PCSP team are under great pressure to present the core concepts of the curriculum in the time available.

  • While some in-service has included a development education perspective, it must be acknowledged that a host of other ‘educations’ are all vying for attention (human rights education, intercultural education, special needs education).
  • However, History and Geography will be the subjects for in-service training starting September 2005, and these subjects present very strong and interesting opportunities for development education.

The publication of Intercultural Education in the Primary School: Guidelines for Teachers, (NCCA/Department of Education and Science, 2005) is a significant support to primary teachers who wish to bring both an intercultural perspective and a global justice perspective to their teaching.

Many of the core values around which intercultural education is based (such as similarity and difference, human rights and responsibilities, discrimination and equality) are compatible with the values that underpin development education. A number of the exemplar lesson plans presented in the Guidelines are supportive of development education.

So too, the suggestions relating to planning the physical and social environment of the classroom are equally relevant in promoting development education as in promoting intercultural education. For example, in relation to choosing classroom displays, it is suggested that ‘images should be chosen to reflect accurately people’s current daily lives.

  • This will help overcome stereotypes’ (NCCA 2005:41).
  • At pre-service level, a very interesting initiative has been started and funded by the Development Education Unit of Development Cooperation Ireland (DCI).
  • The Development and Intercultural Education (DICE) project works to integrate development and intercultural education within initial primary teacher education across five colleges of education in the Republic of Ireland.

In three of the colleges the development and intercultural module is compulsory for all students while it is an elective module in the remaining two. The project works in two main ways – developing and delivering courses to raise awareness of development and intercultural issues amongst students, and increasing awareness and capacity of college staff to incorporate development and intercultural education into their work.

  • Since its initiation in 2001, the response to the project has been very positive from both students and staff.
  • It will take more time and research to establish the long-term impact of the project on graduates’ classroom practice and to see how it influences the whole culture and curriculum of the colleges of education participating in the project.

Opportunities in Post-Primary Education Junior Cycle In 1989 the Junior Certificate programme was introduced based on the principles of breadth and balance, relevance, quality, coherence, continuity and progression. One of the key aims of the Junior Certificate programme is to: “prepare the young person for the responsibilities of citizenship in the national context and in the context of the wider European and global communities” (A Programme for Reform, 1993:26).

an emphasis on process rather than product emphasis on active-based methodologies focus on attitudes, concepts and skills to be imparted encouragement of non-linear approaches to teaching of syllabus content suggested potential for cross-curricular themes

A full review of the opportunities for the incorporation of development education across Junior Certificate subjects is available in A Global Curriculum? Development Education and the Junior Certificate (Hammond, 1991). While the opportunities are plentiful for integrating a global dimension in the Junior Certificate subjects teachers have sometimes expressed the view that they have difficulty in pursuing these links.

There is a perception amongst teachers and schools that the Junior Certificate curriculum is ‘overloaded’. Plans are in train to rebalance Junior Certificate syllabuses in order to reduce both overlap and overload. The aim of this rebalancing is to allow teachers greater opportunities to engage with topics in more depth and also to enable extension work in areas of interest to both the teacher and his/her students.

Work on the first ten rebalanced subjects will be completed in early 2006. This could allow more space for development education themes to be explored. A further initiative that has relevance for development education is the NCCA’s work with teachers in providing professional support in the use of Assessment for Learning (see www.ncca.ie ).

  • The essential purpose of Assessment for Learning is to provide feedback to the learner on the progress of his/her learning so that he/she can learn more effectively.
  • Goals are agreed together and the teacher moves from the ‘giving a mark’ to giving feedback which helps the student identify the next step she/he should take to improve.

This implies a changed teacher-student relationship that is more dialogical and democratic – a relationship that is more in keeping with the philosophy and approaches of development education. Senior Cycle A study of the opportunities for development education at senior cycle in the Republic will soon be published by the NCCA and DCI.

This study shows strong links and opportunities for exploring development education across the whole range of senior cycle subjects and programmes. The Transition Year possibly presents the richest opportunity for incorporating development education at senior cycle. Amongst the core aims of the Transition Year is the fostering of social awareness.

Social awareness must be local and global. Therefore, it is difficult to imagine a school doing justice to the aims of the Transition Year without incorporating development education in the programme. Because the Transition Year programme is designed to allow great flexibility of content, approaches and timetabling there are numerous ways that development education can be included in the programme.

Some of the options are; a whole school approach, a cross-curricular approach, integration of development education into existing subjects or provision of a stand-alone module in development education. The flexibility afforded by the Transition Year presents opportunities for development education to be linked to special days (such as International Human Rights Day) and special weeks (such as One World Week and Fair Trade Fortnight).

By setting aside special dedicated days schools can enable creative work across cross-curricular themes that involve the whole school community. Both the Leaving Certificate Applied (LCA) and the Leaving Certificate Vocational (LCVP) programmes offer rich opportunities for development education.

  1. The use of active teaching and learning methodologies is encouraged in LCA and LCVP.
  2. Project work based on research and investigation of a topic of interest to the student is also important.
  3. Skills of discussion, problem solving, independent learning and team-work are emphasised.
  4. Cross-curricular work is encouraged and this provides opportunities for exploring development issues using cross-curricular approaches.

The majority of students who progress to senior cycle education follow the Leaving Certificate (established) programme. This has often been criticised as overly academic and exam driven. This might be seen as a barrier to extra-curricular and cross-curricular work in development education.

  • However, an audit of Leaving Certificate subjects shows that there are ample opportunities for incorporating a global perspective without straying from the curriculum.
  • Many Leaving Certificate subjects present rich opportunities for exploring development education issues.
  • Most subjects approach learning from both a local and global perspective and provide opportunities for students to explore issues of justice and human rights that impact on their daily lives and on the wider world.

All Leaving Certificate programmes emphasise the importance of self-directed learning and highlight the importance of critical thinking, reflection and problem solving. Values of respect for diversity, human rights, justice, solidarity and care for the earth are both explicitly and implicitly evident across a wide range of Leaving Certificate subjects.

to foster an appreciation of the diversity of life to promote mutual understanding and respect for the diversity of peoples and cultures that share this planet to understand how humans can responsibly use of the natural resources of the earth for the production of food and non-food materials to critically evaluate the impact of scientific, technological and economic progress to engage critically with information and be able to recognise perspective, bias or prejudice.

Review of Senior cycle The NCCA’s review of senior cycle post-primary education commenced with the publication of Developing Senior Cycle Education: Consultative Paper on Issues and Options in October 2002. It has been progressed since then through an extensive consultation process and a series of publications culminating in detailed advice to the Minister for Education and Science in April 2005.

reducing the content of subject syllabuses in order to create more space for a greater student role in structured, well managed, independent learning and research over a two or three-year programme of study senior cycle students would have access to a range of curriculum components – subjects, short courses and Transition Units; in order to balance the range of subjects available to learners, a number of additional subjects would be introduced on an optional basis (for example, Social and Political Education). In addition, short courses are proposed which would be developed on a phased basis; assessment would be more frequent and spread out across the courses of study; changes to school culture would be promoted to allow students take more responsibility for their learning and to enable access to learning environments beyond the school a new form of certification will record more of the student’s achievements and give greater insight into the range of skills students have encountered in their programme of study.

The particular combination of transition units, short courses and subjects taken by a senior cycle student would be called a programme of study, Programmes of study would be characterised by choice and flexibility. From a development education perspective it is interesting to note that the NCCA’s advice (2005b:14) to the Minister states, “The purpose of senior cycle education is not solely related to meeting needs and ambitions associated with further study and work.

Curriculum components that cater for the personal and social development of students, that contribute to their personal well-being and prepare them for life as citizens should be included”. This view was also strongly expressed by those who responded to the NCCA online Senior Cycle Consultative Survey.

When asked to identify the most important challenges facing students in the future respondents identified challenges such as communicating with others and appreciating different cultures as more important than finding gainful work. With this in mind, and in order to offer greater balance in the range of subjects available to students, the subject list will be reviewed to establish what new subjects should be added to the list as either subjects or short courses.

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a move away from the division of learning into a range of encounters with separate subject areas and greater emphasis on basic and key skills. These include skills that are at the heart of development education, such as communication, critical thinking and working with others; new models of inter-disciplinary teaching and learning. This too will facilitate an inter-disciplinary approach to development education issues which has always been promoted by development education practitioners; a broadening of the basis of assessment to a more diverse assessment process. For example, more emphasis on research and project work/action projects will support the unity of education and action for change. This unity is central to the philosophy and methodology of development education; a changing role of teachers from imparters of knowledge to facilitators of learning using a broad repertoire of methods associated with active and self-directed learning methodologies. It is envisaged that the teacher of the future will engage much less in ‘banking information’ and instead facilitate critical enquiry and active engagement in the learning process.

Conclusions The role of the individual teacher is probably the most significant factor in determining whether students will experience the kinds of issues and teaching approaches central to development education. Teachers who are sensitive to issues of justice and human rights, are aware of and open to exploring the wider world and have a sense of responsibility and commitment to creating a better world, will find opportunities to link development education within the subjects they teach.

  • This is especially so in the case of ‘open-ended’ syllabuses such as Art, Music, English, Irish and Modern Languages.
  • The teacher can exercise considerable choice in the selection of texts and themes to be explored in class.
  • Where syllabuses are framed more tightly (such as Geography, History, R.E.
  • And the Sciences) there are usually options or elective units which offer possibilities in relation to development education.

Some subjects also present opportunities to explore a development education theme as part of the assessment process. Here again the teacher is key in encouraging and supporting students in researching topics with a development education link. This points to the need for professional development that builds capacity and confidence amongst teachers so that they can see the opportunities to engage in development education and have the necessary skills and knowledge to take such an approach.

  • In the course of the NCCA’s consultation on senior cycle education, many people (including students themselves) pointed to the need for a school culture conducive to fostering more independent thinking and learning.
  • There was also considerable discussion of the need for students to become more participative in their learning through the development of critical thinking skills, communication skills and the ability to work with others.

The importance of a more democratic school culture has been highlighted in the proposals, and the NCCA envisages working on models of greater inclusion of the student voice. This will be welcomed by development education practitioners who have consistently highlighted the importance of school culture and argued that issues of justice and human rights cannot simply be taught as discreet slots on the timetable.

  • The values that underpin development education are more ‘caught’ than ‘taught’.
  • They are caught through the whole school environment, including the values, messages and culture of the school.
  • Therefore it is difficult to teach about human rights in a school culture where a student’s experience of equality, respect and participation in democratic processes is poor.

Finally, the increasing number of international students in Irish classrooms is bringing new challenges and opportunities to all areas of Irish education. Where previously teachers might not have considered making links between local and global issues the very presence of students from a variety of cultures and continents makes these links more immediate and relevant today.

This growing cultural diversity of students is a great asset to teachers wishing to bring a global dimension into their teaching. References Development Cooperation Ireland (2003) Deepening Public Understanding of International Development, p.12. Hammond J (1991) A Global Curriculum? Development Education and the Junior Certificate, Dublin: Curriculum Development Unit.

Intercultural Education in Post Primary School: Guidelines for Teachers, NCCA/Department of Education and Science (to be published). Irish Government (1995) White Paper: Charting our Education Future NCCA (1993) A Programme for Reform. Curriculum and Assessment Policy towards the New Century, Dublin: NCCA, p.26.

  • NCCA (2002) Developing Senior Cycle Education: Consultative Paper on Issues and Options, Dublin: NCCA.
  • NCCA (2005a) Intercultural Education in the Primary School: Guidelines for Teachers, Dublin: NCCA.
  • NCCA (2005b) Proposals for the Future Development of Senior Cycle Education in Ireland, Dublin: NCCA.

Ruane, B, et al (1999) The World in the Classroom – Development Education in the Primary Curriculum, Dublin: Curriculum Development Unit. Annette Honan works as an education consultant for the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) and other agencies.
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What are the educational reforms after independence?

The main features of this reform were the introduction of basic and high school, education system and the focus on skills orientation in basic and high schools. However, it had a total reversal of the 1976 proposals which is going to be talked about in this easy.
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What was the education development in India before independence?

Education System in Pre-Independence India But, the Hindu higher learning institutions like, Tols and Pathashala were imparting education through the Sanskrit medium particularly to the higher castes people. Similarly, Madrasahs was the centre for higher learning for Muslims in the Arabic and Persian languages.
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What are the recent development in education?

What are 10 Popular Trends in Education (2023 – 2025)?

1. Online learning 6. Mobile learning
2. Distance learning 7. Personalize learning
3. Blended learning 8. Project-based learning
4. Social-emotional learning 9. Gamification
5. Homeschooling 10. Bite-sized learning

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What are the major changes in education system of India?

Changes in Indian Education System in the Last Decade – 1. Chalk Boards Replaced by Smart Screen- Remember the times when the teachers would write all the critical notes on the chalkboard and would rub it for the next topic. In between, you were just racing to match that speed and ensure that nothing is missed.

If it was, then you would ask your partner and friends to get that one crucial part which you missed. However, just within a decade, this has seen a dramatic shift. Why? It was because of the emergence of Smart Classrooms. These are technology-driven smart boards wherein all the lectures, formulae and concept is holistically described and available to download anytime.

The intelligent class has contributed a significant chunk in attracting students followed by decrease in dropout rates. India saw the advent of smart studies around the Year 2013. Ever since then, it has become a norm in primary schools of the country.2.

Online Classes – Online classes started with the adoption of technology by private sector. Players like Byjus, Toppr, Embibe adopted these technology in the first half of this decade and showed how online education can be an effective tool to personalise education and at the same time resolves the issue of delivery of quality education to the masses.

The importance of Online education took dramatic turn during the COVID-19 lockdown and now it has become the main plank of education in the ongoing COVID crisis.3. Free Availability of Content : One of the significant change that took place in the last decade is the free availability of content.

Various You tube channels have come up with free content for all the courses. Embibe itself has made it a point that the content should be free. No one should be deprived of basic education and so all our educational content is free. The Ministry of Education, NCERT, CBSE and other government bodies have made educational content available for free for all to access.

Initiatives like E-Pathsala, Online NCERT books, Educational TV channels, NPTEL began to provide expert content to all for free.4. Short Term Skill Based Online Courses: This is again a significant change where top educational institutes are using online medium to provide skill based online courses at the fraction of cost that was charged earlier.

  1. Also, the market is recognizing these skills and helping students to take up these skill based courses and become a part of Job market.5.
  2. Experiential and Project Based Learning: Slowly and steadily changes have also been made to improve the learning outcomes.
  3. Experiential and project based approach has become an important part of curriculum.

At the university level Internship has been made mandatory in almost all the vocational and professional courses.6. Use of Machine Learning and Artificial Learning : With the development in ML and AI there has been a rapid adoption of these technology in test preparation segment.
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What steps have been taken to improve the quality of education in India?

Quality of education is a comprehensive term that includes learners, teachers, teaching learning process, learning environment, curriculum, pedagogy, learning outcomes, assessment, etc. To take cognizance of this, Government of India launched Samagra Shiksha-an Integrated Scheme for school education, w.e.f.2018-19, as an overarching programme for the school education sector extending from pre-school to class XII and aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels of school education.

It subsumes the three erstwhile Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE). Samagra Shiksha focuses on improvement in quality of education by providing support for different interventions like in-service training of teachers and school heads, conduct of achievement surveys at state and national level, composite school grant to every school for providing a conducive learning environment, grants for library, sports and physical activities, support for Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan, ICT and digital initiatives, School Leadership development programme, remedial teaching for academically weaker students, support for Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat, etc.

National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has been advised to take appropriate steps to review the National Curriculum Framework-2005. The Draft National Education Policy 2019 is presently under consideration. The revision of Curriculum, Syllabi and Textbooks for school education would depend on the finalization and approval of the New Education Policy.
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How has India developed after Independence?

The British came to rule India as the East India Company. They landed in the 16th century as businessmen. However, they keenly observed that Indians were self-obsessed with power. During those days, India was ruled by several rulers from many dynasties.

Besides, the weaponry of the Britishers was much more advanced than that of the Indians. Due to British rule, rival factions soon joined hands many decades later to become one entity. The British helped Indians understand the value of freedom, and they fought for it bravely. India earned independence on August 15, 1947.

It became one of the biggest democracies in the world. After more than 74 years of gaining independence, India has walked a long way. They have built a surplus economy and defiled evil forces from within to remain a democracy. The country has also become one of the most celebrated science and technology hubs.
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What are the development of India after 75 years of Independence?

The Landscape of Education and Health – In 1947, India had a population of 340 million with a literacy rate of just 12%, today it has a population of nearly 1.4 billion and a literacy rate of 74.04%. The average life expectancy has also risen from 32 years to 70 years in 2022.

Though India has shown remarkable progress In terms of literacy rate, the quality of higher education is still a cause of major concern. There is not a single Indian University or Institute in the top 100 QS World University Ranking. With the largest youth population in the world, India can achieve wonders if its youth get equipped with proper skills and education.

The health, sector is also worrisome. The doctor-to-patient ratio is merely 0.7 doctors per 1000 people as compared to the WHO average of 2.5 doctors per 1000 people. A recent study shows that 65% of medical expenses in India are paid out of pocket by patients and the reason is that they are left with no alternative but to access private healthcare because of poor facilities in public hospitals.
View complete answer

What was the education development in India before independence?

Education System in Pre-Independence India But, the Hindu higher learning institutions like, Tols and Pathashala were imparting education through the Sanskrit medium particularly to the higher castes people. Similarly, Madrasahs was the centre for higher learning for Muslims in the Arabic and Persian languages.
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What are the changes in education system in India?

Open Learning and Distance Education System In India – The government has emphasised on the importance of open and distance education as it is estimated to play a crucial role in increasing the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER). The government has set measures to improve the open and distance learning infrastructure such as blended online courses, digital repositories, funding of researches, improving student services, maintaining the standards of imparting quality education, and more such measures.
View complete answer

What are the educational reforms after independence?

The main features of this reform were the introduction of basic and high school, education system and the focus on skills orientation in basic and high schools. However, it had a total reversal of the 1976 proposals which is going to be talked about in this easy.
View complete answer