How Political System And Education System Influence Each Other?
Politics has a huge impact on the education system. The education system is usually funded by the government and the government can control what happens in the education system. For example, the government can decide what curriculum is taught in schools.
- The government can also decide how much money is given to the education system.
- This can impact the quality of education that students receive.
- Education is inherently political, as it emphasizes state involvement in society.
- State and local governments provide nearly 90% of K-12 schools with funding.
- Education accounted for 3% of total federal spending in 2017, according to federal data.
Developing countries rely heavily on the resources and funds they receive to maintain their educational systems. One of the primary functions of a social institution is education. Learning capabilities and cultural norms are provided to society’s children through education, which is a process for educating children.
- A combination of social, political, and cultural factors must be used to create and resolve socio-political problems.
- An institution or society is considered a factor of social dimensions if it has a large social dimension.
- A study has discovered a distinction between two types of politics in schools.
Micro-political tactics, as defined by the International Organization for Standardization, involve the use of formal and informal power by individuals and groups to achieve their goals in organizations. A micro-political system is based on cooperative and conflictive processes.
Education is a political act that takes place between individuals. The goal of this program is to deepen our knowledge of ourselves and the world around us, as well as to exchange skills and experiences in an egalitarian, nonhierarchical setting free of prejudice; it challenges disempowering habits and broadens our awareness of alternatives to the inequalities of a capitalist system Power and privilege are used in teaching to exacerbate social class and race inequalities rather than to improve them.
These decisions include funding, curriculum, class size, testing, tracking, and other aspects of policy and practice. The disciplines of history and political education are both social sciences, which means they study two aspects of society: history through time, and politics through a society’s government and relationships with its citizens.
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- 1 How political factors influence education system in Kenya?
- 2 What is the relationship between the democracy and education?
- 3 How has politics been related to education institutions after independence?
- 4 What are 3 factors that can influence educational progress during the time?
- 5 What is the relationship between education and economic system?
- 6 What role does the education system play in a democratic country?
- 7 How are education and leadership connected?
- 8 How does education have the power to change the world?
- 9 What is the relationship between education and Constitution?
- 10 Is education involved in politics?
- 11 What are the political aims of education?
- 12 What are socio/political factors in education?
- 13 How do political factors affect?
How political factors influence education system in Kenya?
ERIC Number: EJ1099584 Record Type: Journal Publication Date: 2016 Pages: 6 Abstractor: As Provided ISBN: N/A ISSN: ISSN-2222-1735 EISSN: N/A Development of Education in Kenya: Influence of the Political Factor beyond 2015 Mdgs Mackatiani, Caleb; Imbovah, Mercy; Imbova, Navin; Gakungai, D.K.
Journal of Education and Practice, v7 n11 p55-60 2016 This paper provides a critical appraisal of development of education system in Kenya. Education of any country is an important tool for the developmental process of that particular nation. There are various factors that influence national systems of education.
They range from social, economical, technological to political influences. In this article, a critical examination of these factors that have influenced Kenya’s education system in both colonial and post-colonial period will be made. The paper however, specifically examined political influence of Kenyan education system and its implications for national development.
Kenya, like any other country of the world is controlled by politics. Kenya’s education system is mostly influenced by the political factor. The political factor dictates the type of an education system a particular country can have. It is important in determining administration of education. Subsequently the influence of political factor is critical for educational policy formulation, adoption and implementation.
The paper further analyses education commissions constituted politically to influence the education system. Their influence on educational policies was assessed. The study adopted historical design in reviewing educational development in Kenya and the subsequent influence of political factor on education.
- This paper is significant to the field of comparative and International education, since it provides data on what the Kenyan government is doing in promoting the development of education.
- The policy planners would understand and appreciate education policies within which they are supposed to operate in providing effective leadership and management practices in the development of education.
In order for education to foster development, this article recommends the need to separate educational policies from national politics, clear stipulation of educational policies and their role in national development and a sound implementation of educational reforms.
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What is the relationship between the democracy and education?
The Structural Relationships Between Democracy and Education at the Macro Level This chapter deals with the macro level functional relationships between democracy and education, starting from the fact that education, as a social institution, cannot be configured independently from the administrational and economic policies of the state.
The development of democracies depends upon the level of knowledge and awareness that societies have reached. For the education institutions to be able to communicate this knowledge and awareness, the will and demand of the government that represents the state are required since curricula cannot be designed independent of this will and demand.
The decisiveness of the state and governments about imparting knowledge and awareness of democracy through education is not an adequate variable in analyzing the macro level relationships between democracy and education. Education policies that aim at providing equal opportunities and oriented to imparting knowledge and awareness to “all citizens” are also needed.
In democracies, the existence of citizens who can study and think in depth is so important that these skills should not be limited to only a specific segment of the society. In this context, a political system will not be deemed to have acted in sufficient force at the macro level to sustain and protect democracy unless it has stamped its will and wish to be a democratic state onto the education curricula, and unless it has provided equal opportunities in education to all its citizens so as to enable them to acquire the skill to think and evaluate in depth.
Keywords:,, : The Structural Relationships Between Democracy and Education at the Macro Level
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What is the relationship between education and power?
The power of education – World Speech given by Save the Children International CEO Helle Thorning-Schmidt at the Education World Forum on 23 January 2017 Education is the most empowering force in the world. It creates knowledge, builds confidence, and breaks down barriers to opportunity.
- For children, it is their key to open the door to a better life.
- However, it is a sad reality of our world today that millions of children will never receive this key.
- They are destined to stay locked in cycles of disadvantage and poverty.
- I think Malala described this heart-wrenching situation best when she said:
“In some parts of the world, students are going to school every day. It’s their normal life. But in other parts of the world, we are starving for education its like a precious gift. Its like a diamond”. This cannot continue. All children deserve to receive the ‘precious gift’ of education. In fact, we have promised to give it to them. It is time to deliver.
- Under the Sustainable Development Goals, the blue print for progress the whole world has agreed, we are committed to give all children an inclusive and quality education by 2030.
- To get the 263 million children currently out of school, back in.
- To make sure the 130 million children currently reaching Grade 4 without learning basic reading and maths skills, become masters of both.
- To stop girls being excluded, or married off.
Right now, one girl under 15 is married every 7 seconds. They should be starting a new year of school, not starting a new life of disadvantage. I know this sounds a bit bleak. But we have to face up to the fact that we are in the midst of an education crisis and are running well behind on our promise to the world’s children.
- I have just returned from the World Economic Forum in Davos where I gave world leaders this same message.
- However, instead of acting fast to address this crisis, our efforts are slowing down.
- Development dollars spent on education have declined in the past decade — from 13 per cent to 10 per cent since 2002.
The challenge is also not getting any easier. Two billion jobs will be lost to automation by 2050. Access to quality education will therefore be even more critical to prepare young people for the challenges of a changing world. If we continue with our glacial pace of action, up to half of the world’s 1.6 billion children will still be out of school or failing to learn by 2030, and we would need an extra 50 years to reach our global education goals.
- Yet, as we face up to this crisis, we should not be tempted to despair.
- We can turn things around if we are prepared to step up now.
- I am proud to be part of group doing just that, the Education Commission.
- We are a group of government, business and cultural leaders who have produced a roadmap for how we can live up to the education promise we have made under the global goals.
A vision for how to create a Learning Generation. It will not be easy to achieve. But, it can be done. We know this is possible because a quarter of the world’s countries are already on the right path. This top 25 per cent are already delivering. They are improving their education systems fast and equipping their children with the skills they need for the future.
What we have to do now is focus more effort on the remaining 75 per cent of countries that are not yet hitting the mark. In these countries, we have to dramatically scale up investment in education systems to improve both the availability of education, but just as importantly, education quality. To achieve this, the Education Commission report calls for a Financing Compact.
The Financing Compact means that countries commit to invest and reform. In return, the international community offers leadership and education finance, and both are held accountable for their commitment. To fulfil the compact, countries need to take on four education transformations.
First, performance. This is about putting results front and centre. Successful education systems must invest in what works. Second, innovation. We must develop new and creative approaches. Education systems must innovate rather than just replicate. Third, inclusion. We must reach every last child. We will not close the global learning gap unless leaders take steps to include and support those at greatest risk of being out of school.
The poor, the discriminated against, girls, and those facing multiple disadvantages. And fourth, finance. We need to mobilize more money and ensure that we spend it wisely. Total spending on education must increase steadily from $1.2 to 3 trillion by 2030 across all low- and middle-income countries.
- And by mobilising more support from the international community — governments, financial institutions, business and philanthropists.
- International finance needs to increase from today’s estimated $16 billion per year to $89 billion per year by 2030.
- These are certainly huge amounts of money.
- But we must not forget that by investing now, we will also create huge benefits.
- In developing countries, $1 dollar invested in an additional year of schooling gives back $10 back in economic benefits.
- What a rate of return!
- It gets even better when you think about the role that education can play in empowering girls.
If we close the gender gap by 2030, and education is a big part of this, we are looking at benefits to the global economy of $25 trillion. That is truly a huge number. It makes the upfront investments needed seem small. And there are other important benefits to children that you cannot put a price on.
Education equals better lives. Access to decent work, improved health and life outcomes, and the dignity that comes from the ability to know and stand up for your human rights. In 2017, we at the Commission are already taking the first steps to bring our vision of a learning generation into reality. Two steps we are taking include: First, advocating for the establishment of a new development bank for education.
One that could potentially mobilize $20 billion or more annually by 2030, up from $3.5 billion today. Second, kick starting a Pioneer Country Initiative, led by former President of Tanzania, Jakaya Kikwete. Work has already commenced in Uganda and Malawi with other countries joining in soon.
Under this initiative, the Commission will work closely with the leadership of pioneer countries to push education up to the top of their domestic priority pile. Leaders will undertake needed reforms, and invest more resources in the right places. The commission will then act as a bridge to international financing institutions, to attract even more resources from outside.
By working in this way, we can trigger virtuous cycles of reform, investment and results. It is my hope, that 2017 is the year that we all finally stand up and prioritise education. At the Commission, we are trying to do our part. However, we cannot do it alone.
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What do you mean by politics in education?
Politics in education – Wikipedia
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As an the study of politics in education has two main roots: The first root is based on theories from while the second root is footed in, Political science attempts to explain how societies and use to establish regulations and allocate resources. Organizational theory uses of management to develop deeper understandings regarding the function of organizations.
Researchers have drawn a distinction between two types of politics in, The term micro-politics refers to the use of formal and informal power by individuals and groups to achieve their goals in organizations. Cooperative and conflictive processes are integral components of micro-politics. Macro-politics refers to how power is used and decision making is conducted at district, state, and federal levels.
Macro-politics is generally considered to exist outside the school, but researchers have noted that micro- and macro-politics may exist at any level of school systems depending on circumstance. There exist significant difference between “Politics of Education” and “Politics in Education”.
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Comprehension – Read the following passage and answer the questions. Political education may be defined as the preparation of a citizen to take well informed, responsible and sustainable action for participation in the national struggle for the realization of the socio-economic objectives of the country.
- The overriding socio-economic objectives in India are the abolition of poverty and the creation of a modern democratic, secular and socialist society in place of the present traditional, feudal, hierarchical and inegalitarian one.
- Under British rule, the Congress leaders argued that political education was an important part of education and refused to accept official view that education and politics should not be mixed with one another.
But when they came to power in 1947, they almost adopted the British policy and began different to talk of education being defiled by politics. ‘Hands off education’ was the call to political parties. But inspite of it, political infiltration into the educational system has greatly increased in the sense that different political parties vie with each other to capture the minds of teachers and students.
- The wise academicians wanted political support, without political interference.
- What we have actually received is infinite political interference with little genuine political support.
- This interference with the educational system by political parties for their own ulterior motives is no political education at all; and with the all-round growth of elitism, it is hardly a matter for surprise that real political education within the school system (which really means the creation of a commitment to social transformation) has been even weaker than in the pre-independence period.
At the same time, the freedom struggle came to an end and the major non-formal agency of political education disappeared. The press could and did provide some political education. But it did not utilize the opportunity to the full and the stranglehold of vested interests continued to dominate it.
The same can be said of political parties as well as of other institutions and agencies outside the school system which can be expected to provide political education. Most things considered, it appears that we have made no progress in genuine political education in the Post independence period and have even sided back in some respects.
For instance the education system has become even more elite-oriented. Patriotism has become the first casualty. Gandhi gave us the courage to oppose the government when it was wrong, in a disciplined fashion and based on principles. He believed the means to be as important as the ends and taught us to work among the poor people for mobilizing and organizing them.
- Today, we have even lost the courage to fight on basic Issues in a disciplined manner because agitation and anarchic politics for individual, group or party aggrandizement has become common.
- The education system of today continues to support the domination of the privilege groups and domestication of underprivileged ones.
The Situation will not change unless we take vigorous steps to provide genuine political education on an adequate scale. This is one of the major educational reforms we need; and if it is not carried out, mere linear expansion of the existing system of formal education will only support the status quo and hamper radical social transformation.
They got political support without political interference.They got no political support with political interference.They got mere political support with political interference.They got mere political support without political interference.
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What is the influence of society in the education process?
Society plays a significant role in education. It can influence it both ways, positively and negatively. The values, morals, and principles of a society will create an education system that upholds the same values, morals, and principles.
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What are 3 factors that can influence educational progress during the time?
In fact, when students make academic progress, many factors play a role. In addition to supportive teachers and family involvement, the school and classroom environment, student motivation, socioeconomic status, language competency, and programming for English Language Learners, or ELL, all matter.
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The social environment influences learning by creating a language environment and an experience environment which stimulate the mind to grow, and by systematically rewarding a child for learning.
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What is the relationship between education and economic system?
Increasing the level of education in society increases the production capacity by increasing the quality of labor. An increase in the quality of labor can be achieved through investment in human capital. Therefore, there is a relationship between the increase in the education level of the workforce and economic growth.
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What role does the education system play in a democratic country?
The purpose of education in a democratic society is to instill the values of cooperation, fairness and justice into the hearts of our students. I would argue that these values are essential to maintaining and improving a functioning democracy in any country.
In Canada, our democracy is in serious need of a shake up. We have rising inequality due to an economic system based on competition and profit, we have a Prime Minister who is acting more and more like an authoritarian dictator and we have followed pace with the United States in dismantling the public good over the last forty years.
As a social studies teacher, and a concerned citizen, I often ask myself what do I want my students to be able to contribute to in their lives. Of course I want them to have successful lives in which they are able to follow their passions but I also want them, regardless of their profession, to be able to contribute to our democracy in some way.
Democracy is at the heart of my teaching practice as I see my classroom as a microcosm of what our world could be. I want to create the conditions in my classroom where the principles of democracy reign supreme. I want my students to participate in the process of establishing class rules and culture. I want my students to have a voice in how they can demonstrate their knowledge as well as how they are assessed academically.
In other words, I want to share the power in the classroom with my students. Now, for many teachers reading this you may be thinking that I’m crazy to give up “control” in my classroom. But what we have to understand as educators is that our jobs is not to “control” students but to empower them to be critically thinking democratic citizens.
Teachers must do away with any form of authoritarian teaching method and embrace a more democratic approach to ensure that our students understand that the work of democracy is important and worth while. We have to understand as teachers that even in democratic spaces we still have the authority to ensure the classroom is a safe space for all students but that we engage in dialogue with our students about the reasons for any decision we make and ask for student feedback on how the classroom is run.
We can’t run our schools and classrooms like a dictatorship and then pretend to think that our students will be prepared to be active citizens participating in our democratic system. We also have to ensure that we present democracy as a system and process that is always happening by being involved in our communities and institutions.
Voting every election is only one aspect of being an active democratic citizen. Part of our responsibilities as citizens is to work with others collaboratively to accomplish shared goals and dreams. Any rights or freedoms that have been granted by politicians have rarely come independent of citizens demanding them as part of a larger social movement.
We have a crisis of democracy in Canada and Alberta with low voter turnouts and a lack of community in many areas. In Alberta, as students have began demanding Gay-Straight Alliances over more than the past decade it has made many social-conservatives in the province uneasy to say the least.
These students are exercising their democratic voice and this week the province has decided that they will not protect this democratic right as the province has chosen to make the very political decision to strike a “balance” between those advocating for GSA’s and those who wish to suppress the voice of marginalized students in our schools.
Democracy is not for the faint of heart and it is something that must be protected by citizens of any country. Our schools must be places where students have a voice that is heard and they must be able to take action on issues that they care about. If we adults seek to limit or silence student voice in our schools and education system then we are condemning our democracy to further degradation.
Bringing Democratic Education to your Classroom and School What is Democratic Education Democratic Classrooms
Dan Scratch is a social studies teacher at Inner-City High School in Edmonton, Alberta. He is a social justice advocate and believes that education can be used as a tool to empower youth to become critically engaged citizens who use their power to transform their lives and participate in the world around them.
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What role does education play in democratic society?
At a time when human rights and fundamental freedoms are increasingly under strain worldwide and trust in public institutions is declining in many countries, the power of education to transform societies is more necessary than ever. Education has a key role to play in equipping youth with the knowledge, values, skills and attitudes to understand their rights and empower them to promote just societies.
If young people do not know what their human rights are and what laws and institutions protect them, how can they exercise these rights in a post-crisis world? UNESCO develops educational programmes that teach children and young people about their rights and the rule of law, equip them with a strong ethical compass and empower them to become champions for justice in their schools and communities.
To bridge the gap between education and justice professionals, UNESCO has partnered with UNODC. Their joint initiative, Global Citizenship Education for the Rule of Law, aims to:
guide policy for changemakers from the education and justice sectors; support teachers in primary and secondary schools with educational tools and interactive pedagogies that empower students’ voices and democratic participation; train teacher trainers and policy-makers on how to embed such learning in education systems; and foster children and youth engagement for just societies.
This partnership supports UNESCO’s work on Global Citizenship Education and UNODC’s Education for Justice initiative and is aimed at advancing Sustainable Development Goals 4 on quality education and 16 on peace, justice and strong institutions. Watch this video to learn more.
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How are education and leadership connected?
Learning, teaching and learning are integrally connected. Leadership can play a key role in improving learning outcomes of learners by setting strategic direction and goal, influencing teachers’ and facilitators’ behaviors and motivations, mobilizing resources and support for institutional development and keeping teachers/facilitators and learners focussed on teaching and learning through monitoring, support and guidance, Effective learning is the outcome of effective leadership.
Education systems should have appropriate policies and programmes to develop educational leaders who embrace /learning’ at the core of their leadership role, what is referred to as learning leadership. The hallmark of good leadership in education is to take responsibility and accept accountability for learning.
Educational leaders have traditionally focused on management roles such as planning, budgeting, scheduling, maintenance of facilities, teacher evaluation, etc. Research in education has shown that a particular type of leadership that makes a difference in learning is instructional leadership or learning leadership, where leaders are intensely involves in curricular and instructional issues that have direct bearing on learner achievement.
- Learning leaders are those who prioritize teaching and learning at the top of their priority, promote the culture of continuous learning, use evidence or data on learner achievement to make decisions and set priorities.
- These leaders are consistently focused on the core technology of education, which is learning, learner support, teaching, teacher support, curriculum, learning materials, assessment, feedback and improvement.
In the case of formal schooling, a study conducted by OECD has identified four major domains of responsibility as key for school leadership to improve student outcomes: – Supporting, evaluating and developing teacher quality – Goal-setting, assessment and accountability – Strategic financial and human resource management – Collaborating with other schools.
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How does education have the power to change the world?
What are the 7 ways education can power a better world? The human race has made significant progress in the past 7 million years. From being cave dwelling Neanderthals to now being jet-setting futurists, we have come a long way. Today, as we gear up to become a planet of 9 billion people, are we better off than we were millenniums ago? Of course access to the bare necessities of life has never been easier.
Shelter electricity, food, and hygiene have considerably improved the quality of our lives. But the one essential element that separates us from the dumb, that helps create better societies, develop virtues and gives us a sense of freedom—is Education and many around the world are still deprived of it.
The classic definition of education is “the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university”. But education is much more than that. It is a process of which can be acquired anywhere at any time and any age. It is the fundamental right of every citizen because it promotes empowerment and ensures development benefits.
Education can be used for the upliftment of society since it helps elevate the social and economic conditions in the marginalized sections of society. Education makes us better citizens by teaching us how to conduct ourselves through life by following rules and regulations and giving us a sense of conscience.
It make us more confident to go out there and achieve things. Many governments across the world have recognized the importance of education as a tool to enhance progress and make the world a better place. Let us see how it achieves that:
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What is the relationship between education and Constitution?
The Indian constitution in its original enactment defined education as state subject. Under Article 42 of the constitution, an amendment was added in 1976 and education became a concurrent list subject which enables the central government to legislate it in the manner suited to it.
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Is education involved in politics?
The Victorian Association for the Teaching of English (VATE) annual conference titled “Now, Gods, Stand Up For Bastards”, eponymously named after Edmund’s outcry from Shakespeare’s Edmund in King Lear, featured a variety of speakers and workshops to speak along the theme of “individuals who take the contrary line, who will not or cannot swim in the mainstream view the world from a different perspective.” However, the conference program which was held on the 30 th November to the 1 st of December this year, drew ire from some, including The Australian ‘s Dr Bella d’Abrera from the Institute of Public Affairs. D’Abrera questioned what ‘political activists’ were doing at a conference about English teaching.
Critics essentially raised the question: what does social justice and politics have to do with education? Thomas Mann, 1928 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate argued that “everything is politics” – and this includes education. Whilst it may be convenient to pretend that there is an impermeable wall which divides the world of schooling from the world of politics, perhaps we would be doing a disservice to our students if we were to take this approach.
Blatantly segregating politics from education contradicts the Australian Curriculum’s goals that graduating students need to be able to think critically and independently. As Cudmore (2017) implores: “In whose interest is it for our future citizens to be politically ignorant and apathetic?” The refusal to expose students to different ideas, branded as provocative or too radical, for fear of corruption via osmosis is absurd.
This year alone, has brought many contentious issues to the simmer – marriage equality laws, euthanasia laws, the changing future of work, immigration bans, dual citizenship, the legalisation of marijuana, the displacement of refugees around the world, economic trade deals, informed consent, free speech, gender workplace diversity, nuclear threats, national security These are social issues that affect all of us, including the students in our classrooms.
Whilst teachers should be cautious of where to draw the line on opinion-based discussions, we still need to have these discussions. Slee (2011) suggests that we think of the schooling process as an apprenticeship in democracy. Students need tools to engage with and understand the political process, so that they can be fully informed and active members of a civic society.
Thus, education has a significant role to play in developing engaged citizens with critical thinking skills ready to participate in society. Rather than being tarred with the brush of being factionally ‘political’, media literacy and the ability to the structural workings of our global society are natural prerequisites to participating in the 21st century.
Moreover, it is a startling thought that in this modern era, American President Trump’s tweets can have more influential impact than fact-driven, fair-minded reporting. The respect and confidence garnered by expert evidence, transparency and the replicability of findings is diminishing. There seems to be a retreat to subjective views and ideologies, where policy, media and the interpretation of ‘truth’ are entirely disconnected. Our students rely predominantly on social media for their information – these platforms act as a metaphorical ‘hall of mirrors’ for young people, reflecting back opinions which confirm their prejudices and biases.
Without critical thinking skills, students fall victim to passively accepting what they read, hear and are exposed to without testing its validity and establishing a reasonable truth. And so, this form of passive ignorance renders students vulnerable to attack, manipulation and control. Gillian Triggs, former President of the Human Rights Commission, suggests that young people nowadays generally do not understand common law and the limits of the Australian Constitution.
As a result, mendacity and contorted facts form the basis of many misconceptions and fallacies, and the effects of these lies are everlasting. ‘Fake news’ is prolific across social media platforms such as Facebook, constructed to garner attention and ‘clicks’ regardless of the accuracy of news stories or information. Emily Frawley, VATE president, believes there is a need to question how the world works and the individual’s empowerment to shaping their own lives – and that “these ideas are fundamental to the study of English, where literacy is not only the ability to read, but to read critically and reflectively, and make informed opinions on the fictional and real-world texts encounter” (Trevino, M 2017).
All teachers, and English teachers in particular, are in a unique position to help our students navigate fact from fiction, and build crucial 21 st century skills of collaboration, critical thinking and communication. The new VCE English study design reflects this need, with a more well-defined focus on the analysis of the quality of reasoning, and to heighten awareness of the ways in which language and argument are used to manipulate and persuade individuals.
The hope is that our graduating students are sceptical of the information they come across in the outside world, that they can be confident participants in the increasingly digital world, and are able to discern truth from viral clickbait and inaccurate material. References Cudmore, G 2017, ‘We must provide our students with the tools to engage and understand the political process’, Education HQ Australia, 3 November 2017,, D’Abrera, B 2017, ‘How our teachers score top Marx’, 4 December 2017, The Spectator, < https://www.spectator.com.au/2017/12/how-our-teachers-score-top-marx/>. Slee, R. (2011). The irregular school: Exclusion, schools and inclusive education. London: Routledge. Trevino, M 2017, ‘Teachers’ association under fire for bringing politics into classroom’, 27 October 2017, https://au.educationhq.com/news/43662/teachers-association-under-fire-for-bringing-politics-into-classroom/ >.
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What are the political aims of education?
Galileo was pronounced “vehemently suspect of heresy” by the Church in 1632 and lived the last nine years of his life under house arrest, for his espousal of heliocentrism. Curiously, Copernican heliocentrism had been used by Pope Gregory himself in 1582 to alter his eponymous calendar.
- This schizophrenic behaviour of the Church can be substantially explained by its assessment that Galileo’s espousal questioned the authority of the Church to decide what was true.
- This blow at the basis of the then political order had to be crushed—while Copernican calculations as a tool to change the calendar were perfectly acceptable.
Most certainly such heretical ideas had no place in schools and universities; the Church controlled that well. In fact, over the next two centuries, the Protestant and the Catholic churches and their institutions often vied for the claim of being more geocentric than the other.
It’s only by the 19th century that geocentrism withered away from the curriculum in schools. Let’s not fool ourselves that such things are memories of an “unscientific” past. As one example, all world maps that schools use (and Google uses) are wrong, and they feed Eurocentrism. The subtle nudge is in the choice of placing Europe at the centre of the world, but what is egregiously wrong is the relative proportions of the countries and continents.
The geographies of “the North”—Europe and North America—are represented ludicrously bigger than they are; the 48 million sq km of “the North” is shown to be bigger than the 94 million square kilometer of “the South”. Open a map and look at these remarkable distortions: in reality, South America is about twice the size of Europe but shown to be equal, Greenland looks bigger than China but is actually one-fourth, and the Nordic countries look bigger than India but are actually one-third.
- Even matters of the physical world are learnt and taught in schools often on the basis of political values and choices.
- These may be very deliberate choices, like the Church on heliocentrism or unthinking espousal as in the case of the Eurocentrism in the maps.
- Let’s take another example from economics.
Textbooks in economics from the 1960s and ’70s in India would be full of the virtues of central planning and arcane details of the Mahalanobis model, which seems very strange today. Equally strange are today’s economics text books, which are influenced by market fundamentalism and dominated by the idealized rationality-individualism-equilibrium nexus, which exists only in these books; this stuff is as disconnected from reality as was the planning model.
- What must we know in economics to say that we know economics is a substantially political and not a purely epistemic issue? The content of education in any society is politically influenced.
- This political influence operates at both levels: to accept what is “true knowledge” (for instance, the planning model versus market theory) and to choose “worthwhile knowledge” that finds place in the curriculum from the universal set of “knowledge”.
I have deliberately taken examples from areas which are not usually referred to when discussing how politics determines the content of education, while in certain subjects and areas, this issue is well-known—say, in the content of history and sociology, in the treatment of matters of gender and caste.
The processes and practices of education are as political as the content. What is the language of the medium of instruction? Who all do we include in education? If we want universal equitable education, how do we make it happen? Do we think “merit” takes precedence over affirmative action? Do the pedagogical approaches adequately factor for the diversity in the class? Every one of these questions, and many more which determine education, are political in nature.
Even more political than the content and processes of education are the aims of education. Education that aims to develop autonomous, critical thinking individuals and to help develop a just and democratic society is sharply political. And as sharply political would be education that aims to develop individuals who are not questioning but conforming to some existing order.
In fact, the aims of education shape the processes and content of education, including significantly determining their political tilt. Views from the extremes, both the left and the right, regarding the recent happenings in some university campuses, have been unsurprising. Ugly, unethical politics anywhere must be condemned.
But what has been surprising is a view stated by some which amounts to “there must be no politics in educational institutions”. This view reflects either a very naïve understanding of education or an insidiously political (even if unconscious) choice.
And that choice is for education to aim to develop people who do not engage with the most important issues around them, do not question and do not think for themselves. This amounts to deep politics in education of a kind that must be rejected. We need education that energizes our democracy and builds an India as envisioned in the Constitution by developing the abilities of students to think and contribute as autonomous individuals; this education is certainly political.
One way or the other, all education is political. Anurag Behar is chief executive officer of Azim Premji Foundation and leads sustainability initiatives for Wipro Ltd. He writes every fortnight on issues of ecology and education. Comments are welcome at [email protected].
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How is education a political act?
Teaching is political in the sense that power and privilege – through decisions about funding, curriculum, class size, testing, tracking, and other matters of policy and practice – exacerbate rather than ease social class and race inequalities.
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How does the level of education of a citizen influence political participation?
The absolute education model posits that education has a direct effect on political participation. Hence, education has an influence on different types of skills and knowledge, which reduce the costs of political actions, enable citizens to participate in an effective way, and therefore, facilitate political behavior.
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How does an increase in education level affect political participation?
Abstract. The college-educated are more likely to vote than are those with less education. Prior research suggests that the effect of college attendance on voting operates directly, by increasing an individual’s interest and engagement in politics through social networks or human capital accumulation.
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How is the study of politics relevant to a student?
Political science is fundamental to understanding your rights and responsibilities as a citizen and to understanding international politics and law. If political issues interest you, you can pursue them in just about every college and university in the United States.
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What are socio/political factors in education?
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Page ID 91097 Although educational policies and practices are sometimes viewed as if they existed in a vacuum, separate from the larger social, political, and cultural contexts, one of the central tenets of multiculturalism asserts that educational decision-making is heavily influenced by each of these contexts.
- In particular, many scholars of multicultural education point to the importance of the sociopolitical context of education in the modern era as educational policies and practices are increasingly becoming politicized.
- Given the political nature of educational decision making, the educational policies and practices implemented at national, state, and local levels reflect the values, traditions, and worldviews of the individuals and groups responsible for their design and implementation, which inherently makes education a non-neutral process, though it is often seen as such.
Understanding the sociopolitical context of education allows for a critical analysis of educational policies and practices in an effort to reduce educational inequalities, improve the achievement of all students, and prepare students to participate in democratic society.
In the field of multicultural education– and across the social sciences– the sociopolitical context refers to the laws, regulations, mandates, policies, practices, traditions, values, and beliefs that exist at the intersection of social life and political life. For example, freedom of religion is one of the fundamental principles of life in American society, and therefore there are laws in place that protect every individual’s right to worship as they choose.
In this instance, the social practices (ideologies, beliefs, traditions) and political process (laws, regulations, policies) reflect each other and combine to create a sociopolitical context that is, in principle, welcoming to all religious practices.
- There are similar connections between the social and the political in the field of education.
- Given that one of the main purposes of schooling is to prepare students to become productive members of society, classroom practices must reflect– to some extent– the characteristics of the larger social and political community.
For example, in the United States, many schools use student governments to expose students to the principles of democratic society. By organizing debates, holding elections, and giving student representatives a voice in educational decision making, schools hope to impart upon students the importance of engaging in the political process.
The policies and practices that support the operation of student government directly reflect the larger sociopolitical context of the United States. Internationally, the use of student government often reflect the political systems used in that country, if a student government organization exists at all.
However, sociopolitical contexts influence educational experiences in subtler ways as well. Throughout the history of American education, school policies and practices have reflected the ideological perspectives and worldviews of the underlying sociopolitical context.
As stated above, schools in democratic societies often have democratic student government organizations that reflect the political organization of the larger society, while similar organizations cannot be found in schools in countries that do not practice democracy. Similarly, if a society shares a widespread belief that some groups (based on race, class, language, or any other identifier) are inherently more intelligent than another, educational policies and practices will reflect that belief.
For example, as the United States expanded westward into Native American lands during the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries, many Americans shared the widespread belief that Native Americans were inherently less intelligent and less civilized than white Americans.
This belief system served as a justification for the “Manifest Destiny” ideology that encouraged further westward expansion. Not surprisingly, the larger sociopolitical context of the time influences educational policies and practices. In large numbers, young Native Americans were torn from their families and forced into boarding schools where they were stripped of their traditions and customs before being involuntarily assimilated into “American culture”.
These Native American boarding schools outlawed indigenous languages and religions. They required students to adopt western names, wear western clothes, and learn western customs. While from a contemporary perspective these schools were clearly inhumane, racist, and discriminatory, they illustrate how powerful the sociopolitical climate of the era can be in the implementation of educational policies and practices.
Educational policies today continue to reflect the larger social and political ideologies, worldviews, and belief systems of American society, and although instances of blatant discrimination based on race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation, language, or any other identifier have been dramatically reduced in recent decades, a critical investigation into contemporary schooling reveals that individuals and groups are systematically advantaged and disadvantaged based on their identities and backgrounds, which will be explored in more depth in subsequent sections of this (book/class).
The role of social institutions in educational experiences are another key consideration in developing an understanding of the sociopolitical contexts of education. The term social institutions refer to the establish, standardized patterns of rule governed behavior within a community, group, or other social system.
- Generally, the term social institutions includes a consideration of the socially accepted patterns of behavior set by the family, schools, religion, and economic and political systems.
- Each social institution contributes to the efficiency and sustained functionality of the larger society by ensuring that individuals behave in a manner that consistent with the larger structure, which allows them to contribute to the society.
Traffic regulations offer an example of how social institutions work together to create and ensure safety and efficiency in society. In order to reduce chaos, danger, and inefficiency along roadways in the United States, political institutions have created laws and regulations that govern behavior along public roads.
- Drivers found in violation of these regulations face punishment or fines that are determined by the judicial system.
- Furthermore, families and schools– and to some extent religions organizations– are responsible for teaching young people the rules and regulations that govern transportation in their society.
The streamlined and regulated transportation system produced by the aforementioned social institutions allows economic institutions to function more efficiently. Functionalist Theory is a term used to refer to the perspective that institutions fill functional prerequisites in society and are necessary for social efficiency as seen in the previous example.
- However, Conflict Theory refers to the idea that social institutions work to reinforce inequalities and uphold dominant group power.
- Using the same transportation example, a conflict theorist might argue that the regulations that require licensing fees before being able to legally operate a vehicle disproportionately impact poor people, which would limit their ability to move freely and thereby make it more difficult for them to hold and maintain a job that would allow them to move into a higher socioeconomic class.
Another argument from the conflict theorist perspective might challenge institutionalized policies that require drivers to present proof of citizenship or immigration papers before being allowed to legally operate a vehicle. These policies systematically deny the right of freedom of movement to immigrants who entered the United States illegally, thereby limiting their civil rights as well as their ability to contribute to the American economy.
- Both the Functionalist Theory and Conflict Theory perspectives can contribute to a nuanced understanding of contemporary educational policies and practices by providing contrasting viewpoints on the same issue.
- Throughout these modules these perspectives will inform the discussion of educational institutions and how they influence– and are influenced by– other social institutions.
Much like educational policies and practices, the rules and regulations set by social institutions do not exist within a vacuum, nor are they neutral in regard to the way they impact individuals and groups. Institutional discrimination refers to “the adverse treatment of and impact on members of minority groups due to the explicit and implicit rules that regulate behavior (including rules set by firms, schools, government, markets, and society).
Institutional discrimination occurs when the rules, practices, or ‘non-conscious understanding of appropriate conduct’ systematically advantage or disadvantage members of particular groups” (Bayer, 2011). Historical examples of institutional discrimination in abound in American history. In the field of education, perhaps the most well known example of institutionalized discrimination is the existence of segregated schools prior to the Brown v.
Board of Education decision in 1954. During this era, students of color were institutionally and systematically prevented from attending white schools, and instead were forced to attend schools that lacked sufficient financial, material, and human resources.
Institutional discrimination in contemporary society, however, is often subtler given that there are a plethora of laws that explicitly prevent discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or any other identifier. Regardless of those laws, social institutions and institutionalized discrimination continue to disadvantage non-dominant groups, thereby advantaging members of the dominant group.
Use housing as an example, homeowner’s associations are local organizations that regulate the rules and behaviors within a particular housing community. If a homeowner’s association decides that only nuclear families can live within their community and create a bylaw that stipulates such, the practice of allowing nuclear families and denying non-nuclear families becomes codified as an institutionalized policy.
While the policy does not directly state that it intends to be discriminatory, it would disproportionately affect families from cultures that traditionally have households that include aunts, uncles, cousins, grandparents, and other extended family members, a practice that is common in many Asian, African, and South American communities.
Although hypothetical, this example represents an example of the subtle ways in which institutional discrimination surfaces in contemporary society. A more concrete example of institutionalized discrimination can be drawn from the housing market in New Orleans as homes were being rebuilt in the aftermath Hurricane Katrina.
While the Lower Ninth Ward– a mostly black neighborhood– was among the most damaged neighborhood in New Orleans, just down river the St. Bernard Parish neighborhood– which was mostly white– was also heavily damaged. By 2009, most of St. Bernard Parish had been rebuilt, while the Lower Ninth Ward remained unfit for living.
As families began moving back into the neighborhood, elected officials in St. Bernard Parish passed a piece of legislation that required property owners to rent only to ‘blood relatives’. In effect, the policy barred potential black residents from moving into the area and served to maintain the racial makeup of the neighborhood prior to Katrina.
After several months of implementation, the policy was legally challenged and was found to be in violation of the Fair Housing Act in Louisiana courts. In 2014, the Parish agreed to pay approximately $1.8 million in settlements to families negatively affected by the policy. This example illustrates how institutionalized discrimination surfaces in contemporary society.
Throughout the modules, instances of institutional discrimination in schools, as well as in American society as a whole, will be critically analyzed in order to develop an understanding of how educators can work to reduce inequality and promote academic achievement for all students.
- A basic understanding of social institutions and institutional discrimination helps inform this course’s approach to key educational issues in the field of multicultural education.
- As the student body in American schools becomes increasingly diverse, it becomes increasingly important for future teachers to know and understand how students’ identities might impact their educational experiences as well as their experiences their larger social and political settings.
While there are many issues facing education today, Nieto and Bode (2012) identified four key terms that are central to understanding sociopolitical context surrounding multicultural education. These terms include: equal and equitable education, the ‘achievement gap’, deficit theories, and social justice.
The terms equal and equitable are often used synonymously, though they have vastly different meanings. While most educators would agree that providing an equal education to all students is an important part of their mission, it is sometimes more important to focus on creating equitable educational experiences.
At its core, an equal education means providing exactly the same resources and opportunities for all students, regardless of their background. An equal education, however, does not ensure that all students will achieve equally. Take English Language Learners (ELLs) as an example.
A group of ELL students sitting in the same classroom as native English speakers, listening to the same lecture, reading the same books, and taking the same assessments could be considered an equal education given that all students are receiving equal access to all of the educational experiences and materials.
The outcome of this ostensibly equal education, however, would not be equitable. The ELL students would not be able to comprehend the lecture, books, or assessments and would therefore not be given the real possibility of achieving at an equal level, which is the aim of an equitable education.
- Equity refers to the educational process that “provides students with what they need to achieve equality” (Nieto & Bode, 2012, p.9).
- In the case of the ELL example, an equitable education would provide additional resources– perhaps including ESL specialists, bilingual activities and materials, and/or programs that foster native language literacy– to the ELL students to ensure that they are welcomed into the classroom community and are given the opportunity to learn and succeed equally.
Working towards educational equality by providing equitable educational experiences is one of the central tenets of multicultural education and will be a recurring topic throughout these modules. A second key term that is crucial in understanding multicultural education is the ‘achievement gap’.
- A large body of research has documented that students from racially and linguistically marginalized groups as well as students from low-income families generally achieve less than other students in educational settings.
- Large scale studies of standardized assessments revealed that white students outperformed black, Hispanic, and Native American students in reading, writing, and mathematics by at least 26 points on a scale from 0 to 500 (Nieto and Bode, 2012; National Center for Educational Statistics, 2009).
Though usage of the term has changed over time, it often focuses on the role that students themselves play in the underachievement, which has drawn criticism from advocates of multicultural education because it places too much responsibility on the individual rather than considering the larger sociopolitical and sociocultural contexts surrounding education.
While gaps in educational performance no doubt exist, Nieto and Bode (2012) suggest that using terms such as “resource gap”, “opportunity gap”, or “expectations gap” may be more accurate in describing the realities faced by marginalized students who often attend schools with limited resources, limited opportunities for educational advancement or employment in their communities, and face lowered expectations from their teachers and school personnel (p.13).
Throughout this (book/course) issues related to the achievement gap’ and educational inequalities based on race, class, gender, and other identifiers will be viewed within the larger social, cultural, economic, and political contexts in order to create a more holistic and systematic understanding of student experiences, rather than focusing purely on the individual.
Historically in educational research, deficit theories have been used to explain how and why the achievement gap exists, but since the 1970s, scholars of multicultural education have been working to dismantle the lasting influence of deficit theory perspectives in contemporary education. The term ‘deficit theories’ refer to the assumption that some students perform worse than others in educational settings due to genetic, cultural, linguistic, or experiential differences that prevent them from learning.
The roots of deficit theories can be found in 19 th century pseudo-scientific studies that purported to show ‘scientific evidence’ that classified the intelligence and behavior characteristics of various racial groups. The vast majority of these studies were conducted by white men, who unsurprisingly, found white men to be the most intelligent group of human beings, with other groups falling in behind in ways that mirrored the accepted social standings of the era (Gould, 1981).
- Though many have been disproved, deficit theories continue to surface in educational research and discourse.
- Reports suggesting that academic underachievement is a product of cultural deprivation or a dysfunctional relationship with school harken back to deficit theory perspectives.
- Much like the ‘achievement gap’, deficit theories place the burden of academic underachievement on students and their families, rather than considering how the social and institutional contexts might impact student learning.
Deficit theories also create a culture of despondency among educators and administrators since they support the idea that students’ ability to achieve is predetermined by factors outside of the teacher’s control. Multicultural education aims to disrupt the prevalence of deficit theory perspectives by encouraging a more nuanced analysis of student achievement that considers the structural and cultural contexts surrounding American schooling.
The fourth and final term that is central to understanding the sociopolitical context of multicultural education is social justice. Throughout these modules, the term social justice will be employed to describe efforts to reduce educational inequalities, promote academic achievement, and engage students in their local, state, and national communities.
Social justice is multifaceted in that it embodies the ideologies, philosophies, approaches, and actions that work towards improving the quality of life for all individuals and communities. Not only does social justice aim to improve access to material and human resources for students in underserved communities, it also exposes inequalities by challenging and confronting misconceptions and stereotypes through the use of critical thinking and activism.
- Finally, in order for social justice initiatives to be successful, they must “draw on the talents and strengths that students bring to their education” (Nieto and Bode, 2012, p.12).
- This allows students to see their experiences represented in curriculum content, which can empower and inspire students– not only to excel academically– but also engage in activities that strengthen and build the community around them.
These key components of social justice permeate throughout the field of multicultural education. In order to develop a holistic understanding of educational experiences, these modules will interpret and analyze educational policies and practices through a lens that considers the sociopolitical contexts of education.
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What are political factors factors?
Explore political factors in a PESTEL analysis. In a business context, political factors usually relate to laws and regulations created and enforced by national governments and international bodies (such as the United Nations or the European Union). These laws and regulations may constrain or expand the organization’s activities.
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What is the effect of political factors?
There are many external environmental factors that can affect your business. It is common for managers to assess each of these factors closely. The aim is always to take better decisions for the firm’s progress. Some common factors are political, economic, social and technological (known as PEST analysis ).
- Companies also study environmental, legal, ethical and demographical factors.
- The political factors affecting business are often given a lot of importance.
- Several aspects of government policy can affect business.
- All firms must follow the law.
- Managers must find how upcoming legislations can affect their activities.
The political environment can impact business organizations in many ways. It could add a risk factor and lead to a major loss, You should understand that the political factors have the power to change results. It can also affect government policies at local to federal level.
- Companies should be ready to deal with the local and international outcomes of politics.
- Changes in the government policy make up the political factors.
- The change can be economic, legal or social.
- It could also be a mix of these factors.
- Increase or decrease in tax could be an example of a political element.
Your government might increase taxes for some companies and lower it for others. The decision will have a direct effect on your businesses. So, you must always stay up-to-date with such political factors. Government interventions like shifts in interest rate can have an effect on the demand patterns of company.
Political decisions affect the economic environment. Political decisions influence the country’s socio-cultural environment. Politicians can influence the rate of emergence of new technologies. Politicians can influence acceptance of new technologies.
The political environment is perhaps among the least predictable elements in the business environment. A cyclical political environment develops, as democratic governments have to pursue re-election every few years. This external element of business includes the effects of pressure groups.
- Pressure groups tend to change government policies.
- As political systems in different areas vary, the political impact differs.
- The country’s population democratically elects open government system.
- In totalitarian systems, government’s power derives from a select group.
- Corruption is a barrier to economic development for many countries.
Some firms survive and grow by offering bribes to government officials. The success and growth of these companies are not based on the value they offer to consumers. Below, is a list of political factors affecting business :
Bureaucracy Corruption level Freedom of the press Tariffs Trade control Education Law Anti-trust law Employment law Discrimination law Data protection law Environmental Law Health and safety law Competition regulation Regulation and deregulation Tax policy (tax rates and incentives) Government stability and related changes Government involvement in trade unions and agreements Import restrictions on quality and quantity of product Intellectual property law (Copyright, patents) Consumer protection and e-commerce Laws that regulate environment pollution
There are 4 main effects of these political factors on business organizations. They are:
Impact on economy Changes in regulation Political stability Mitigation of risk
How do political factors affect?
How Political Factors Affecting Business Environment – Political factors can impact a business by making the more or less friendly for that business. Typically, governments have a great deal of power over businesses and many times, there is not much that businesses can do about it.
- Political factors can impact businesses in various ways.
- These external environmental factors can add in a risk factor which can lead to a major loss in business.
- These factors can change the entire results and hence, companies should be able to deal with both local as well as international political outcomes.
In addition to this, political factors not only have a direct impact but, it also impacts other factors as well which can have a significant effect on the business and its operating environment. There are certain factors that create inter-linkages in several ways like:
Political decisions affect the socio-cultural environment of the country. Political decisions have an impact on the economic environment. Politicians can also influence the acceptance of new technologies. Politicians can also influence the rate of development of new technologies.