Who Wrote The Book On Education?
Emile, or On Education
|Title page of Rousseau’s Emile|
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- 0.1 Who wrote the first book on educational psychology?
- 1 What is the book Emile about?
- 2 Who wrote the first book of education and when?
- 3 What is the theme of Emile?
- 4 Who is the first sociologist to write about education?
- 5 Who wrote Emile or on education?
- 6 What is Rousseau’s most important book?
Who wrote the first book on educational psychology?
Alfred Binet. Alfred Binet published Mental Fatigue in 1898, in which he attempted to apply the experimental method to educational psychology. In this experimental method he advocated for two types of experiments, experiments done in the lab and experiments done in the classroom.
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When was Emile or on Education written?
In 1762 when his treatise Émile; ou, de l’education (Emile; or, On Education) was published and scandalized the pious Jansenists of the French Parlements even as The Social Contract scandalized the Calvinists of Geneva.
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What is the book Emile about?
Amazon.com: Emile: Or On Education: 9780465019311: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Allan Bloom: Libros The definitive translation of Rousseau’s Emile, a foundational text in the philosophy of education Widely hailed as the most accessible and authoritative edition of Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Emile, or On Education, this acclaimed translation by bestselling author Alan Bloom elevates what Rousseau considered to be the “best and most important” of his published writing into something more: a prescription, fresh and dazzling, for the education of autonomous, responsible—and truly democratic—human beings.
Initially published in 1763 at the height of the Enlightenment, Emile articulates Rousseau’s philosophy of education through the novelistic device of a fictional tutor’s encounters with his pupil from infancy to adolescence, illustrating how ideal citizens can be raised to survive in a corrupt society.
In addition to his translation of this classic of Enlightenment philosophy, Bloom offers an incisive introduction that connects the structure and themes of Rousseau’s book to timeless questions about teaching children which have persisted in the field of education, helping readers understand how to implement the philosopher’s broader insights into the possibilities—and limitations—of human nature.
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Who wrote the first book of education and when?
This book is one such reprint. Education, a First Book (English, Paperback, Thorndike Edward Lee)
Who is the father of psychology?
Secondary sources concerning Wundt –
Araujo, S.F., 2003, “A obra inicial de Wundt: Um capitulo esquecido nahistoriografia da psicologia”, Revista do Departamento de Psicologia da UFF, 15(2): 63–76. –––, 2012, “Why Did Wundt Abandon His Early Theory of the Unconscious?”, History of Psychology, 15(1): 33–49. –––, 2014a, “Bringing New Archival Sources to Wundt Scholarship: The case of Wundt’s assistantship with Helmholtz”, History of Psychology, 17(1): 50–9. –––, 2014b, “The emergence and development of Bekhterev’s psychoreflexology in relation to Wundt`s experimental psychology”, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 50(2): 189–210. –––, 2016, Wundt and the Philosophical Foundations of Psychology: A Reappraisal, Cham: Springer. –––, 2019, ” Völkerpsychologie as cultural psychology: The place of culture in Wundt’s psychological program”, in Jovanović, et al.: 75–84. –––, 2021, “A useful and reliable guide to Wundt’s entire work”, History of Psychology, 24(2): 188–9. Ash, M.G., 1980, “Academic politics in the history of science: experimental psychology in Germany, 1879–1941”, Central European History, 13(3): 255–86. Binder, N., 2016, Subjekte im Experiment: Zu Wilhelm Wundts Programm einer objektiven Psychologie, Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Blumenthal, A.L., 1975, “A Reappraisal of Wilhelm Wundt”, American Psychologist, 30(11): 1081–8. doi:10.1037/0003–066X.30.11.1081 –––, 1977, “Wilhelm Wundt and Early American Psychology: A Clash of Two Cultures”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 291: 13–20. doi:10.1111/j.1749–6632.1977.tb53055.x –––, 1979, “The Founding Father We Never Knew”, Contemporary Psychology, 24(7): 547–550. doi:10.1037/018836 Boring, E.G., 1950, A History of Experimental Psychology, 2 nd ed., New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. –––, 1965, “On the Subjectivity of Important Historical Dates: Leipzig 1879”, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 1(1): 5–9. Bringmann, W.G., W.D.G. Balance, and R.B. Evans, 1975, “Wilhelm Wundt 1832–1920: A brief biographical sketch”, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 11(3): 287–97. Bringmann, W.G., G. Bringmann, and D. Cottrell, 1976, “Helmholtz und Wundt an der Heidelberger Universität 1858–1971”, Heidelberger Jahrbücher, 20: 79–88. Bringmann, W.G., N.J. Bringmann, and W.D.G. Balance, 1980, “Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt 1832–1874: The Formative Years”, in Bringmann and Tweney 1980: 13–32. Bringmann, W.G. and R.D. Tweney (ed.), 1980, Wundt Studies: A Centennial Collection, Toronto: C.J. Hogrefe. Brock, A., 1993, “Something Old, Something New—The ‘Reappraisal’ of Wundt in Textbooks”, Theory and Psychology, 3(2): 235–42. doi:10.1177/0959354393032008 Calvo, P., and J. Symons (eds.), 2020, The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology (2nd ed.), New York: Routledge. Danziger, K., 1979, “The Positivist Repudiation of Wundt”, Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences, 15(3): 205–30. doi:10.1002/1520–6696(197907)15:3 3.0.CO;2-P –––, 1983, “Origins and Basic Principles of Wundt’s Völkerpsychologie “, British Journal of Social Psychology, 22: 303–13. doi:10.1111/j.2044–8309.1983.tb00597.x –––, 1990, Constructing the Subject: Historical Origins of Psychological Research, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. De Kock, L., 2018, “On Making Sense: An exploration of Wundt’s apperceptionist account of meaningful speech”, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 54(4): 272–92. Diamond, Solomon, 1980, “Wundt before Leipzig”, in Rieber 1980: 3–70. Eisler, R., 1902, W. Wundts Philosophie und Psychologie, Leipzig: Barth. Emmans, D. and A. Laihinen (eds.), 2015, Comparative Neuropsychology and Brain Imaging: Festschrift in Honour of Prof. Dr. Ulrike Halsband, Vienna: LIT Verlag. Estes, W.K., 1979, “Experimental Psychology: An Overview”, in Hearst 1979a: 623–67. Fahrenberg, J., 2012, “Wilhelm Wundts Wissenschaftstheorie: Ein Rekonstruktionsversuch”, Psychologische Rundschau, 63(4): 228–38. –––, 2013, “Zur Kategorienlehre der Psychologie. Komplementaritätsprinzip. Perspektiven und Perspektiven-Wechsel”, Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11780/689 –––, 2015a, “Wilhelm Wundts Neuropsychologie”, in Emmans and Laihinen, 2015: 348–74. –––, 2015b, “Theoretische Psychologie—Eine Systematik der Kontroversen”, Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11780/904 –––, 2017, “The Influence of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz on the Psychology, Philosophy, and Ethics of Wilhelm Wundt”, Philosophie der Psychologie, 26: 1–53 (see also Fahrenberg 2017, Other Internet Resources). –––, 2018, Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920). Gesamtwerk: Einführung, Zitate, Kommentare, Rezeption, Rekonstruktionsversuche, Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers. –––, 2020, Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920): Introduction, Quotations, Reception, Commentaries, Attempts at Reconstruction (abridged English translation of Fahrenberg, 2018), Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers. –––, 2022, “Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920). Eine Centenarbetrachtung”. doi:10.23668/psycharchives.5580 Farber, M., 1943, The Foundation of Phenomenology, Albany: State University of New York Press. –––, 1966, The Aims of Phenomenology, New York: Harper Fancher, R., and Rutherford, A., 2017, Pioneers of Psychology, 5th edition, New York: Norton. Farr, R.M., 1983, “Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) and the Origins of Psychology as an Experimental and Social Science”, British Journal of Social Psychology, 22(4): 289–301. doi:10.1111/j.2044–8309.1983.tb00596.x –––, 1996, The Roots of Modern Social Psychology, Oxford: Blackwell. Gödde, G. and M.B. Buchholz, 2012, Der Besen, mit dem die Hexe fliegt: Wissenschaft und Therapeutik des Unbewussten, Giessen: Psychosozial-Verlag. Gonzáles-Álvarez, J., 2014, El laboratorio de Wundt: Nacimiento de la ciencia psicológica, Castelló de la Plana: Universitat Jaume I. Greenwood, J., 2003, “Wundt, Völkerpsychologie, and Experimental Social Psychology”, History of Psychology, 6(1): 70–88. Hall, G.S., 1912, Founders of Modern Psychology, New York, London: Appleton. Hatfield, G., 1997, “Wundt and Psychology as Science: Disciplinary Transformations”, Perspectives on Science, 5(3): 349–82. –––, 2020, “Wundt and ‘higher cognition’: Elements, association, apperception, and experiment”, HOPOS: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science ; doi: 10.1086/707522. Hearst, E., 1979a, The First Century of Experimental Psychology, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. –––, 1979b, “One Hundred Years: Themes and Perspectives”, in Hearst 1979a: 1–37. Heidegger, M., 1913, “Die Lehre vom Urteil im Psychologismus: Ein kritisch-positiver Beitrag zur Logik”, vol.1 of the Gesamtausgabe, Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann. Höffding, H., 1905, Moderne Philosophen, Leipzig: Reisland. Humphrey, G., 1968, “Wilhelm Wundt: The Great Master”, in Wolman 1968: 275–97. Husserl, E., 1897, “Bericht über deutsche Schriften zur Logik aus dem Jahre 1894”, Archiv für systematische Philosophie, 3: 216–44. –––, 1901, Logische Untersuchungen, Halle: Niemeyer. Jovanović, G., L. Allolio-Näcke, C. Ratner (eds.), The Challenges of Cultural Psychology: Historical Legacies and Future Responsibilities, London: Routledge. Jüttemann, G. (ed.), 2006, Wilhelm Wundts anderes Erbe, Göttingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht. –––, 2013, Die Entwicklung der Psyche in der Geschichte der Menschheit, Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers. Kim, A., 2009, “Early Experimental Psychology”, in Calvo and Symons, 2009: 41–58. König, E., 1901, W. Wundt, seine Philosophie und Psychologie, Stuttgart: Fr. Frommanns Verlag. Krauss, C.R., 2019, Wundt, Avenarius, and scientific psychology: A debate at the turn of the twentieth century, Cham: Palgrave. Kurz, E., 1996, “Marginalizing Discovery: Karl Popper’s Intellectual Roots in Psychology”, Creative Research Journal, 1: 173–88. Kusch, M., 1995, Psychologism: A case study in the sociology of philosophical knowledge, London & New York: Routledge. See especially pages 125–37. –––, 1999, Psychological Knowledge, New York: Routledge. Lamberti, G., 1995, Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (1832–1920): Leben, Werk und Persönlichkeit in Bildern und Texten, Bonn: Deutscher Psychologen Verlag. Leahey, T.H., 2018, A History of Psychology: From Antiquity to Modernity, 8th edition, New York: Routledge. Littman, R.A., 1979, “Social and Intellectual Origins of Experimental Psychology”, in Hearst 1979a: 39–86. Lo Dico, G., 2016, Philosophical and Empirical Approaches to Psychology, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Mead, G.H., 1904, “The Relations of Psychology and Philology”, Psychological Bulletin, 1(11): 375–91. doi:10.1037/h0073848 –––, 1906, “The Imagination in Wundt’s Treatment of Myth and Religion”, Psychological Bulletin, 3(12): 393–9. doi:10.1037/h0075224 –––, 1909, “Social Psychology as Counterpart to Physiological Psychology”, Psychological Bulletin, 6(12): 401–8. doi:10.1037/h0072858 –––, 1919, “Review: A Translation of Wundt’s Folk Psychology “, American Journal of Theology, 23(4): 533–36. Meischner-Metge, A., 2006, “Die Methode der Forschung”, in Jüttemann 2006:131–43. Mischel, T., 1970, “Wundt and the conceptual foundations of psychology”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 31(1): 1–26. Natorp, P., 1910, Die logischen Grundlagen der exakten Wissenschaften, Leipzig: Teubner. –––, 1912, Allgemeine Psychologie nach kritischer Methode, Tübingen: Mohr (Siebeck). Nerlich, B. and D.D. Clarke, 1998, “The Linguistic Repudiation of Wundt”, History of Psychology, 1(3): 179–204. Nicolas, S., 2003, La psychologie de W. Wundt, Paris: L’Harmattan. Passkönig, O., 1912, Die Psychologie Wilhelm Wundts. Zusammenfassende Darstellung der Individual-, Tier- und Völkerpsychologie, Leipzig: Siegismund & Volkening. Perry, R.B., 1935, The Thought and Character of William James (Volume 2), Boston: Little, Brown. Ribot, T., 1886, German Psychology of To-Day: the Empirical School, J.M. Baldwin (trans.), New York: Scribner’s. Rieber, R.W. (ed.), 1980, Wilhelm Wundt and the Making of a Scientific Psychology, New York: Plenum. Rieber, R.W. and D.K. Robinson, 2001, Wilhelm Wundt in History: The Making of a Scientific Psychology, Dordrecht: Kluwer/Plenum. Ringer, F.K., 1969, The Decline of the German Mandarins: The German Academic Community, 1890–1933, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Schlotte, F., 1955/56. “Beiträge zum Lebensbild Wilhelm Wundts aus seinem Briefwechsel”, Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Karl-Marx-Universität, 5: 333–49. Sluga, H., 1993, Heidegger’s Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Thompson, R.F. and D.N. Robinson, 1979, “Physiological Psychology”, in Hearst 1979a: 407–54. Tinker, M.A., 1932, “Wundt’s doctorate students and their theses: 1875–1920”, American Journal of Psychology, 44(4): 630–7. doi:10.2307/1414529 Titchener, E.B., 1921a, “Brentano and Wundt: empirical and experimental psychology”, American Journal of Psychology, 32(1): 108–20. doi:10.2307/1413478 –––, 1921b, “Wilhelm Wundt”, American Journal of Psychology, 32(2): 161–78. doi:10.2307/1413739 Van Rappard, J.F.H., 1979, Psychology as Self-Knowledge: The Development of the Concept of the Mind in German Rationalistic Psychology and its Relevance Today, L. Faili (trans.), Assen, Netherlands: Van Gorcum. Wellek, A., 1967, “Wundt, Wilhelm”, entry in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, T. Byck (trans.), New York: The Macmillan Company and The Free Press. Wong, W.C., 2009, “Retracing the Footsteps of Wilhelm Wundt: Explorations in the Disciplinary Frontiers of Psychology and in Völkerpsychologie “, History of Psychology, 12(4): 229–65. Wundt, E., 1927, Wilhelm Wundts Werke. Ein Verzeichnis seiner sämtlichen Schriften, München: C.H. Beck. Wundt’s students, 1921, “In memory of Wilhelm Wundt by his American students”, Psychological Review, 28(3): 153–88. Reprinted in Boring 1950: 344. Some very vivid and anecdotal reminiscences of Wundt by seventeen of his American students.
Who called father of psychology?
|Wilhelm Wundt in 1902|
|Born||16 August 1832 Neckarau near Mannheim, Grand Duchy of Baden, German Confederation|
|Died||31 August 1920 (aged 88) Großbothen, Saxony, Germany|
|Education||University of Heidelberg ( MD, 1856)|
|Known for||Experimental psychology Cultural psychology Structuralism Apperception|
|Fields||Experimental psychology, Cultural psychology, philosophy, physiology|
|Institutions||University of Leipzig|
|Thesis||Untersuchungen über das Verhalten der Nerven in entzündeten und degenerierten Organen (Research of the Behaviour of Nerves in Inflamed and Degenerated Organs) (1856)|
|Doctoral advisor||Karl Ewald Hasse|
|Other academic advisors||Hermann von Helmholtz Johannes Peter Müller|
|Doctoral students||James McKeen Cattell, G. Stanley Hall, Oswald Külpe, Hugo Münsterberg, Ljubomir Nedić, Walter Dill Scott, George M. Stratton, Edward B. Titchener, Lightner Witmer|
|Influences||Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Immanuel Kant, Gustav Theodor Fechner, Johann Friedrich Herbart|
|Influenced||James Mark Baldwin, Emil Kraepelin, Sigmund Freud, Moritz Schlick|
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (; German: ; 16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the fathers of modern psychology, Wundt, who distinguished psychology as a science from philosophy and biology, was the first person ever to call himself a psychologist,
- He is widely regarded as the “father of experimental psychology “.
- In 1879, at the University of Leipzig, Wundt founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research.
- This marked psychology as an independent field of study.
- By creating this laboratory he was able to establish psychology as a separate science from other disciplines.
He also established the first academic journal for psychological research, Philosophische Studien (from 1883 to 1903) (followed by another: Psychologische Studien, from 1905 to 1917), to publish the institute’s research. A survey published in American Psychologist in 1991 ranked Wundt’s reputation as first for “all-time eminence” based on ratings provided by 29 American historians of psychology.
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What is the theme of Emile?
Educating the Child’s Mind as It Grows – Where most French tutors of Rousseau’s time treat children as miniature adults with grown-up minds that simply need scholarly information poured into them, Rousseau treats a child as an individual with an evolving mind whose need for knowledge changes as it grows.
More than anything, children need to learn from nature, Rousseau suggests that educators not curtail this natural learning: “do not check these movements which teach him invaluable lessons” (16). What children require, then, declares Rousseau, is not the tedium of arcane books but the adventure of the great outdoors.
Young children have no idea what adults are talking about when they try to inculcate moral reasoning into them. They barely understand death, much less its significance in the life of Jesus; teaching them church philosophy will bewilder them. Early on, Rousseau suggests educators “Teach him to live rather than to avoid death” (7).
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Who is the first sociologist to write about education?
Émile Durkheim – French sociologist Émile Durkheim (1858–1917) is best known for his theory of moral regulation, He was also the first sociologist of education. Durkheim was interested in explaining why the rise of individualism in society did not result in widespread social breakdown.
Durkheim wrote during a time when individualism was replacing the authority of the Catholic church in France and the collectivist social bond built on religious homogeneity. Societies no longer had singular dominant religions that bonded them together, or even dominant ethnicities. How was society being held together? Durkheim’s answer was that social life was possible because of the trust that existed among members of society.
For society to function, there must exist an unwritten moral code that people follow. This moral framework is at the core of Durkheim’s th e ory of society, Because of this belief in the importance of a shared moral code, Durkheim considered it the role of education in society to instill society’s morals in the minds (and actions) of young people.
His writings on the subject stress this point very much, as reflected in such titles as Moral Education (1925).1 He argued that it is only through education that a given society can forge a commitment to an underlying set of common beliefs and values, as well as create a strong sense of community or nationhood.
This moral education prepares us to be productive members of society by socializing and integrating us, whereby we not only understand but also value common morals. We become autonomous adults but we are guided in our acts by the moral codes that have become firmly ingrained in our beings.
Durkheim’s belief that society is held together by a common set of values and morals is at the heart of structural functionalism because it emphasizes how the various parts of a social system work together. Society functions because shared norms and morals create a sense of trust that leads to general social cohesion.
Why the commandments? – Who Wrote the Book of Education?
Schools are integral to this process because they instill the correct moral codes into children so that they can develop into productive adults that contribute to society.
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Who wrote Emile or on education?
Émile, or On Education is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who considered it to be the ‘best and most important of all my writings.’ Due to a section of the book entitled ‘Profession of Faith of the Savoyard Vicar,’ émile was banned in Paris and Geneva and
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What is Rousseau’s most important book?
3. L’Emile, 1762. – This was the book Rousseau considered the most important of his writings. Received with hostility at its publication in 1762 because of its views on religion, it was publicly burned. However, it inspired the educational system built by the French Revolution and is still considered a reference for today’s teachers.
For instance, the Japanese teachers in nursery school have to read it in their curriculum. The book is divided into different parts that correspond to the stages of the development of the child from his birth to adulthood. A fictional boy, Emile, is taken as an example. The book contained several important ideas of Rousseau.
He considered that men were born good and that they were corrupted later by society. The nannies, the preceptors have to help the child to develop the innate faculties Nature has given to him. The child had to observe and deduce. The philosophy of education was the complete opposite of the dominant conception.
- At this time the child was seen as a sort of savage being and a sinner from the religious point of view.
- You had to educate him through the imposition of culture and religious conceptions that he had to learn by heart.
- The conception of Rousseau and the conception he opposed set the terms of a debate that is still going on today about education in many countries.
Theories on education have evolved and became more subtle but they are still starting from either the imposition of an outside knowledge/norm or the development of preexisting faculties. What led to the rejection of the book was not so much Rousseau’s views on education but his critics on religion.
- A section of the book is called “the Profession of Faith of the Savoyard Vicar” where Rousseau imagines the speech of a priest to develop his own ideas.
- Rousseau considered that evil was coming from selfishness and the corrupted society.
- To avoid it, one has to turn to introspection and listen his heart to find the source of the true morale.
The dogmatism imposed from outside by the Church could not replace this, neither could the Reason. By stating this, Rousseau received the condemnation of both the Church and the others Enlightenment philosophers who based their moral system on Reason.
In 1794, Robespierre, a follower of Rousseau and political leader during the radical part of the Revolution, tried to impose the cult of the Supreme Being, inspired by these theories. Robespierre by an unknown painter. Sourced from Wikipedia The great enemy of Rousseau, Voltaire, discredited his theories by a personal attack.
He reminded everyone that Rousseau abandoned his own children and thus, had no legitimacy to express his views on the subject. In the twentieth century, he was criticized for his backwards views on the role of women. In l’Emile, Rousseau wrote: “To please men, to be useful to them, to make them love and honor them, to raise them when they are young, to care for them when they are adults, to advise them, to console them, to make their life pleasant and sweet, these are the duties of women in all times, and what we must teach them from childhood”.
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