How Did Distance Education Develop In India?

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How Did Distance Education Develop In India
History – Distance education in India started in 1962 with a pilot project correspondence courses, which led to the birth of ‘s School of Correspondence Courses and Continuing Education. The success of the project led to introduction of correspondence course institutes (later renamed as directorates or centres of distance education) in more universities.

In 1982 was established, the first in India. This was followed by the establishment of at the national level in 1985. Although the for regulating higher education in India is the (UGC), the responsibility for promotion and coordination of open and distance learning (ODL) was bestowed on IGNOU under the Indira Gandhi National Open University Act (1985),

The Distance Education Council (DEC) was set up by IGNOU in 1991 and became operational in 1992. with the of IGNOU acting as the ex officio chairperson of DEC. In August 2010, the (MHRD) constituted a committee for investigating distance education standards in India.

  1. The committee recommended the creation of a new regulatory body, the Distance Education Council of India (DECI).
  2. It also recommended that until such body is established, the DEC may be shifted to UGC.
  3. On 29 December 2012, the MHRD published an Order transferring the regulatory authority of distance education from IGNOU to UGC.

In May 2013 IGNOU dissolved the DEC and the UGC took over the entire assets and manpower, establishing the Distant Education Bureau.
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How did distance education develop?

History – One of the earliest attempts of distance education was advertised in 1728. This was in the Boston Gazette for “Caleb Philipps, Teacher of the new method of Short Hand “, who sought students who wanted to learn the skills through weekly mailed lessons.

  • The first distance education course in the modern sense was provided by Sir Isaac Pitman in the 1840s who taught a system of shorthand by mailing texts transcribed into shorthand on postcards and receiving transcriptions from his students in return for correction.
  • The element of student feedback was a crucial innovation in Pitman’s system.

This scheme was made possible by the introduction of uniform postage rates across England in 1840. This early beginning proved extremely successful and the Phonographic Correspondence Society was founded three years later to establish these courses on a more formal basis.
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When was started distance education in India?

Background – Open and Distance Learning in India was introduced by Delhi University in 1962 through the School of Correspondence Courses and Continuing Education to enable those, who had the inclination and aptitude to acquire further knowledge and improve their professional competence.

  1. Subsequently in 1968, Correspondence Courses were started by Punjabi University and University of Rajasthan.
  2. Meerut and Mysore University started these courses in 1969.
  3. In the eighties, the distance education system expanded further. Dr.B.R.
  4. Ambedkar Open University, Hyderabad was established in 1982 by the State of Andhra Pradesh.

The setting up of Indira Gandhi National Open University by the Government of India in 1985 by an Act of the Parliament is considered to be a landmark development in the field of distance education in the Country. The Distance Education Council (DEC) was established in 1991 under Section 16(7) read with Section 5(2) of the IGNOU Act, 1985.

  1. As per clause (2) (a) of the statute 28, the DEC was responsible for the promotion and coordination of the Open and Distance Learning system in the Country.
  2. In May, 2007 a Joint Committee was formed by signing a MoU between UGC, AICTE and DEC for the period of three years till May, 2010.
  3. The Joint Committee developed guidelines in the form of ‘Recognition of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Institutions’ Handbook 2009.

Thereafter, in pursuance of the directions issued by the Ministry of Education, the Department of Higher Education, Government of India issued order dated 29.12.2012, thereby the regulatory functions with regard to Distance Education programmes (excluding technical education) in higher education were vested with the University Grants Commission and for technical education, the AICTE act as a regulator through ODL mode.
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Who started distance education in India?

The University of Delhi was the first one to introduce correspondence courses as a pilot project during 1962.
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How does distance education work in India?

Distance education, often known as distance learning, is a branch of education that focuses on teaching methods and technology with the goal of providing instruction to students who are not physically present in a traditional educational setting such as a classroom, sometimes on an individual basis.
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Who developed the theory of distance education?

Börje Holmberg, from Lund, Sweden is an internationally known and respected pioneer in the field of distance education. He is 95 years old. From 1972 to 1975 he was the ninth ICDE President, (ICDE was at that time the International Council for Correspondence Education’, then ICCE), he was also at that time the Director of Hermods Foundation, Sweden,

  1. Prior to being ICDE President he was on the ICDE executive committee for a while,
  2. Holmberg is held in very high esteem as a scientist in the field of distance education.
  3. In 1999 Börje Holmberg received the ICDE Prize for Excellence Award for lifelong contributions in the field of open and distance learning.
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He was also named an ICDE Honorary Member by the ICDE Executive Committee in recognition of his outstanding contributions to ICDE. How Did Distance Education Develop In India Holmberg is best known for his theory of personal communication between teachers and learners in distance education. He regards distance education as the conversational interaction between the student on the one hand and the tutor/adviser of the host organization.

  1. The central concepts of his theory are motivation, empathy, non-contiguous communication, learner autonomy and interpersonal communication.
  2. To describe in Holmberg’s way how distance teachers should communicate with students to ensure real learning, he uses the analogy of the conversation to describe the didactic conversation and derived seven postulates.

Guided didactic communication includes: Simulated conversation (one-sided, presentation of materials) and Real conversation (two-sided between tutor and student). Examples of simulated conversations are conversations like presentations of learning matter, self-control exercises, review questions with model answers and inserted questions.

In essence, Holmberg believes that by promoting empathy between learning and tutoring parties through appropriate one- and two-way interactions, learners are motivated and encouraged to participate personally in their studies. It also generally assumes that “genuine learning is primarily an individual activity and can only be achieved through a process of internalization”.

This assumption is one in which the theory of distance education can be justified. The aim of his theory is therefore to support individualized learning. With his international research and his contribution with more than 200+ publications, he is one of the most cited paragons in distance education (today often referred to as the open online education sector).
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When did distance education begin?

Distance education was common beginning in the late 1800s, but its rapid growth began in the late 1990s with the advance of the online technical revolution. It is far from a new phenomenon, but it continues to reach new heights as the developments in technology advance.
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Who is the father of distance education in India?

Professor G. Ram Reddy (December 4, 1929 – July 2, 1995) was a renowned architect of Distance Education and the father of open learning in India.
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What is the main concept of distance education?

Distance Education is a field of education that focuses on the pedagogy, technology, and instructional. system designs that aim to deliver education to students who are not physically ‘on site’ in a traditional classroom or campus.
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Why is distance education popular?

Final word – It can be seen that the online method of learning is widely being adopted and it will continue to be a hit. It enables the learners to progress at their own speed. Everyone needs a comfortable location where they can study without being disturbed.

Online education will become more common in the future years as a result. Because every parent’s topmost priority is their child’s growth, parents will also encourage their children to choose online education. NMIMS along with Learning Routes offers Distance learning graduation and post-graduation programs for those who want to learn in their own comfort.

The company provides hand holding to the students who want to perceive the distance Grad and post-grad courses in management from a reputed Institute with placement assistance. : 10 Benefits of Distance Learning for Students & Parents
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What is the need of distance education in India?

Need and Importance of Distance Education in India – Distance Education in India is getting overwhelming response. What was once considered a ridiculous mode of learning, is now gaining popularity across India. Following is the importance of distance education in India :

  • Rapid growth of education: With advancement in education and technology, it is very difficult to implement new changes through formal education.
  • Population: The immense growth rate of population has reduced the possibilities of formal education to educate a wide range of students.
  • Geographical limitations: Students living in places that are geographically isolated from the nearby educational centers, find it difficult to get formal education. Distance learning would be a great platform for these students.
  • Qualification improvement: Many aspirant students cannot afford to quit current jobs for higher studies. Distance learning enhances educational qualification of these students, while being in their current jobs.
  • Desire to work and study: If you are good enough to learn while you earn, then you must consider enhancing your skill set through opting for a distance learning course.
  • Education for all ages: Unlike formal education, distance education does not have an age barrier. Students of any age can enroll for distance learning.
  • Financial Circumstances: Distance learning is gaining popularity across India, as it is a much cheaper option when compared to formal learning. Not everyone in India can afford formal learning courses like MBA and other masters’ courses. Most students opt for distance learning owing to shortage of money
  • Fast tracking Promotion: You can fast track your promotion with the help of distance learning. Gain the required knowledge and skills to fast track promotion.
  • Flexibility factor: Flexible education is in demand and distance learning offers this. You can choose your date and time to take up tests and exams.
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What are the theories of distance education?

The Need for Theory – Although various forms of distance education have existed since the 1840s and attempts at theoretical explanations of distance education have been undertaken for decades by leading scholars in the field, the need for a theory of distance education has been largely unfulfilled until recently.

  1. Holmberg (1986) stated that theoretical considerations give distance educators a touchstone against which decisions can be made with confidence.
  2. In 1988, Holmberg reiterated the need for theory, stating that, One consequence of such understanding and explanation will be that hypotheses can be developed and submitted to falsification attempts.

This will lead to insights telling us what in distance education is to be expected under what conditions and circumstances, thus paving the way for corroborated practical methodological application. (p.3) As early as 1972, Moore expressed concern about the progress of distance education being hindered by lack of attention to what he called the ‘macro factors’.

Moore indicated that there is a need to describe and define the field of distance education, to discriminate between its various components, and to identify the critical elements of the various forms of learning and teaching. Keegan (1995) reaffirmed the continued need for a theory of distance education by stating that a firmly based theory of distance education is one that can provide the touchstone against which, financial, educational, and social can be made with confidence.

Theory would thus cease to be an ad hoc response to a set of conditions arising in crisis situations of problem-solving, characteristic of the field of education. In a general sense, theory is taken to mean a set of hypotheses logically related to one another for explaining and predicting occurrences.

  • Holmberg (1985) stated that, the aim of the theoretician is to find explanatory theories; that is to say, the theories which describe certain structural properties of the world, and which permit us to deduce, with the help of initial conditions, the effects to be explained.
  • P.5) Holmberg (1995, 4) further defined theory as, “a systematic ordering of ideas about the phenomenon of a field of inquiry, and an over-arching logical structure of reasoned suppositions which can generate testable hypotheses.” He suggested that distance education has been characterized by a trial and error approach, with little consideration given to a theoretical basis for decision-making, and that the theoretical underpinnings of distance education are fragile.

Most efforts in this field have been practical or mechanical and have concentrated on the logistics of the enterprise. Holmberg and Keegan (1986) both consider distance education as representing a distinct form of education, the latter concluding that it is parallel to and a complement of conventional education.

  • However, Shale (1988) countered that all that constitutes the process of education when teacher and student are able to meet face-to-face also constitutes the process of education when teacher and student are physically separated.
  • In his landmark work, The Foundations of Distance Education (1986), Keegan classified theories of distance education into three groups: theories of independence and autonomy, theories of industrial ization of teaching, and theories of interaction and communication.

A fourth category seeks to explain distance education through a synthesis of existing theories of communication and diffusion as well as philosophies of education. Each of these major categories will be discussed in the following sections.
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Who defined distance learning?

What Is Distance Learning? – Merriam Webster defines distance learning as, “a method of study where teachers and students do not meet in a classroom but use the Internet, e-mail, mail, etc., to have classes.” Simply put, distance learning is when students are separated from teachers and peers.
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What are the methods of distance education?

Distance Education: Methods In Distance Education, students may not be required to be present in a classroom, but that also may be a question of option. As for an electronic classroom or Virtual Learning Environment, it may or not be a part of a distance education set up.

Electronic classrooms can be both on campus, and off campus. We would call such institutions as using a ‘flexible’ delivery mode. Distance Education may also use all forms of technology, from print to the computer. This range will include radio, television, audio video conferencing, computer aided instruction, e-learning/on-line learning et al.

(E-learning/online-learning are largely synonymous). A distinction is also made between open learning and distance learning. To clarify our thinking we can say that while ‘open’ education is the system in which the student is free to choose the time and place, but distance education is a teaching methodology used when the student and teacher are separated by time and place.

  • Thus it follows that not all open-learning institutions use distance education and not all organizations that use distance education are open learning institutions.
  • Indeed there are many cases in which students are in traditional classrooms, connected via a video-conferencing link to a teacher in a distant classroom.
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This method is typical in geographically dispersed institutions. Conversely, the term virtual university is sometimes used to describe an open-learning institution that uses the Internet to create an imaginary university environment, in which the students, faculty, and staff can communicate and share information at any time, regardless of location.

  1. Distance Education has traversed four to five ‘generations’ of technology in its history.
  2. These are print, audio/video broadcasting, audio/video teleconferencing, computer aided instruction, e-learning/ online-learning, computer broadcasting/pod casting etc.
  3. Yet the radio remains a very viable form, especially in the developing nations, because of its reach.

In India the FM Channel is very popular and is being used by universities, to broadcast educational programs of variety on areas such as teacher education, rural development, programs in agriculture for farmers, science education, creative writing, mass communication, in addition to traditional courses in liberal arts, science and business administration.

In short then, though a range of technology presupposes a distance education ‘inventory’ it is technological appropriateness and connectivity, such as computer, or for that matter electrical connectivity that should be considered, when we think of the world as a whole, while fitting in technological applications to distance education.

: Distance Education: Methods
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Where was the distance education started?

2. The University of London External Program – I am a proud alumnus of the University of London, having done my doctorate in educational administration at the University of London Institute of Education (recently merged with University College London).

Wikipedia states: The University of London was the first university to offer distance learning degrees, establishing its External Programme in 1828.the External Programme was chartered by Queen Victoria in 1858, making the University of London the first university to offer distance learning degrees to studentsThis program is now known as the University of London International Programme and includes Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Diploma degrees created by colleges such as the London School of Economics, Royal Holloway and Goldsmiths.

Unfortunately I have no knowledge of the individuals who originally created the University of London External Programme back in 1828. It’s a worthy research project for anyone interested in the history of distance education. I was once (mid-1960s) a correspondence tutor for students taking undergraduate psychology courses in the External Programme.

  1. In those days, the university would publish a curriculum (a list of topics) and provide a reading list.
  2. Students could sit an exam when they felt they were ready.
  3. Students paid tutors such as myself to help them with their studies.
  4. I would find old exam papers for the course, and set questions for individual students, and they would send me their answers and I would mark them.

Many students were in British Commonwealth countries and it could take weeks after students sent in their essays before my feedback eventually got back to them. Not surprisingly, in those days completion rates in the programme were very low. The programme today is completely different,using a combination of study materials and online learning resources designed to foster active learning.

There are even university-approved local tutors in many countries around the world. The program has more than 50,000 students enrolled. Note though that teaching and examining in the original External Programme were disaggregated (those teaching it were different from those examining it), contract tutors were separate from the main faculty were used, and students studied individually and took exams when ready.

So many of the ‘new’ developments in distance education such as disaggregation, self-directed learning, and many of the elements of competency-based learning are in fact over 150 years old.
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Why did they implement distance learning?

Flexibility – The top benefit of distance education is its flexibility. Students can choose when, where, and how they learn by selecting the time, place, and medium for their education. For those who want direct, live access to teachers there are video conferencing options.
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How did distance learning bring innovation?

Innovation and Distance Learning – Distance learning has changed many of the expectations that teachers have while in the classroom. Student innovation has become important during this time because most student projects have become autonomy-based rather than time-based tasks with restrictions.

  • Project-based learning has become a huge trend during distance learning and it allows students to be innovative as they can explore different opportunities on their own.
  • Making families feel connected during distance learning is another important reason for innovation.
  • Rachelle suggests transitioning programs that are used in the classroom, into using them at home.

An example program she gives is the online learning game, Kahoot. Rachelle suggests teachers create a Kahoot game, encouraging the students and families to engage in the game together. Through innovation of using a typical in-class program while at home, can be effective by bridging the gap of families and their child’s academics.
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Why did DepEd implemented distance learning?

The Department of Education (DepEd) started to implement the distance learning set-up in SY 2020-2021 due to the threat of COVID-19.
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