The First Provision For Education Was Made By Which Act?


The First Provision For Education Was Made By Which Act
Highlights – The RTE act requires surveys that will monitor all neighbourhoods, identify children requiring education, and set up facilities for providing it. The World Bank education specialist for India, Sam Carlson, has observed: The RTE Act is the first legislation in the world that puts the responsibility of ensuring enrolment, attendance and completion on the Government.
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What were the provisions of the 1870 Education Act?

The Act allowed voluntary schools to carry on unchanged, but established a system of ‘school boards’ to build and manage schools in areas where they were needed. The boards were locally elected bodies which drew their funding from the local rates.
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When was the education Act introduced in India?

Departmen of School Education & Literacy The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘Free education’ means that no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.

Compulsory education’ casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group. With this, India has moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation on the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child right as enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act.

The RTE Act provides for the:

Right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood school. It clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. ‘Free’ means that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class. It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments. It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working hours. It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief. It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications. It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d) private tuition by teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition, It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centered learning.

: Departmen of School Education & Literacy
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What is the education Act of 1901?

Education Act 1901 – full text Education Act 1901 The 1899 Cockerton Judgement (see of my history) prevented school boards from funding ‘higher tops’ (advanced classes) and higher grade schools. This brief Act permitted them to continue doing so for one further year. The text of the Education Act 1901 was prepared by Derek Gillard and uploaded on 11 October 2021. Education Act 1901

  • © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland.

Education Act 1901 CHAPTER 11 An Act for enabling local authorities to empower School Boards temporarily to carry on certain schools; and for sanctioning certain School Board expenses.

  1. BE it enacted by the King’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:
  2. 1 Temporary provision for certain school board schools
  3. (1) Where a school board has at any time during the twelve months immediately preceding the thirty-first day of July one thousand nine hundred and one maintained out of the school fund any school or class to the maintenance of which the school fund is not lawfully applicable, the council of the county or county borough within which the school or class is held, or, with the sanction of the Board of Education, any other local authority under the Technical Instruction Acts 1889 and 1891, for the district within which the school or class is held, may empower the school board to carry on for the period of one year from that day the work of the school or class to such extent and on such terms as may be agreed on between such council or local authority and the school board, and to apply to the maintenance of the school or class such sum out of the school fund as the council or local authority may sanction.
  4. (2) Where any expenses incurred by a school board in respect of any such school or class before the said day are sanctioned by the Local Government Board the legality of those expenses shall not be questioned in any court.
  5. 2 Short title
  6. This Act may be cited as the Education Act 1901.

: Education Act 1901 – full text
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What act is known as the education Act of 1982?

Batas Pambansa Blg.232 (The Education Act of 1982) – This was an act providing for the establishment and maintenance of an integrated system of education. In accordance with Section 2, this act shall apply to and govern both formal and non- formal system in public and private schools in all levels of the entire educational system.

  1. To achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development and social progress.
  2. To assure the maximum participation of all the people in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits of such growth; and
  3. To achieve and strengthen national unity and consciousness and preserve, develop and promote desirable cultural, moral and spiritual values in changing world.

It is also stated in Section 3 that: The State shall promote the right of every individual to relevant quality education, regardless of sex, age, creed socio- economic status, physical and mental conditions, racial or ethnic origin, political or other affiliation.
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What did the Education Act of 1872 do?

Education Act 1872 (Victoria)

This article contains for an encyclopedic entry, Please by presenting facts as a summary with, Consider transferring direct quotations to or, for entire works, to, ( May 2013 )

The Education act of 1872 was a law which removed state funding of non-government schools, and created a new Education Department to control government schools in what later became the in,
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What is the Education Act of 1854?

Wood’s Dispatch (1854) Hunter Education Commission (1882-83) Wood’s Dispatch Comprehensive education system and organizational structure :You have seen as to how Macaulay’s Minute influenced educational policy of Lord William Bentinck, which was in force for next 40 years.

In 1853, when renewal of the Company charter again came for the consideration, the British Parliament examined the progress of education in India. The observations and suggested reforms were issued as a Charter of Education, known as Wood’s Dispatch of 1854. Wood’s Dispatch is considered to be the “Magna Carta of Education” in India.

The Dispatch is a comprehensive important educational document and holds a unique place in the history of Indian education. It placed the responsibility of education of the Indian people fully on the company and made it quite clear that it must never be neglected.

  • The Dispatch gave new direction to education in India and which has its impact on today’s education in the country.
  • The aim of education was stated as diffusion of European Arts, Science, Philosophy and Literature through English.
  • Promotion of Indian languages was also to be encouraged.
  • Creation of a class of public servants”, was the important objective.

For this purpose, expansion of mass education was given priority. The Wood’s Dispatch, for the first time, recommended the creation of a Department of Public Instruction in each of the five provinces of Bengal, Bombay, Madras, Punjab and the North Western province.

For higher education, a scheme to establish universities was formulated along with total organizational set up. They were to conduct examinations and offer degrees in various subjects and languages. This led to the establishment of the first three universities in 1857, at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. The Dispatch made important recommendations on most of the aspects of education like establishing network of graded schools all over the country such as elementary schools, high schools, intermediate, colleges and university, etc., grant in aid system for financial support to schools, provision for women education, training and professional development of teachers, establishment of medical, engineering law and other institutes of professional education to develop vocational efficiency of people.

The importance of wood’s dispatch was in a number of valuable and fundamental recommendations for future educational development in India. It gave new direction to issues like gradation of education, medium of instruction and proposed new schemes for future educational development in India with far reaching consequences.

  1. The main provisions of the document were of great historical importance.
  2. It provided a boost to secondary education and to some extent to primary education also.
  3. It was however observed that some of the most important recommendations of the Dispatch were not carried out for a long time and some were given effect in a distorted form.
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During the first thirty years after the Dispatch, government institutions gradually increased, but except the Christian Missionaries, other private efforts were not encouraged. Plans to spread mass education were not realized nor were vernacular high schools established.

  1. It did not sincerely promote universal literacy.
  2. The Dispatch could not visualize the progress of Indian aspirations even after a century.
  3. As you know soon after 1857 revolt, the East India Company was dissolved and the government came directly under the British Crown.
  4. As a consequence, efforts were made to consolidate the empire and education was somewhat neglected.

Hunter Commission Vocationalization of Education: Hunter Commission was appointed in 1882 to examine the implementation of the Dispatch of 1854, which tried to streamline school education into two streams of high school: one leading to the university education and the other to the commercial, vocational and technical education.

This was the first attempt to diversify school curriculum and introduce vocational education. However, despite the specific recommendations and emphasis of the Hunter Commission on commercial, vocational or non-literary education, neither the public nor the Govt. appreciated the value of this practical suggestion and the recommendations were totally ignored.

Not much was done in this regard in last hundred fifty years, not even in free India : Wood’s Dispatch (1854) Hunter Education Commission (1882-83)
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When was the education Act written?

Education Act, S.Q.1988, c.84 [now R.S.Q., c.
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Who introduced the education Act 1944?

Education Act 1944

Long title An Act to reform the law relating to education in England and Wales.
Citation 7 and 8 Geo 6 c.31
Introduced by R.A. Butler
Territorial extent England and Wales

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Why was the education Act 1981 introduced?

The Education Act – 1981 The Education Act – paved the way for the integration of children with ‘special needs’ during the United Nations International Year of Disabled People. Education Act 1981 (following the 1978 Warnock Report): gave parents new rights in relation to special needs.
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What is the education Act of 1940?

Philippine Education In the Philippines, there are three levels of education, namely: elementary, secondary and tertiary. Public and private elementary and secondary education fall under the jurisdiction of the Department of Education while tertiary education falls under the jurisdiction of the Commission on Higher Education.

Specifically, program design, policy formulation and standardization, curriculum and staff development in the elementary level and the high school level are managed by the Bureau of Elementary Education and the Bureau of Secondary Education, respectively. Non-formal education exists, and this type of education is handled by the Bureau of Non-Formal Education.

The structural organization of the Department of Education consists of two main pillars: the central office, which carries out the overall administrative functions at the national level, and the field offices, which manage local and regional administration.

  1. The Department is headed by the Education Secretary.
  2. Next in rank are the Undersecretaries and Assistant Secretaries.
  3. As provided by law, the department can have a maximum of four Undersecretaries and four Assistant Secretaries.
  4. Constitutional Bases of Philippine Education There are three Articles in the Philippine Constitution of 1987 that deals, directly or indirectly, with the educational system in the Philippines.

These are: Article II, Article XIV and Article XV. Article II gives the declared policies of the State, Article XIV deals with education, science and technology, arts, culture and sports and Article XV contains provisions for the family and Filipino children.

  • 1. it values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights;
  • 2. it shall strengthen the family as a basic, self-governing social unit and protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception;
  • 3. it shall provide support to parents in the rearing of their children for civic efficiency and the development of moral character;
  • 4. it recognizes the vital role of the youth in the country’s development;
  • 5. it shall promote and protect the physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual and social well-being of the youth; and

6. it makes education, science and technology, arts, culture and sports a priority of the State. With these declared policies, the State is mandated to provide a system of education for the Filipino children and the youth. The kind of education that is envisioned in the Constitution is “quality education,” a “complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society,” and the State must ensure that all citizens can access this envisioned system of education (Article XIV, Section 1, and Article XIV, Section 2, Subsection 1).

  1. 1. mandates that the State shall provide for a free public elementary and secondary education;
  2. 2. mandates that the State shall provide scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies and other incentives to deserving and poor students;
  3. 3. requires all educational institutions to include the study of the Constitution in their curricula, inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love for humanity, promote respect for human rights and the appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, and encourage critical and creative thinking;
  4. 4. mandates that the State shall manage and regulate, reasonably, all educational institutions;
  5. 5. orders the State to take into account regional and sectoral needs;
  6. 6. gives academic freedom to all institutions of higher learning;
  7. 7. ensures the right of all citizens to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair, reasonable and equitable academic requirements;
  8. 8. mandates that the State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement;
  9. 9. mandates that the State shall give the highest budgetary priority to education;
  10. 10. provides that Filipino is the national language of the Philippines;
  11. 11. makes English and Filipino as the official languages;
  12. 12. mandates that the State shall give priority to research and development and innovation and protect the rights of scientists, inventors, artists and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property rights;
  13. 13. mandates that the State shall preserve and enrich the Filipino national culture based on the principles of unity in diversity and free expression;
  14. 14. designates the State as patron of the arts and letters;
  15. 15. mandates that the State shall protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities and use these rights as inputs for national plans and policies;
  16. 16. requires the State to support researches and studies on the arts and culture;

17. mandates that the State shall promote physical education and sports programs in order to instill self-discipline and foster teamwork and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry. In addition to all of these, the State is also mandated to protect and defend the “right of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition, and special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation, and other conditions prejudicial to their development” as well as the “right of families or family associations to participate in the planning and implementation of policies and programs that affect them.” (Article XV, Section 3, Subsections 3 and 4).

Some Legal Bases of Philippine Education EDUCATIONAL DECREE OF 1863: The decree provided for the establishment of primary school for boys and girls in each town of the country. ACT NO.74 OF 1901: Enacted into law by the Philippine Commission, the Act created the Department of Public Instruction, laid the foundations of the public school system in the Philippines, provided for the establishment of the Philippine Normal School in Manila and made English as the medium of instruction.

(In 1949, the Philippine Normal School was made a teachers’ college by virtue of Republic Act 416 and, in 1991, it became a full-pledge university by virtue of RA 7168.) ACT NO.1870 OF 1908: The law served as the legal basis for the creation of the University of the Philippines.

VOCATIONAL ACT OF1927: Also known as Act No.3377, the Vocational Act as amended by other acts laid the foundations of vocational education in public schools and made provisions for its support. EDUCATION ACT OF 1940: Also known as Commonwealth Act No.586, the Education Act laid the foundations for the present six-year elementary course and made provisions for its support.

REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1947: The Act placed public and private schools under the supervision and control of the Bureau of Public and Private Schools. REPUBLIC ACT 5250 OF 1966: The Act provided the legal basis for the implementation of a ten-year teacher education program in special education.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS (DECS) ORDER NO.25 OF 1974: Popularly known as the Bilingual Education Program of 1974, the Order required the use of English as medium of instruction for science and mathematics subjects and the use of Filipino as medium of instruction for all other subjects in the elementary and high school levels.

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO.1006 OF 1976: The Decree was a legal and formal recognition of teachers as professionals and teaching as a profession. REPUBLIC ACT NO.5698: The Act created the Legal Education Board whose task was to regulate and improve the quality of law schools in the Philippines in order to stop the increasing number of examinees who fail to pass the bar examinations given every year.

REPUBLIC ACT 6655 OF 1988: Popularly known as the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988, the Act created a system of free education in public high schools. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS (DECS) ORDER NO.49 OF 1992: This Order serves as the guideline for the selection of honor students in all public and private high schools.

All these schools were required to choose one (1) “valedictorian” and one (1) “salutatorian,” and to set the limit of the number of “honorable mention” to one percent of the graduating students. The “eligibility requirements” for becoming an honor student are the following: 1) No grade below 80 in any subject and no failing grade in any subject in the first two curriculum years; 2) Completed third and fourth year studies in the same secondary school; 3) Completed the high school curriculum within the prescribed year; 4) Active membership in two clubs during the third and fourth years in high school; and 5) Conformed to school rules and policies.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS (DECS) ORDER NO.1 OF 1994: This Order increased the number of school days to 200 days (42 calendar weeks) inclusive of examination days for public and private schools. (This department order is similar to RA 7791 which increased the number of school days from 185 to 200 days.) DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS (DECS) ORDER NO.37 OF 1994: The Order required all Grade VI elementary students to take the National Elementary Assessment Test (NEAT) that is given on the 13th Tuesday following the opening of the school year.

The assessment test consists of a battery of tests of the multiple choice type. There are four subject areas: English, mathematics, science and heograpiya/kasaysayan/sibika (geography/history/civics). DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS (DECS) ORDER NO.38 OF 1994: The Order required all senior high school students to take the National Secondary Assessment Test (NSAT) that is given on the 13th Friday following the opening of the school year, or three days after the NEAT has been given.

The assessment test consists of a battery of tests and there are four subject areas: English and Filipino proficiencies, mathematics, vocational aptitude and science & technology. (The test is not a requirement for college admission.) REPUBLIC ACT NO.7731: The Act abolished the National College Entrance Examinations or NCEE to give the marginalized students a greater chance to gain access to college education.

REPUBLIC ACT NO.7722: Also known as the Higher Education Act of 1994, the Act created the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) whose main task is to regulate and develop tertiary education in the Philippines. REPUBLIC ACT NO.7796: Also known as the Technical Education and Skills Development Act (TESDA) of 1994, the Act’s objective was to provide relevant and quality technical education that is accessible to all and to create the agency that will manage technical education and skills development in the Philippines.

REPUBLIC ACT NO.7836 OF 1994: Known as the Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994, the Act made it mandatory for people pursuing a career in teaching to take the licensure examinations that are administered and regulated by the Professional Regulatory Commission. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (DEPED) ORDER NO.34 OF 2001: The Order required all public elementary and high school students to read at least one book in the vernacular and one book in English per year before they can be promoted to the next higher level.

: Philippine Education
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What is the education Act of 1972?

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX) prohibits sex (including pregnancy, sexual orientation, and gender identity) discrimination in any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.

What conduct is prohibited by Title IX? The Title IX regulation states that “except for provided elsewhere in this part, no person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any academic, extracurricular, research, occupational training, or other education program or activity operated by a recipient which receives,

Federal financial assistance, (b) Specific prohibitions. Except as provided in this subpart, in providing any aid, benefit, or service to a student, a recipient shall not, on the basis of sex: (1) Treat one person differently from another in determining whether such person satisfies any requirement or condition for the provision of such aid, benefit, or service; (2) Provide different aid, benefits, or services or provide aid, benefits, or services in a different manner; (3) Deny any person any such aid, benefit, or service; (4) Subject any person to separate or different rules of behavior, sanctions, or other treatment; (5) Discriminate against any person in the application of any rules of appearance; (6) Apply any rule concerning the domicile or residence of a student or applicant, including eligibility for in-state fees and tuition; (7) Aid or perpetuate discrimination against any person by providing significant assistance to any agency, organization, or person which discriminates on the basis of sex in providing any aid, benefit or service to students or employees; (8) Otherwise limit any person in the enjoyment of any right, privilege, advantage, or opportunity.” 45 C.F.R.

  1. Denying admission of a person into an educational or training program on the basis of sex;
  2. Disqualifying a person for a research position on the basis of sex when it is irrelevant to ability to perform the job;
  3. Providing unequal educational resources to students of one sex compared to another;
  4. Engaging in gender –based or sexual harassment such as making unwelcome sexual comments, advances, and/or name-calling on the basis of sex.

Federal courts and agencies have found that Title IX prohibits sex-based harassment, including sexual harassment, when such harassment is sufficiently serious as to limit the ability to participate in and benefit from a program or activity. Click here for more information on sex-based harassment. Some examples of sexual harassment by entities receiving HHS funds include but are not limited to:

  1. Unwelcome and inappropriate advances to students and employees of a research lab funded by HHS made by professors, employees, researchers, teachers, and/or students;
  2. Sexual assault of a student or employee by a doctor or other medical staff in a student sports medicine program or other clinical setting that receives HHS funding.

Who is covered by Title IX? Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in the education programs and activities of entities that receive federal financial assistance. These programs and activities include “all of the operations of, a college, university, or other postsecondary institution, or a public system of higher education.” 20 U.S.C.

  1. § 1687(2)(A); see also 45 C.F.R.
  2. § 86.2(h).
  3. Therefore, Title IX’s nondiscrimination protections apply to student recruitment, admissions, educational programs (including individual courses), research, housing, counseling, financial and employment assistance, health and insurance benefits and health services.

The federal agency that provides the federal financial assistance has jurisdiction over Title IX complaints. The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has jurisdiction over Title IX claims of discrimination against entities that receive federal financial assistance through HHS.

  1. Colleges and universities, including all of the programs they operate, regardless of which program receives federal financial assistance from HHS. For example, a university would be covered by Title IX if:
    1. The university’s medical center receives Medicare reimbursements from the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services;
    2. The university’s biology department receives grants from the National Institutes of Health;
    3. The university’s medical, dental, or nursing programs receive funds from the Health Resources and Services Administration.
  2. Education programs and activities of entities that are not colleges or universities but receive federal financial assistance from HHS for their educational program or activity. For example:
    1. Head Start educational programs for young children funded by the Administration for Children & Families
    2. Hospital professional training clinical programs that receive HHS funding;
    3. Fatherhood programs providing job training, financial education and other educational programs that receive grants through the Administration for Children & Families.

HHS OCR also has jurisdiction under Section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act (Section 1557) to investigate complaints of sex discrimination in health programs and activities of recipients of federal financial assistance and other covered entities. Click here for more information about Section 1557.

What should I do if I believe I have been discriminated against under Title IX? You can file a complaint with OCR if you have been subjected to sex discrimination, including sexual harassment, in an education program or activity that may have received HHS funds. We will promptly inform you as to whether we have jurisdiction to investigate your complaint.

If we determine that the entity named in your complaint does not receive HHS funds, but receives funds from a different federal agency, we will forward the complaint to the appropriate agency. Certain types of complaints may be forwarded to another agency.

  1. The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations generally require referral of individual employment complaints of sex discrimination to the U.S.
  2. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
  3. If there is a pattern and practice of employment discrimination or if the complaint alleges discrimination in employment and in other practices of a recipient, then OCR can investigate the complaint.

If you are not sure about whether OCR has jurisdiction to investigate your complaint, file a complaint with our office and we will help answer your questions through the complaint intake process and our initial evaluation of the complaint. For more information on how to file a complaint, click here,

Please note that Title IX specifically prohibits retaliation for filing a discrimination complaint. When investigating a complaint, OCR informs all recipients of the prohibition on retaliation. In addition, during the complaint process, OCR will seek the complainant’s consent to reveal his/her identity or identifying information, if necessary, to investigate the complaint.

Consent is voluntary, and it is not always needed to investigate a complaint. Failure to provide consent, however, may make it difficult to investigate some aspects of the complaint. How does OCR resolve my complaint? If OCR determines that it has jurisdiction, OCR will investigate the complaint or, in some cases, refer the complaint to an agency with joint jurisdiction.

  • When OCR identifies a violation or compliance concern, it will work with the recipient to achieve compliance with the law.
  • Depending on the scope of the changes required, complaints can be resolved through voluntary compliance letters or agreements requiring the recipient to develop policies, monitoring, notification, and training, which also resolve the specific incidents alleged in the complaint.

If voluntary compliance cannot be achieved, OCR can issue a formal findings letter and refer the case to DOJ or begin administrative proceedings to revoke federal funds. What are some examples of OCR enforcement actions under Title IX :

  • Voluntary Resolution Agreement with Michigan State University
  • STEM Case Western *
  • STEM Einstein *
  • STEM South Carolina *

*This content is undergoing a Section 508 review. If you need immediate assistance accessing this content, please submit a request to [email protected], Content will be updated pending the outcome of the Section 508 review. Where can I get more information?

  • Title IX Final Rule
  • Title IX Regulations Addressing Sexual Harassment (Unofficial Copy) PDF
  • Title IX: U.S. Department of Education Title IX Final Rule Overview PDF
  • Summary of Major Provisions of the Title IX Final Rule PDF
  • Fact Sheet: Final Title IX Regulation
  • Questions and Answers Regarding the Department’s Final Title IX Rule
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Resources for those receiving or affected by NIH-funded STEM and research:

  • Anti-Sexual Harassment
  • NIH Awardee Organizations and Those Who Work There
  • Expectations, Policies and Requirements
  • Additional Information on Sexual Harassment Policy (Sept 19, 2019)

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What did the education Act of 1965 do?

The HEA created grants, loans and other programs to help students acquire education beyond secondary school. The Talent Search program, then called Contracts to Encourage the Full Utilization of Educational Talent, was created in the Higher Education Act of 1965.
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What is the act of 1872?

India Code: Indian Contract Act, 1872. Go! Long Title: To define and amend certain parts of the law relating to contracts.
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What was the act 3rd 1872?

The correct answer is Social Reform Act.
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What is the purpose of education act of 1982?

Desirable cultural, moral, and spiritual values in a changing world. quality of access to education as well as the enjoyment of the benefits of education by all its citizens. of parents with children enrolled in a school.
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Who introduced education policy of 1854?

Charles Wood prepared a despatch on an educational system for India in 1854. This document, known as the ‘Magna Carta of English Education in India,’ was the first comprehensive plan for the spread of education in India.
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WHO declared 1854 education policy?

In 1854, Sir Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control of the British East India Company, sent a formal dispatch to Lord Dalhousie, the then Governor-General of India, suggesting a large shift to English language use within India. Wood’s dispatch.

Wood’s Despatch
Purpose To hasten the development of education in British India

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What is education Act 1994?

– The State shall protect, foster and promote the right of all citizens to affordable quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to ensure that education shall be accessible to all.
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What was the purpose of the 1877 education Act?

The First Provision For Education Was Made By Which Act Otahuhu District School (Manukau Libraries Reference: Footprints 03719) The Education Act 1877 (passed into law on 29 November) established free, compulsory and secular education for all Pākehā New Zealand children. The Act did not apply to Māori children, but they could attend the free schools if their parents wanted them to.

Primary school education was made compulsory for Māori in 1894. The 1877 Act required Pākehā children between the ages of seven and thirteen to attend school. The legislation covered children up to standard six (Year 8); while a primary school education was a universal right, secondary school was only for a select few.

In practice, the schools were far from compulsory; children were only required to attend on half the days that the school was open. Parents in rural areas often kept their children at home to help with activities such as harvesting and haymaking. The Act aimed to provide a uniform education.

The standardised curriculum consisted of reading, writing, arithmetic, history and geography, plus sewing and needlework for girls and military drill for boys. To run this new education system, a three-tiered administration was put in place. A newly-established Department of Education supplied the national curriculum and allocated funding to 12 regional Education Boards, which oversaw the school committees that ran individual schools.

Women were eligible to sit on school committees and did so immediately. In the first year, a woman was elected chair of the Selwyn district school committee, and others followed her lead. This was part of a larger movement that saw women moving from the ‘private’ sphere of the home into the ‘public’ sphere of civic life.
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What are the educational provision in the Constitution?

The Constitution, Article 2, Section 17, provided: ‘The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total human liberation and development.’
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What are the provisions of educational decree of 1863?

Historical Perspective of the Philippine Educational System – Education in the Philippines has undergone several stages of development from the pre-Spanish times to the present. In meeting the needs of the society, education serves as focus of emphases/priorities of the leadership at certain periods/epochs in our national struggle as a race.

  • As early as in pre-Magellanic times, education was informal, unstructured, and devoid of methods.
  • Children were provided more vocational training and less academics (3 Rs) by their parents and in the houses of tribal tutors.
  • The pre-Spanish system of education underwent major changes during the Spanish colonization.

The tribal tutors were replaced by the Spanish Missionaries. Education was religion-oriented. It was for the elite, especially in the early years of Spanish colonization. Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits.

  • Primary instruction was free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory.
  • Education during that period was inadequate, suppressed, and controlled.
  • The defeat of Spain by American forces paved the way for Aguinaldo’s Republic under a Revolutionary Government.
  • The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed for the time being but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of Interior.

The Burgos Institute in Malolos, the Military Academy of Malolos, and the Literary University of the Philippines were established. A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established by the Malolos Constitution. An adequate secularized and free public school system during the first decade of American rule was established upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission.

  • Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship and avocation was enforced by the Taft Commission per instructions of President McKinley.
  • Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction.
  • A highly centralized public school system was installed in 1901 by the Philippine Commission by virtue of Act No.74.

The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so the Philippine Commission authorized the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring to the Philippines 600 teachers from the U.S.A. They were the Thomasites.

Year Official Name of Department Official Titular Head Legal Bases
1863 Superior Commission of Primary Instruction Chairman Educational Decree of 1863
1901-1916 Department of Public Instruction General Superintendent Act. No.74 of the Philippine Commission, Jan.21, 1901
1916-1942 Department of Public Instruction Secretary Organic Act Law of 1916 (Jones Law)
1942-1944 Department of Education, Health and Public Welfare Commissioner Renamed by the Japanese Executive Commission, June 11, 1942
1944 Department of Education, Health and Public Welfare Minister Renamed by Japanese Sponsored Philippine Republic
1944 Department of Public Instruction Secretary Renamed by Japanese Sponsored Philippine Republic
1945-1946 Department of Public Instruction and Information Secretary Renamed by the Commonwealth Government
1946-1947 Department of Instruction Secretary Renamed by the Commonwealth Government
1947-1975 Department of Education Secretary E.O. No.94 October 1947 (Reorganization Act of 1947)
1975-1978 Department of Education and Culture Secretary Proc. No.1081, September 24, 1972
1978-1984 Ministry of Education and Culture Minister P.D. No.1397, June 2, 1978
1984-1986 Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports Minister Education Act of 1982
1987-1994 Department of Education, Culture and Sports Secretary E.O. No.117. January 30, 1987
1994-2001 Department of Education, Culture and Sports Secretary RA 7722 and RA 7796, 1994 Trifocalization of Education Management
2001 – present Department of Education Secretary RA 9155, August 2001 (Governance of Basic Education Act)

The high school system supported by provincial governments, special educational institutions, school of arts and trades, an agricultural school, and commerce and marine institutes were established in 1902 by the Philippine Commission. In 1908, the Philippine Legislature approved Act No.1870 which created the University of the Philippines.

The Reorganization Act of 1916 provided the Filipinization of all department secretaries except the Secretary of Public Instruction. Japanese educational policies were embodied in Military Order No.2 in 1942. The Philippine Executive Commission established the Commission of Education, Health and Public Welfare and schools were reopened in June 1942.

On October 14, 1943, the Japanese – sponsored Republic created the Ministry of Education. Under the Japanese regime, the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History, and Character Education was reserved for Filipinos. Love for work and dignity of labor was emphasized.

On February 27, 1945, the Department of Instruction was made part of the Department of Public Instruction. In 1947, by virtue of Executive Order No.94, the Department of Instruction was changed to Department of Education. During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.

In 1972, it became the Department of Education and Culture by virtue of Proclamation 1081 and the Ministry of Education and Culture in 1978 y virtue of P.D. No.1397. Thirteen regional offices were created and major organizational changes were implemented in the educational system.

  • The Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports which later became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports in 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No.117.
  • The structure of DECS as embodied in EO No.117 has practically remained unchanged until 1994 when the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), and 1995 when the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) were established to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs, respectively.

The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report provided the impetus for Congress to pass RA 7722 and RA 7796 in 1994 creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), respectively.

  • The trifocal education system refocused DECS’ mandate to basic education which covers elementary, secondary and nonformal education, including culture and sports.
  • TESDA now administers the post-secondary, middle-level manpower training and development while CHED is responsible for higher education.
  • In August 2001, Republic Act 9155, otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act, was passed transforming the name of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices (regional offices, division offices, district offices and schools).

RA 9155 provides the overall framework for (i) school head empowerment by strengthening their leadership roles and (ii) school-based management within the context of transparency and local accountability. The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge, and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens.
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