Education Comes Under Which List In India?


Education Comes Under Which List In India
The Indian constitution in its original enactment defined education as state subject. Under Article 42 of the constitution, an amendment was added in 1976 and education became a concurrent list subject which enables the central government to legislate it in the manner suited to it.
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Is education under state list?

Transferred Subjects – Through the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 Five subjects were transferred from State to Concurrent List. They are:

  1. Education
  2. Forests
  3. Weights & Measures
  4. Protection of Wild Animals and Birds
  5. Administration of Justice

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What is in Concurrent List?

What is concurrent list? Answer at BYJU’S IAS The concurrent list consists of subjects of common interest to both the Union and the States. Both the Parliament and the State Legislatures can make laws on the subjects included in this list. But in case of a conflict between the Union and the State law relating to the same subject, the Union law prevails over the State law. , : What is concurrent list? Answer at BYJU’S IAS
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What are the 3 lists of the government class 10?

The Indian Constitution provides three lists. They are Union list, State list and Concurrent list.
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What is residuary list?

Subjects under union listSubjects under state listSubject under both state and union listSubjects which are not under any list Answer : D Solution : Residuary List is the list which contains subjects that do not comes under Union list, State list or Concurrent list.
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Is education delegated reserved or concurrent?



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What is the difference between concurrent and consecutive education?

In the concurrent model, the disciplinary studies and the pedagogical studies are inte- grated and taught at the same time. The consecutive model is focused mostly on pedagogy that follows previously studied disciplinary contents.
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Is police included in Union list?

The State List or List-II is a list of 61 items (Initially there were 66 items in the list) in Schedule Seven to the Constitution of India. The 2 nd item listed in it says that Police (including railway and village police) subject to the provisions of Entry 2-A of List-I.
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Is education part of local government?

Education is primarily a State and local responsibility in the United States. It is States and communities, as well as public and private organizations of all kinds, that establish schools and colleges, develop curricula, and determine requirements for enrollment and graduation.

  1. The structure of education finance in America reflects this predominant State and local role.
  2. Of an estimated $1.15 trillion being spent nationwide on education at all levels for school year 2012-2013, a substantial majority will come from State, local, and private sources.
  3. This is especially true at the elementary and secondary level, where about 92 percent of the funds will come from non-Federal sources.

That means the Federal contribution to elementary and secondary education is about 8 percent, which includes funds not only from the Department of Education (ED) but also from other Federal agencies, such as the Department of Health and Human Services’ Head Start program and the Department of Agriculture’s School Lunch program.

Although ED’s share of total education funding in the U.S. is relatively small, ED works hard to get a big bang for its taxpayer-provided bucks by targeting its funds where they can do the most good. This targeting reflects the historical development of the Federal role in education as a kind of “emergency response system,” a means of filling gaps in State and local support for education when critical national needs arise.

The original Department of Education was created in 1867 to collect information on schools and teaching that would help the States establish effective school systems. While the agency’s name and location within the Executive Branch have changed over the past 130 years, this early emphasis on getting information on what works in education to teachers and education policymakers continues down to the present day.

  1. The passage of the Second Morrill Act in 1890 gave the then-named Office of Education responsibility for administering support for the original system of land-grant colleges and universities.
  2. Vocational education became the next major area of Federal aid to schools, with the 1917 Smith-Hughes Act and the 1946 George-Barden Act focusing on agricultural, industrial, and home economics training for high school students.
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World War II led to a significant expansion of Federal support for education. The Lanham Act in 1941 and the Impact Aid laws of 1950 eased the burden on communities affected by the presence of military and other Federal installations by making payments to school districts.

And in 1944, the “GI Bill” authorized postsecondary education assistance that would ultimately send nearly 8 million World War II veterans to college. The Cold War stimulated the first example of comprehensive Federal education legislation, when in 1958 Congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) in response to the Soviet launch of Sputnik.

To help ensure that highly trained individuals would be available to help America compete with the Soviet Union in scientific and technical fields, the NDEA included support for loans to college students, the improvement of science, mathematics, and foreign language instruction in elementary and secondary schools, graduate fellowships, foreign language and area studies, and vocational-technical training.

The anti-poverty and civil rights laws of the 1960s and 1970s brought about a dramatic emergence of the Department’s equal access mission. The passage of laws such as Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which prohibited discrimination based on race, sex, and disability, respectively made civil rights enforcement a fundamental and long-lasting focus of the Department of Education.

In 1965, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act launched a comprehensive set of programs, including the Title I program of Federal aid to disadvantaged children to address the problems of poor urban and rural areas. And in that same year, the Higher Education Act authorized assistance for postsecondary education, including financial aid programs for needy college students.

  • In 1980, Congress established the Department of Education as a Cabinet level agency.
  • Today, ED operates programs that touch on every area and level of education.
  • The Department’s elementary and secondary programs annually serve nearly 18,200 school districts and over 50 million students attending roughly 98,000 public schools and 32,000 private schools.

Department programs also provide grant, loan, and work-study assistance to more than 12 million postsecondary students. Despite the growth of the Federal role in education, the Department never strayed far from what would become its official mission: to promote student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access.

The Department carries out its mission in two major ways. First, the Secretary and the Department play a leadership role in the ongoing national dialogue over how to improve the results of our education system for all students. This involves such activities as raising national and community awareness of the education challenges confronting the Nation, disseminating the latest discoveries on what works in teaching and learning, and helping communities work out solutions to difficult educational issues.

Second, the Department pursues its twin goals of access and excellence through the administration of programs that cover every area of education and range from preschool education through postdoctoral research. For more information on the Department’s programs see the President’s FY 2022 Budget Request for Education,

One final note: while ED’s programs and responsibilities have grown substantially over the years, the Department itself has not. In fact, the Department has the smallest staff of the 15 Cabinet agencies, even though its discretionary budget alone is the third largest, behind only the Department of Defense and the Department of Health and Human Services.

In addition, the Department provides over $150 billion in new and consolidated loans annually. Last Modified: 06/15/2021
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How many union lists are there?

The Union List, also known as List-I, is a list of 97 numbered items (after 101st Constitutional amendment act 2016, entry 92 and 92c removed) given in Seventh Schedule in the Constitution of India on which Parliament has exclusive power to legislate.
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Who are included in state list?

Items on the list – The 59 items currently on the list are:

  1. Public order (but not including the use of any naval, military or air force or any other armed force of the Union or of any other force subject to the control of the Union or of any contingent or unit thereof in aid of the civil power).
  2. Police (including railway and village police) subject to the provisions of Entry 2-A of List-I,
  3. Officers and servants of the High Court ; procedure in rent and revenue courts; fees taken in all courts except the Supreme Court,
  4. Prisons, reformatories, Borstal institutions and other institutions of a like nature and persons detained therein; arrangements with other States for the use of prisons and other institutions.
  5. Local government, that is to say, the constitution and powers of municipal corporations, improvement trusts, district boards, mining settlement authorities and other local authorities for the purpose of local self-government or village administration.
  6. Public health and sanitation ; hospitals and dispensaries,
  7. Pilgrimages, other than pilgrimages to places outside India.
  8. Intoxicating liquors, that is to say, the production, manufacture, transport, purchase and sale of intoxicating liquors.
  9. Relief for the disabled and unemployable,
  10. Burials and burial grounds ; cremations and cremation grounds.
  11. ***
  12. Libraries, museums and other similar institutions controlled or financed by the State; ancient and historical monuments and records other than those declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance.
  13. Communications, that is to say, roads, bridges, ferries, and other means of communication not specified in List I ; municipal tramways, ropeways, inland waterways and traffic thereon subject to the provisions of List I and List III with regard to such water-ways ; vehicles other than mechanically propelled vehicles.
  14. Agriculture, including agricultural education and research; protection against pests and prevention of plant diseases.
  15. Preservation, protection and improvement of stock and prevention of animal diseases; veterinary training and practice.
  16. Ponds and the prevention of cattle trespass.
  17. Water, that is to say, water supplies, irrigation and canals, drainage and embankments, water storage and water power subject to the provisions of Entry 56 of List I.
  18. Land, that is to say, rights in or over land, land tenures including the relation of landlord and tenant, and the collection of rents; transfer and alienation of agricultural land ; land improvement and agricultural loans; colonization,
  19. ***
  20. ***
  21. Fisheries,
  22. Courts of wards ; subject to the provisions of Entry 34 of List I; encumbered and attached estates.
  23. Regulation of mines and mineral development subject to the provisions of List I with respect to regulation and development under the control of the Union.
  24. Industries subject to the provisions of Entries 7 and 52 of List I.
  25. Gas and gas-works,
  26. Trade and commerce within the State subject to the provisions of Entry 33 of List III.
  27. Production, supply and distribution of goods subject to the provisions of Entry 33 of List III.
  28. Markets and fairs,
  29. Weights and measures except establishment of standards.
  30. Money-lending and money-lenders ; relief of agricultural indebtedness.
  31. Inns and inn-keepers.
  32. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of corporations, other than those specified in List I, and universities ; unincorporated trading, literary, scientific, religious and other societies and associations; co-operative societies,
  33. Theatres and dramatic performances ; cinemas subject to the provisions of Entry 60 of List I; sports, entertainments and amusements,
  34. Betting and gambling,
  35. Works, lands and buildings vested in or in the possession of the State.
  36. Acquisition or requisitioning of property, except for the purposes of the Union, subject to the provisions of entry 42 of List III.
  37. Elections to the Legislature of the State subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament.
  38. Salaries and allowances of members of the legislature of the State, of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and, if there is a Legislative Council, of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman thereof.
  39. Powers, privileges and immunities of the Legislative Assembly and of the members and the committees thereof and, if there is a Legislative Council, of that Council and of the members and the committees thereof; enforcement of attendance of persons for giving evidence or producing documents before committees of the Legislature of the State.
  40. Salaries and allowances of Ministers for the State.
  41. State public services ; State Public Service Commission.
  42. State pensions, that is to say, pensions payable by the State or out of the Consolidated Fund of the State.
  43. Public debt of the State.
  44. Treasure trove,
  45. Land revenue, including the assessment and collection of revenue, the maintenance of land records, survey for revenue purposes and records of rights, and alienation of revenues.
  46. Taxes on agricultural income,
  47. Duties in respect of succession to agricultural land.
  48. Estate duty in respect of agricultural land.
  49. Taxes on lands and buildings.
  50. Taxes on mineral rights subject to any limitations imposed by Parliament by law relating to mineral development.
  51. Duties of excise on the following goods manufactured or produced in the State and countervailing duties at the same or lower rates on similar goods manufactured or produced elsewhere in India – (a) alcoholic liquors for human consumption (b) opium, Indian hemp and other narcotic drugs and narcotics but not including medicinal and toilet preparations containing alcohol or any substance included in sub-paragraph (b) of this entry.
  52. Taxes on the entry of goods into a local area for consumption, use or sale therein. (As per One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016
  53. Taxes on the consumption or sale of electricity,
  54. Taxes on the sale of petroleum crude, high speed diesel, motor spirit (commonly known as petrol), natural gas, aviation turbine fuel and alcoholic liquor for human consumption, but not including sale in the course of inter-State trade or commerce or sale in the course of international trade or commerce of such goods.(Subs.)
  55. Taxes on advertisements other than advertisements published in the newspapers (As per One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016
  56. Taxes on goods and passengers carried by road or on inland waterways,
  57. Taxes on vehicles, whether mechanically propelled or not, suitable for use on roads, including tram-cars subject to the provisions of Entry 35 of List III,
  58. Taxes on animals and boats.
  59. Tolls,
  60. Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.
  61. Capitation taxes,
  62. Taxes on entertainments and amusements to the extent levied and collected by a Panchayat or a Municipality or a Regional Council or a District Council.
  63. Rates of stamp duty in respect of documents other than those specified in the provisions of List I with regard to rates of stamp duty.
  64. Offences against laws with respect to any of the matters in this list.
  65. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except the Supreme Court, with respect to any of the matters in this list.
  66. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this list, but not including fees taken in any court.
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Which all included in state list?

State list means the important subjects on which the state government can pass the law. The important subjects include police, trade, commerce, agriculture, and local government.
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Which subject includes in state list?

State list of Seventh Schedule –

The state list is a list of 61 subjects that state legislatures enjoy jurisdiction over. In layman’s terms, the state legislature can pass laws and govern the said subjects. The state list specifies jurisdiction over subjects like, public order, prisons, public health, production, manufacture, transport, purchase and sale of intoxicating liquors, agricultural education and research, fisheries, state public services etc.

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