Who Plays A Vital Role In Education System?


Who Plays A Vital Role In Education System
Education plays a vital role 15 Oct 2020 | 04:14am IST Who Plays A Vital Role In Education System Jitendra G. Kothari Education is a foundation stone for cultural, and sentimental development of a child. It is not limited only up to gaining literacy, but is a strong medium of providing opportunities for the thorough and all round mental development of a person.

Education is a powerful medium of learning process, which opens up the horizons of vast scope for the bright future. Realising the importance of education, many rich countries in the world, therefore, spend 6% of their GDP on education which is supposed to be an ideal spend. India is currently spending 4 % of its GDP on education, the target is 6% to spend in the years to come.

But sadly, the quality of our education is not up to the mark. Poor quality of teachers reflects the present dismal standard of education. Certainly, it requires improvements, in the hiring of teachers who can be motivational and their firm commitment to teach with modern technology, and to don the role of a mentoring, in due course, for the holistic development of a child.

Higher education needs to be the industry-friendly so that our graduates can easily be absorbed into an organization. Covid-19 pandemic has wrought havoc all over the world, including India, the severe recession and the economic disaster since the World War II, shredding per capita incomes and jostling millions into poverty.

The more the educated people, the more the chances of the nation progressively getting prosperous, and gradually eradicating poverty. The teacher plays a pivotal role in moulding the future of students. Career of the student hinges on the quality of the education he/she imbibes from the teacher.

Hence, selecting a teacher, a strict and no-nepotism mechanism is needed to ensure the hiring of committed teachers who have the inclination and proclivity to handle the kids of different mentality, understand their psychology and accordingly teach them. On account of series of lockdown in various countries in the world, including India, 150 crore children stopped going to schools, out of this, 70 crore belong to India and Bangladesh.

There are 33 crore school-going children in India, out of which only 10.3% have online facility for studies. Economic Survey of Maharashtra data planked in 2018, divulges there were 22,477 private unaided schools in the State or 21.1% are private unaided schools.

There was 111% surge in the private unaided schools between the academic years 2013 -14 and 2017-18. Considering the way the municipal schools are, gradually, getting emptying out, another 130,000 more private schools are needed to meet the demands of parents. Of the total population in the age group of 18-23, which is around 150 million, only 26.3% (37 million) are enrolled in the education system (General Enrolment Ratio).

China,which had the same GER of India in the 1990s, has brought it up to 48%, the United States is at 88% and the United Kingdom is at 60%. The Digital India campaign initiated by the government has resulted in the digital revolution; currently India, has 504 million active Internet users.
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How education plays a vital role?

Reducing crime – The majority of offenders who end up in prison are young people from poor backgrounds. One of the reasons for that is the lack of perspective that pushes them into a life of crime. Education gives everyone a chance to acquire new knowledge and learn soft skills that will help them improve their life.
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Who is most responsible for students education?

The Buck Stops Here – Students are responsible for their own learning. Parents are responsible for their children’s learning. But ultimately, all learning begins with the teacher. It’s up to us to make it happen.
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What are role players in education?

DOI: 10.15700/SAJE.V35N3A1086 The influence of role-players on the character-development and character-building of South African college students Fazel Ebrihiam Freeks Unit for Reformed Theology and Development of South African Society, Faculty of Theology, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.

[email protected] ABSTRACT The present world is in a moral crisis and it seems as though educational institutions experience both challenges and enormous behavioural problems. Statistics prove that there is a drastic decline in morals, values, standards, ethics, character and behaviour and schools, where colleges and even universities seem to indulge in crisis after crisis.

It is perceived that behavioural problems such as substance and drug abuse, violence, theft, vandalism, bullying, aggression, immorality, examination fraud, amongst others, are increasing among students. The goal of this article is to determine how college students’ lives are influenced by involved role-players in character-development and in character-building.

  1. Value and character education provides the building blocks for the inherent preservation of a healthy society.
  2. It is the art of life that keeps the environment friendly, free and safe, allowing earth’s inhabitants to work, live and play together in peace.
  3. The influence of relevant role-players and institutions with regard to values and character-developmentare likely to be able to ensure the provision of a successful life and future for South African college students.

The conclusions arrived at in this research indicate parents, lecturers and other specific individuals to be important role-players when it comes to character-development and character-building. Keywords : character-building; character-development; college students; influence; institutions; involved role-players; South African Introduction The values debate has a long history, which seems to arise whenever educationists and decision-makers struggle with dilemmas associated with human rights violations, moral decay in society, and a lack of discipline in schools (Nieuwenhuis, Beckmann & Prinsloo, 2007; Van der Merwe, 2011; Van der Walt, JL 2010).

Common questions that underscore the complexity of this longstanding debate still arise within the field, namely: what values, whose values, which values, and who determines these values? (Notman, 2012). These perennial questions continue to confront us (cf. Notman, 2012; Rens, 2005; Tyree, Vance & Mcjunkin, 1997).

People differ continuously regarding which values are essential for them, and values education and character education should, therefore, be emphasised. Programmes were even developed worldwide for schools (also colleges), because of the concern of peoples’ values (Lickona, 1991; Rens, 2005).

Khanam’s (2008) studies pointed out years ago that education is a moral enterprise, where the character-building of students is the pivotal goal of education all over the world. Character education is, however, as popular as it is controversial (Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006). Moral education has an uneven history, despite efforts aimed at its improvement (Carr, 2010).

Irrespective of this uneven history and the above-mentioned questions about whose and which values ought to guide it, human ethics and values are still a way of revealing the inner or genuine life of a person (cf. Khanam, 2008). Education with regards to values is the most important element of moral education (Sayin, 2014).

Character-building and learning of ethical and moral values have been regarded as the first and foremost goal of education, and many educationists have emphasised it (Khanam, 2008). The idea of education involving values and character has elicited a great deal of interest in recent years and countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States of America (USA), New Zealand, the Netherlands and Australia have held conferences on values education in the shape of character-building programmes with well-defined policies (Arthur, 2011).

Values and education have been inseparable since ancient times, because the concept education has been defined to be much more than the mere transferring of knowledge (Rens, 2005). However, most of the countries have therefore decided to rather implement character-building programmes that promote so-called universal values (De Waal, Mawdsley & Cumming, 2010).

  • Certain researchers, authors and scientists (Berkowitz, 2011; Notman, 2012; Rens, 2005) have expressed the opinion that the youth of today do not have the ability to make good value judgments, and that they ought therefore to receive instructions and mentorship in these areas.
  • However, values are unique to mankind, and it is only human beings that partake in meaning ascribed to objects, the self, others, the Creator and the world, as well as ideas, feelings and thoughts.

Therefore mankind is essentially a creature of values (Nieuwenhuis et al., 2007; Tirri, 2011; Van der Walt, JL 2010). Defining Key Terms Values and values education The English language word ‘value’ comes from the Latin word valere and shares this root with the French word valior, meaning “that which is truly valuable, worthy to be striven after, that makes life worth living” (De Klerk, 2004; Jenney, 2010).

Values and education have been inseparable since ancient times, and are inseparably bound to one another, and the school (or college) as an educational institution has the task of providing values education (Rens, 2005). Thus, education cannot be seen separately from values. Character The definition of character has been the focus of philosophical discourses for milennia, where one question of ethics has been: who is the good person? (Lepholletse, 2008).

This kind of question draws the attention to the ethics of being, to those elements in the moral life that reside within a person (Woodbridge, 1990). That is why the term character is derived from a Greek word that means to mark, for example, in the case of an engraving (cf.

Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006), and it is described as the moral and mental qualities distinctive to the individual (Pearsall, 1998). Character development Defining character seems to be no straightforward matter, however, character-development is nonetheless considered a traditional goal of formal education.

Character development cannot be accomplished without developing students’ capacity to think critically and thoughtfully (Helterbran & Strahler, 2013). Character-building Character-building involves the development of habits and practices that are mostly needed to “live” and function well in a world of difference and it promotes the development of student character (Berkowitz, 2011; Helterbran & Strahler, 2013).

  1. Character-building and character education have the same meaning (cf.
  2. Freeks, 2007), that is, make a student a better member of society by instilling values, and by way of mentoring (Lickona, 1996; Rens, 2005).
  3. Role-players The relevant role-players in character-development and character-building (education) with regard to students include parents, brothers, sisters, lecturers, teachers, friends, pastors, institutions and God (Freeks, 2007).

Institutions Institutions can include diverse areas of social activity, from the family, to basic aspects of political life, and are one of the central concerns of the functionalist tradition (Calhoun, 2002). The influence of institutions in terms of character-development and character-building with students is derived from the home, the church, primary school, high school and college (cf.

Freeks, 2007). College students College students are those registered and enrolled persons, who study and participate at the different colleges in South Africa, in terms of fields of study and programmes, for example Business Studies and Engineering Studies (Freeks, 2007). Literature Survey Theories about values, education and character education as well as programmes already developed in countries abroad have been studied by the researcher (cf.

Freeks, 2007). Values education and character education are forms of education that aim to surface the humanitarian and universal values and human behaviour (Sayin, 2014). The researcher is therefore in line with Lapsley and Narvaez (2006), who state that character education must be compatible with our best insights about psychological functioning, teaching and learning.

Character education has been cited by many scholars as an efficient and effective tool for teaching and learning, but academic achievement means nothing if character education is not integrated with it (Lickona, 1991). Why study social issues in these studies? First of all it is to raise students’ awareness of main issues in their society; secondly to provide students with a means to analyse and evaluate problems in their lives; thirdly to assist students to understand and appreciate the world around them, and fourthly to create in students a deep and abiding passion for how they live their lives (Totten, 1992).

Students expect teachers (lecturers and other relevant role-players) to engage in character development and values education, because they believe that the teacher (lecturer and other relevant role-players) can make a difference to their personal moral development.

  1. Students see them as their mentors and role models (Arthur, 2011).
  2. The moral formation of children is one important goal of socialisation (Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006).
  3. It is therefore important that moral formation is studied, because of its implication on society and relevance to social change (cf.
  4. Galloway, 2007).

The results already achieved with such programmes have been investigated. The erstwhile model of Hattingh (1991), with her classification of values, is called the twenty life values, as opposed to those of Joubert (1986), who catalogue seven values, which the author characterised as the values guiding mankind.

According to Hattingh (1991), education is a comprehensive process, designed to embrace and draw together all twenty life values. Hattingh (1991) also argues that the values of man are the point of departure for character-development and character-building. Heenan (2009) disagrees, writing of the eight cornerstone values, which include two objectives, namely to build character, and to develop the ability to distinguish between what is right and what is wrong, what is good and what is bad, and what is appropriate and inappropriate.

In his early writings on values and education, Heenan (2009) wrote that education had two main important aims: firstly, to help students to master the skills of literacy and numeral arts; and secondly, to build good character. Consequently, it is not surprising that Heenan (2009:3) made the following statement some years ago: “while we New Zealanders can be justly proud of many of our achievements, the reality is that over recent decades, we have not been teaching and replenishing those attributes of character that are essential for social cohesion, the maintenance of a civil society and the preservation of a liberal democracy.” Notably, with regards to New Zealand’s curriculum, irrespective of the lack of research into the nature and effect of values, values are one of the three pillars of the reformed New Zealand Curriculum.

Values play a key role at the level of school governance as well as the school’s educational philosophy and foundation for the school charter (Notman, 2012). Furthermore, there is an intensive report on how New Zealand’s changing social values are impacting student behaviour, and how schools can meet the new challenges contributing toward the character-building of students (Galloway, 2007).

Lickona and Davidson (2005) note character strengths as the combination of eight promising practices. In this programme, the focus is on ethical behaviour, and it is thought that character education will promote ethical behaviour among students, such as respect and obedience.

There were numerous attempts in the past to define character more precisely. One’s character is an indelible mark, because it points to something deeply rooted in the personality, which integrates behaviour, attitudes and values (Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006). However, character matters immensely for Lickona (2013) and in one of his latest writings and contributions, he aimed to help children develop good judgment, integrity and essential virtues, and he offered suggestions in the form of 12 points of gratitude towards parents for nurturing gratefulness in children.

Values, morals and education are often explained by means of the theory of Kohlberg’s (1978) stages model, one of the significant theories on moral reasoning in history (cf. Rens, 2005). Kohlberg (1978) believes that moral development occurs through social interaction, and he demonstrates that people progress in their moral reasoning through a series of stages.

In short, his six stages of moral development are: (a) obedience and punishment orientation; (b) individualism and exchange orientation; (c) interpersonal relationships orientation; (d) law and order orientation; (e) social contract orientation; and (f) universal principles orientation (Ellison, 2011; cf.

also Rens, 2005). Criticism against Kohlberg’s (1978) theory is the fact that he presents a hierarchical description of moral reasoning, instead of a model for moral education and development. Even Lickona (1991) argues the focus to be on reasoning skills, rather than moral content.

  1. The most important criticism of Rens (2005) against Kohlberg’s moral theory comes from a Christian perspective.
  2. Ohlberg (1978) argues that the educator should be a neutral facilitator, who assists learners to reflect on moral dilemmas in an ever-developing way.
  3. According to Rens (2005), a Christian educator (or relevant role-player) cannot educate neutrally, because the learner is a child of God who, because of the fall of man, leans towards wrong-doing.

The researcher, in agreement with Rens (2005), criticises the aspect of neutrality because relevant role-players, as indicated by Kohlberg, have to play an involved and interactive role in the character-development and character-building of students.

Studies in our own country that have dealt with similar aspects of values, character, education, character education and values education were also studied. These include, among others, Abdool (2005), dealing with the value-orientation of learners in secondary schools. His didactic guidelines could be formulated for values education in South African schools.

Abdool (2005) also found that Heenan’s (2009) cornerstone values could quite easily be adapted for the South African context. Challens (2008) deals with guidelines to implement a character-education programme in secondary schools. In his studies, Challens (2008) mentions that character education is of cardinal importance for instruction and education, because it offers a possible solution where it guides learners to realise the difference between right and wrong, which is in correlation with Heenan’s (2009) eight cornerstone values; as well as to say “no” to aspects such as drugs, alcohol, sex, gangs and other social problems, as mentioned in the problem statement.

Rens (2005) proposes guidelines for value education in South African schools, because of the worldwide cry from societies to bring a stop to the decline in values. Rens (2005) indicates that character-development and character-building programmes should be the ideal solution to stop the decline in values.

The focus should be on character-building programmes that concentrate mainly on values such as honesty and respect. These specific arguments are in consonance with the title of this article. Llale (2003) proposes a model for teaching values to secondary school learners and teachers regarding traffic safety education.

Although Llale (2003) worked on the traffic safety education, her study indicates that values play a positive role in decisions one has to make for one’s own life. Lepholletse (2008) discussed teacher’s influence on the value-orientation of learners in secondary schools. To equip adolescent learners with sufficient knowledge, appropriate skills and positive values for them to achieve good involvement, especially in their different societies, Lep-holletse (2008) argues that you have to focus on value and character.

There is, however, a value dilemma in South Africa and in the rest of the world, which is obvious in the prioritising of values by certain groups and different people. Freeks (2007) deals with a character-building programme for further education and training at colleges.

  1. His study indicates that character education is one of the building blocks for the preservation of a healthy society, and could probably help, in the values it promotes, to remove evil from society and its institutions.
  2. Therefore, character education must be taught in our educational institutions, where we are responsible to teach the youth and young adults to be good citizens (Ellison, 2011).

Problem Statement The main aim of the study is to determine how college students’ lives are influenced by involved role-players in character-development and character-building. The most important problems facing young people across the world today include especially violence, gang-rape, parties where drugs and promiscuous sex are the order of the day, social problems and a lack of respect for each other and for the world around them (Engelbrecht, 2001; Georgiades, Boyle & Fife, 2013; Staff Reporter, 2014; Van der Merwe, 2011).

  • Hence, it is important to determine how the lives of students might be influenced by these problems.
  • On the aspect of discipline, Ellison (2011) raised a critical point noting that researchers have found a disproportionate minority representation among students on the receiving end of corrective disciplinary practices.

For more than 20 years, school discipline has been characterised as being a major concern of the general public, especially in America (Ellison, 2011). Although children go through the same stages of development, Ellison (2011) also indicated that children’s development may stop as determined by their moral environment.

It is mainly because of these destructive social problems that parents, sociologists, political scientists and worried citizens have begun to join forces in many countries to try to reverse a decay in values (Lovat, Clement, Dally & Toomey, 2011; Nieuwenhuis et al., 2007). Scientists have been interested in understanding moral behaviour for decades (Khanam, 2008).

In America, it is fundamental to raise children of strong moral character, especially as this applies to character-development and character-building (cf. Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006). In New Zealand, parents are unable to provide a home environment where children are safe, nurtured and morally guided.

  1. Instead, students from troubled and dysfunctional homes are bringing practised patterns of anti-social behaviour into the classrooms and the playground (Galloway, 2007).
  2. The family has to play an appreciably larger role in character education, and should act as moral mentors in order to have an influence on character-development and character-building.

The more children grow up in a family with strong values, the less their involvement will be in violence and dangerous behaviour, for example bullying (Ayeni-biowo & Akinbode, 2011; Cunniff & Mostert, 2012; De Wet, C 2014; De Wet, NC 2010). The reason why most of these learners suffer at institutions such as schools, colleges and universities, is because of problems such as lying, cheating, bullying, and others mentioned before.

  1. These problems have prompted institutions to consider the teaching of good character (Helterbran & Strahler, 2013).
  2. However, there are still gaps in educational knowledge about values development, especially in New Zealand schools, when it comes to the effect on student learning (Notman, 2012).
  3. The reason for the emphasis on New Zealand and the comparison between the two countries is that values-education and character-building and development are a core part of New Zealand’s curriculum in recent years, which is not the case in South Africa.

On the other hand, the situation in New Zealand is, in some ways, like the situation in South Africa i.e. an increasing number of troubled and dysfunctional homes, anti-social behavior in classrooms and playgrounds, continual disobedience and violence among students, etc.

  1. Is the order of the day.
  2. Studies done in New Zealand are relevant to South Africa, and research in character-development and character-building has been particularly insightful and worth reviewing here.
  3. Teaching and developing good character in children has long been a goal of parents, teachers, relevant role-players and society, with the hope that values would carry on into adulthood (Helterbran & Strahler, 2013).
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In Freeks’ (2007) study it is clearly indicated that the school, next to the parental home ought to play a major role in character education and values education. Most parents have ambitions for their children, including the development of important moral dispositions (Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006).

Character and values education are needed to address the gap and deficiencies in terms of inadequate values and norms in schools (Lessing & De Witt, 2011). According to Van der Merwe (2011), there is a daily increase in violent behaviour among learners. In an erstwhile report in Rapport (Pretorius, 2006), in the supplement Perspektief, a worrying story was published, and the question was pertinently asked “where have the parents gone?”, where the violence among children at school has become a particular problem prompting this same question.

According to this report (cf. also Berkowitz, 2011; Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006; Lepholletse, 2008; Rens, 2005), the primary role of parents is to help their children develop self-respect. For example, if a child has self-respect, he/she will express it at school through his/her behaviour and will have respect for other people’s time, relationships livelihood and property.

  • If children go to school with a strong sense of self-respect, the teacher does not need to use time to teach them manners.
  • If a child has a sense of self-respect, he will not “steal” the school’s time by disrupting the class, fighting with his friends, swearing and doing other improper things (Berkowitz, 2011; Pretorius, 2006).

Disruptive behaviour usually interferes with the instructional process by negatively impacting classroom instruction. This behaviour moreover interferes with the learner’s own learning or the education process of others (Ellison, 2011). An organisation named Brahma Kumaris was the seed for Living Values Education and began offering a program for educators created by educators worldwide to help teachers with values education of learners.

  1. These programmes, now offered by the Association of Living Values Education International, enable learners, under the guidance of a trained person/teacher, to investigate 12 universal values and to develop and influence learners’ character-development and character-building (Living Values, 2005).
  2. These ‘living values’-programmes are at present being implemented in 67 countries around the world (Living Values, 2005).

The latest development was a strategy to teach character through the use of Socratic seminaring, which is a form of carefully planned discussions that offer teachers and relevant role-players the opportunity to focus on those areas of character education deemed critical to personal and even societal morality.

  1. The initial idea of the strategy was to teach character to promote global citizenship (Helterbran & Strahler, 2013).
  2. In the USA, Lickona, Schaps and Lewis (2003) proposed 11 basic principles of effective character education some time ago, to guide schools as they plan their character education.
  3. These principles include issues such as core ethical values, developing good character, developing the school as a caring community and the relationship between character education and the academic curriculum and evaluation.

Many character-building programmes in the USA have since been built on this foundation to have an influence over the character-development and character-building of learners. Many such character-building programmes have already been implemented at schools, where positive results have been achieved (De Waal et al., 2010, Lickona & Davidson, 2005; Proctor, Tsukayama, Wood, Maltby, Eades & Linley, 2011).

  • Lickona’s (2013) latest contribution in the field of character education was his 12 points of gratitude, where he offers suggestions for parents on nurturing gratitude in children.
  • He also stated that having a family discussion on gratitude will instil its definition in children.
  • In New Zealand, an urgent request was made to implement values in the curriculum because of the destructive social problems and behaviour of learners (Notman, 2012).

The main purpose was to influence their lives with regard to character-development and character-building. If societies in different countries around the world are experiencing the many problems they do as a result of the decay of values (Lovat et al., 2011; Rens, 2005), one could not escape asking the following question: ‘what is the situation in South Africa?’ In South Africa, newspapers such as the Beeld, Star, Herald and others, are filled on a daily basis with reports about fraud and murder (Boqo, 2014a; Essop, 2013; Nel, 2014; Van der Merwe, 2014), violence (Boqo, 2014b; Carstens & Zwecker, 2013; Joubert, 2014), theft (Boqo, 2014b), sex (Staff Reporter, 2014), divorces and drug smuggling (Otto, 2013), Satanism (Mestry, 2008; Olifant, 2014) etc.

Schools, colleges and other institutions have serious problems when it comes to the behaviour of students and the values that they espouse (Challens, 2008; Freeks, 2007; Freeks & Lotter, 2011; Lessing & De Witt, 2011). However, these schools can have a remarkable influence on students’ lives with regard to character-development and character-building.

Crime, violence and the decay of values are serious problems in South African schools and have enormous implications for the new democratic South Africa (Jansen, 2001; Van der Merwe, 2011). Discipline is a serious problem in schools, and the instilling and developing of this value does not seem to receive priority, although we know that this important institution can have a significant influence in the lives of learners (Rens, 2005).

  1. Nieuwenhuis et al.
  2. 2007) are convinced that values education should be implemented at school level and in tertiary education institutions.
  3. South Africa’s situation is made more difficult, among others, through the variety of population groups and concomitant cultural differences, which play an important role in the value systems established among people.

Even in a post-apartheid era, where nation-building and democracy are lofty objectives, ethical and moral values ought to be firmly established (Van der Walt, BJ 2010). The question that now arises as to what is being done in South Africa with regard to this problem.

The present government, that came into power in 1994, started a value education process in schools as from 1999 (Dhai, 2008; Mangcu, 1999; Van der Merwe, 2011), but it is disappointing to note that instead of an explicit focus on character education, where the process is largely focused on nation building, democracy and human rights, with a purpose to overcome the inequalities and injustices of the apartheid system (Carl & De Klerk, 2001; Van der Walt, BJ 2010).

Social scientists and researchers agree that the inculcation of the above values in South Africa as a young democracy are important and urgent, and that value education and character-education programmes should be emphasised again (Freeks, 2007; Regan & Page, 2008).

What influence toward character-development and character-building can people and institutions have on the lives of students? What is the role of involved persons and/or factors in terms of character-development and character-building in the lives of students?

Purpose of the Research The purpose of the investigation was to determine how college students’ lives are influenced by relevant role-players’ and institutions’ contributing role in the context of character-development and character-building. Research Objectives Specific objectives of the study are:

To determine the influence with regard to character-development and character-building that persons and institutions have on the lives of students; and To determine what the role is of involved persons and/or factors associated with character-development and character-building in the lives of students.

Research Methodology In this article, the research design is embedded in a quantitative approach. According to De Vos (2005) (cf. also Freeks & Lotter, 2011) the use of quantitative approaches is effective in undertaking this type of research. The empirical information was gathered by means of a questionnaire and the questionnaire had been used before, in a larger research project by the author (Freeks, 2007).

A questionnaire was compiled (cf. Freeks, 2007) to determine the influence that certain role-players and institutions played in character-development and character-building in the context of students’ lives. This questionnaire was mainly used as a sort of management instrument in the value orientation of students.

The questions in the questionnaire are discussed separately. The age range of students was not a determinant factor, on account of the fact that students of any age could register at a Further Education and Training (FET) college. The questionnaire was compiled as a means to obtain necessary and useful information from the students, and according to the author (see also Abdool, 2005; Challens, 2008; De Vos, 2005; Lepholletse, 2008; Llale, 2003; Rens, 2005) this method of investigation is an ideal way to measure students’ value orientation, as well as to determine whether persons and institutions have an influence on their lives.

  1. This method is simple, practical and feasible.
  2. The questionnaire consisted of three sections.
  3. Section A dealt with demographic information, section B with general life values, and section C covered specific values and the lifestyles of the students.
  4. The demographic information included aspects such as the level, gender and mother tongue of the student.

Religious, relational, moral, aesthetic, economic, and cultural values were included in the general life values (section B). Every life value in the questionnaire was described on the basis of indicators that corresponded to the determined value. The respondent was also required to indicate the importance of the value in his/her daily life (i.e.

how important each of the following values are (A) for yourself (B) for the other students in the college?), where 1 = not important at all; 2 = not really important; 3 = of average importance; 4 = fairly important; 5 = of the utmost importance. The student was, in addition, required to share his/her opinion on how important he/she considered the value (i.e.

to what extent do each of the following persons or institutions influence your life? (now and/or in the past)), where none = 1; little = 2; average = 3; large = 4; very large = 5; as well as to what extent the student, at the time of questioning, was the type of person he/she would like to be, where not at all = 1; a little = 2; in a way = 3; completely = 4.

  • The specific values and lifestyle habits covered by the questionnaire included aspects such as smoking, alcohol use, drug use, sexual activities, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) etc. (i.e.
  • How often do you smoke? 1 = not applicable; 2 = now and then; 3 = regularly, how often do you use alcoholic liquor? 1 = never; 2 = 1-2 times per month; 3 = 1-3 times per month; 4 = almost daily).

Rens, Rossouw, Rossouw and Vreken (2005) designed the questionnaire and the validity and reliability can therefore be determined by reference to the fact that it had previously been used to determine the value orientation of students at a particular university and learners from a specific high school.

The questionnaire also clearly indicated that students’ names would not appear anywhere on the document, and that all information supplied would be treated in the strictest confidence. All negative information about the college and the students or lecturers would also not be divulged outside the institution.

A pilot study was first conducted among 15 students to determine whether the information obtained would yield the desired results before the researcher distributed the questionnaires among the students, which it was found to do. Population The college the participants attended was established in terms of the new FET Act and declared as a FET College on 25 September 2001.

The college is one of three public FET Colleges in the NorthWest Province. The college consists of five campuses, and provides education and training within the FET guidelines consisting of levels 2-4 programmes on the National Qualification Framework (NQF) as well as the South African Post Secondary Education (SAPSE) 190/191 (National Education) programmes.

The college offers courses and programmes in all the fields of FET, but the majority of courses fall in the fields of Business Studies and Engineering Studies. The best-known courses and programmes are in the fields of Business Studies, and these fields have the largest enrolments and are responsible for most of the income of the college.

  • However, the field of Engineering Studies also generates sufficient funding (Vuselela FET College, 2005).
  • The population consisted of all the students of the three FET Colleges in the North West Province (see Table 1 ).
  • The three colleges together have 11 campuses.
  • College A has five campuses, College B has three campuses, and College C has four campuses.

It was necessary, however, to draw a convenience sample where seven of the 11 campuses were chosen for the study. The reason for this were both practical and financial in nature, and also because travel between campuses was prohibitive. From College A four campuses participated, and from College B, two campuses participated. From College C, one campus participated. The seven campuses (see Table 2 ) have a total of about 2,000 students, as the author determined tele-phonically from the campus managers.

  • Only 840 students participated in the study, due to the absence of many students during the period of the study.
  • The reachable population on the day that the study took place was therefore significantly smaller than the estimated 2,000 enrolled students at the relevant colleges.
  • From Table 1 it is clear that College A had the largest number of students in the study group – the reason for this is because four campuses participated in the questionnaire.

At College B, two campuses participated, and at College C only one campus participated in the study. In Table 2 it is indicated that the researcher obtained a good response with the questionnaire study in A1, A2, A3 and A4. In the case of A1, a good response was probably obtained because the researcher had been a lecturer at the particular campus.

The researcher first of all directed letters to the Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of the specific colleges with the request that the study could be undertaken at the particular campuses. Once permission was obtained from the CEOs of the different colleges, the researcher remained in contact with the campus managers. Appointments were made with the different campus managers to inform them about the nature of the study as well as the underlying objectives of the study. For two of the seven campuses, viz. Campus C and Campus B2, the researcher was obliged to send the questionnaires to be handed out by the lecturers to be completed. The researcher himself took the questionnaires to the remaining campuses on the given dates to have them filled in under his personal supervision.

Data Analysis All the necessary information obtained through the questionnaires was processed by the Statistical Consultation Services of the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus). The questionnaire had been compiled in both Afrikaans and English by the researcher, and had been language-edited by an expert language editor.

  • The following statistical techniques were used for the processing of the information gathered by way of the questionnaire.
  • The 20 life values (a section of the questionnaire, cf.
  • Freeks, 2007) dealt specifically with values and life habits of students in order to closely scrutinise certain behavioural problems, and a comparison was done between the responses of students from different campuses; between men and women, between different language groups, in order to ascertain students’ own views of their values, and the opinion of co-students’ values.

Descriptive statistics were used and questions were discussed separately. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire emanate from the fact that it had already been used very successfully by previous researchers. Ethical Aspects During a meeting between the Managing Director of the relevant college, the chairman of their governing board, the researcher and a representative of the North West University (Potchefstroom Campus), a joint suggestion was made that a broader investigation should be established, in a scientific way, with cognisance of the nature and size of the above-mentioned type of problem experienced at the relevant further education and training college.

The need for the development of a character-building programme for a tertiary institution such as the FET college, in question was strongly considered, and named as a possible solution. All of this led to the study. The researcher directed letters to the CEOs and campus managers to obtain permission to run the investigation.

Before the questionnaire was completed, they also completed a permission note, which made it clear that they were completing the questionnaire voluntarily, and that they were participating in a project aimed at promoting moral values. All information about the students was dealt with in terms of the necessary confidentiality and no individual was identified in the research report.

Results and Discussion The importance of education is holistic in its focus point (Lovat et al., 2011) and both value and character education deal with the cognitive, social and also the emotional drives of any student as a whole person, including students abroad. Values, as mentioned earlier, are universal, and applicable to students in other countries and in South Africa as an emerging resource in relation to other countries.

In Table 3, attention is directed to the influence of character-development and character-building, emanating from the different persons and institutions in terms of students’ lives. The influences are ranked in order to determine whose influence upon character-development and character-building was the greatest.

The percentage indicated is an addition of the four aspects: large and very large, none, and little. From Table 3 it emerges that persons such as the mother (4.34) and the father (3.47), brothers and sisters (3.71) and lecturers (3.29) had a large to very large influence on character-development and character-building in the lives of students according to their own perception.

A specific person (4.31) such as a pastor, boyfriend or girlfriend also had a fairly large to very large influence on character-development and character-building when it came to students’ lives. It therefore amounts to the fact that parents, specific persons and lecturers are the most important role-players when it comes to character-development and character-building.

Furthermore, 24.97% of the students said that the lecturers had no/little influence in terms of character-development and character-building, 30.98% said that teachers had no/little influence in terms of character-development and character-building, and 30% felt that the father had no/little influence in terms of character-development and character-building.

From the finding it emerges that the role of the father is very low in comparison with the mother, brothers, sisters and a significant other. In terms of institutions it emerges that the parental home (3.41), primary school (3.53) and high school (3.79) have a reasonably large to very large influence on character-development and character-building in students’ lives.

This amounts to the reality that the parental home played a less important role than did the school. During the primary and high school period, the teachers clearly did their work well and in particular, saw to it that character-development and character-building received due attention. Furthermore, 25.88% of the students indicated that the parental home had no/little influence on character-development and character-building, and with regard to the church, 30.86% said that it had no/little influence on character-development and character-building in their lives.

In Table 4 the students’ responses are summarised, with regard to the question as to who or what had contributed to what they are today. The percentage indicated is an addition of the four aspects: large and very large, none, and little. From Table 4 it becomes clear that the students felt that it was through the agency of God (85.44%) (large/very large) or their parents (89.57%), that they are who they are today (large/very large).

  • The college lecturers (83.4%) were reported to have had the third largest influence on character-development and character-building of students (large/very large).
  • Furthermore, 41.56% of the students said that friends had no/little influence on character-development and character-building; 28.69% said that fate/ coincidence/accident or luck had no/little influence in terms of character-development and character-building; 30.03% said that specific teachers had no/little influence in terms of character-development and character-building; 30.88% said that specific lecturers had no/little influence in terms of character-development and character-building; and 4.33% said that the parental home had none/little influence on character-development and character-building in their lives.

From Table 4, it emerges that students consider other people and factors much higher than their own influence (8th place out of 9). This indicates to a large degree that students have things happen to them, and do not make them happen themselves. They probably also do not have a strong sense of independence, even though they indicated it as being a very important life value.

With regard to the theories, programmes and models derived from the literature survey, values, character, values education, character education, character-development and character-building with regard to students can be said to be relevant, effective and meaningful. These programmes, theories and models define good character (cf. Freeks, 2007; Hattingh, 1991; Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006; Lickona, 2013; Lickona & Davidson, 2005; Rens, 2005). Character-building must be compatible with our teaching and learning of values because it improves behaviour and attitude (Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006). The literature also indicates that moral education and character-development are essential among students, precisely because man is a value-driven being (cf. Kohlberg, 1978; Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006; Lickona, 1991, 2013; Sayin, 2014). Character-development and character-building ensures that children develop good judgement, integrity and essential virtues (Lickona, 2013). The literature also indicates that parents, educators, scientists, researchers and various other citizens in many countries are worried about the decay in values and character, and would like to find ways to alleviate it (cf. Berkowitz, 2011; Ellison, 2011; Freeks, 2007; Helterbran & Strahler, 2013; Khanam, 2008; Lickona, 2013; Lickona et al., 2003; Lovat et al., 2011; Nieuwenhuis et al., 2007). From the literature it is also clear that the parental home or family life should be regarded as important for students, because this is where prevention of students’ involvement in violence and dangerous behaviour can take place (cf. Cunniff & Mostert, 2012; De Wet, C 2014; De Wet, NC 2010; Helter-bran & Strahler, 2013; Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006). Students believe in general that the teacher and other relevant role-players can make a difference in their personal moral development as students (Arthur, 2011). The cornerstone values of Heenan are of great significance for the South African context (Abdool, 2005).

From the investigation it also emerged that character-development and character-building of the students could be used fruitfully in effecting a positive change in the values and character of the students. With regard to the research questions, the following was found:

Role-players such as father, mother, brothers, sisters and lecturers play an important role in terms of character-development and character-building in the lives of students. Even specific individuals, such as a pastor, a boyfriend or a girlfriend, can have a reasonably important role in terms of character-development and character-building in the lives of students. At institutions it emerged that the influence of the parental home, primary school and high school in terms of character-development and character-building was reasonably important to important. In looking at the role of persons and/or factors in the lives of students, it was remarkable that students indicated that who and what they were came about because of the role of God in their lives.

Limitations With regard to the investigation, certain gaps and shortcomings were identified that can be addressed in future studies. At campuses C and B2, where the researcher could not undertake the investigation personally, a low response rate to the questionnaire was achieved.

  1. Another possible gap in the study is that lecturers’ own value orientation was not determined, and this could play a significant role in character-development and character-building.
  2. Their opinions and attitudes with regard to character-development and character-building could probably have made a contribution in terms of determining the practical feasibility of a character-building programme.

The moral developmental level of the students was not determined, because it is a very comprehensive process to determine. Information about this angle would have been of great value for the project. Seeing that this investigation was limited to FET colleges in the North West Province, the findings cannot be extrapolated to all the FET colleges in South Africa.

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Character-building programmes should be developed for all FET colleges in South Africa, so that character-development and character-building can have a greater impact on students. Lecturers ought to be trained and equipped to offer character-development and character-building courses at colleges in an integrated fashion. Moral values should constitute a large part of character-development and character-building at further education and training colleges. Colleges must make use of special programmes and professional help (experts) to assist students.

Conclusion From the study, the following general conclusions can be drawn:

Value-addition and character-building can inculcate a positive attitude in students. Apart from the role of the parents with regard to value-addition and character-building, the role of the lecturer in FET colleges is indispensable for the student. Specific persons, such as, for example, a pastor, can be as important a role player with regard to his/her influence in terms of character-development and character-building, which amounts to the cardinal importance of the church with regard to character-development and character-building in the spiritual lives of students. God is an essential and important aspect in the religious lives of students.

Final Word In this article the influence of people, institutions and factors on character-development and character-building in the lives of college students was emphasised. Character-development and character-building can be seen as crucial and indispensable in the lives of contemporary youth.

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What is vital education?

Vital education aims at training the life -force (that normally vibrates in emotions, desires and impulses) in three directions: to discover its real function and to replace its egoistic and ignorant tendency so as to become the master by a willingness and capacity to serve higher principles of the psychological
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Why teachers are vital in the society?

Teachers educate the next generation and therefore impact society as a whole. They also, through safeguarding and pastoral care, help the next generation develop into well rounded, caring, ethical, young adults. Young adults who, themselves influence those around them.

  1. We cannot always build the future for our youth, but we can build the youth for our future.
  2. Franklin D.
  3. Roosevelt To look at the words of Roosevelt above, never in recent years have we as a society found ourselves in a situation where we are so desperate for hope – a light at the end of a dark and dangerous tunnel, and a tunnel that we are all in together around the globe.

Schools have been at the forefront of discussions and arguments throughout the pandemic – but why? Why are teachers so beneficial to society?
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Who is responsible to provide education to all children?

Parents, not government, are responsible for the education and upbringing of their children – Mississippi Center for Public Policy

Principle No.10: Parents, not government, are responsible for the education and upbringing of their children”It is the duty of parents to maintain their children decently; to protect them according to the dictates of prudence; and to educate them according to the suggestions of a judicious and zealous regard for their usefulness, their respectability and happiness.” -James Wilson, Lectures on Law, 1791

In a broad sense, we must be careful not to use “school” and “education” interchangeably; school is merely one source of education. True education is the development of a person’s soul. It involves spiritual, emotional, and intellectual exercise. That is why parents are ultimately responsible for ensuring the proper education and upbringing of their children.

This means that no matter who else is involved, including school teachers, coaches, church teachers, or other adults, parents are to be the architects of their children’s preparation for adulthood. Whether or not parents act on that responsibility, the fact is that they are accountable to the Creator for the children that have been entrusted to them.

Over the past few decades, we have witnessed a retreat on the part of more and more parents who think they have “better” things to do than raise their children, or who think they are unfit for the task. (Feeling unfit is a universal sentiment; all parents need advice and help raising children, but this doesn’t mean they are unfit.) This retreat of parents has invited the pursuit of others who claim to know better than parents how to meet the needs of children.

Many government programs have been conceived to accommodate this retreat. In the process, parents have yielded even more of their responsibility, reasoning that the intellectual—and even emotional—stimulation provided by these paid workers exceeds the parents’ own capacity to provide such things. In some cases this may be true, but the answer is to expand the parents’ abilities and confidence, not to encourage them to relinquish more responsibility.

This is an area where churches are urgently needed to fill the gap, both in teaching parents and in providing child care when there is a true need. All too often what happens next is the blame game. When parents expect the schools to take responsibility for raising their children, they blame the schools when that expectation goes unmet.

  1. Yet, it is impossible for schools to fulfill that expectation.
  2. They try to, by hiring more people and doing more research to find a way to replace parents.
  3. But the problems remain.
  4. Thus, they blame the parents.
  5. Our society has bought into this notion that schools are the key ingredient in children’s lives.

The term “parental involvement” has come out of this. The implication is that schools are responsible for children, and parents are supposed to be involved in helping the schools do that job. In reality, the opposite is true. Parents are responsible and schools are merely supposed to help.

  • School involvement” would be a more appropriate term, if we viewed the roles as they should be.
  • The fact is, parents cannot give away portions of their responsibility.
  • They can abdicate it totally, yielding all rights and responsibilities to adoptive parents.
  • But ultimate responsibility for one’s own children is indivisible; it cannot be shared with others.

Choices and Freedom When parents exercise their responsibility to orchestrate their children’s education, some choose to educate their children at home, but most parents “hire” professional educators. They might hire private tutors, but usually they “hire” public or private schools.

  • In either case, these educators are to assist with the child’s education, and the parents should have the ability to choose a school that will accomplish that purpose without undermining their authority.
  • And, if parents see that their children are not learning well, they should be able to choose a different school.

For parents who have enough money, this option already exists. If they are unhappy with the public school to which their child has been assigned, they can send their child to a private school, or they can move to a school district or attendance zone that will serve their children better.

  • But parents who don’t have enough money are often stuck with the school to which the government has assigned them, regardless of the quality of the school.
  • Even under federal guidelines that require perennially poor schools to offer parents an option to transfer their children to another school within the district, it is not uncommon for the other schools to be just as poor as the ones the children would be leaving.

Most public education reform proposals deal with systemic changes, and there is no doubt the system needs to be changed. But the success or failure of systemic changes can only be determined after years of implementation and evaluation. When these attempts fail to produce more successful students (which has been the consistent record over the past forty years), new systemic changes are proposed which will take yet more years to implement and evaluate.

  • And, of course, each new experiment demands more money from taxpayers than the ones before.
  • Why do we continue to sacrifice generations of students to these social experiments, hoping the next change will be the silver bullet for all children? The losers are the children who cannot regain the years lost to these failed experiments.

The communities where these children live also suffer, as do parents who are trapped in a system that won’t allow them to choose better options for their children. Our state long ago determined that there should be public schools funded by the taxpayers; we’re not debating that here.

  1. We do, however, believe parents should have a considerable amount of control over how those tax funds are spent on their own children.
  2. The solution is to allow more freedom for parents to choose—or even start—schools that best meet their children’s needs.
  3. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways which will maintain (enhance, actually) the opportunities for all students, even in the public school realm.

Competition and Opportunity Competition is the essential element in improving the price and quality of goods and services. It’s surprising how many business leaders believe this principle until the topic turns to education. For some reason, they treat this one service sector as if it were immune to the benefits of competition.

  • They defend the current system rather than embrace an approach that would allow schools to improve by having to compete with each other.
  • If competition in education were allowed, schools would have to do as other service providers do—attract and keep customers, in this case students and their parents, by constantly improving their services.

If they didn’t improve, they would risk losing those students to other providers. That is a healthy incentive to improve. Knowing someone else could draw away our customers is discomforting, but it’s that very discomfort that drives us to pay attention to our customers—and to find better or more efficient ways to do what we do.

  • It is naive to think the education service sector is any different.
  • The result would be better service for the students and better value for taxpayers.
  • What about children whose parents “don’t care enough about their children” to send them to a better school? We believe only a small fraction of parents would fit that category.

The problem is that they have never had that chance! In the relatively few places in America where parents are allowed to choose, there has been much greater demand than expected. For example, numerous public charter schools have had far more applicants than vacancies.

  1. A program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, has become wildly popular among low-income parents.
  2. Since 1990, through one of the few publicly-funded voucher programs in the country, these parents have been able to choose any public or private school, including religious schools, for their children.
  3. Longtime Democratic Mayor John Norquist said the parents were tired of waiting for public schools alone to find the right methods, especially when the parents had no choice.

He said, “Parents don’t want to be a part of some social experiment. They want their kids to be able to read and write.” Some find that in public schools, some in private schools. This is not an attack on public schools in general. Even Nobel Laureate economist Milton Friedman, the father of the “voucher” concept, said he never presumed that private schools would be better than public schools.

He simply believed there should be competition, and parents should be able to choose the school that best meets their children’s needs. Even within the public system—and without vouchers—there are opportunities to allow parents to act on their responsibility to ensure their children are educated. When government officials recognize that parents are responsible for educating and raising their own children, and that publicly funded schools should not undermine the parents, they will govern with humility and restraint.

: Parents, not government, are responsible for the education and upbringing of their children – Mississippi Center for Public Policy
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Who is responsible for learning and development?

Who is responsible for Learning and Development activities? earning and Development is a process which requires shared support and responsibility from a number of sources. Depending on the size and structure of an organisation, the following are usually responsible for the learning and development activities and outcomes within an organisation:

The organisation: Support at board level for learning and development activities is crucial to the success of any learning and development program and should be tied in with the businesses strategic objectives. Related to this the organisation’s vision, culture and willingness to invest (by way of time and financial resources) in the continuous development of staff to better face future challenges and remain competitive. Line managers: Line managers play a pivotal role in the success of learning and development activities in that they are not only accountability for the performance of their teams, but are in an advantageous position to observe and identify the knowledge, skill and ability gaps of their subordinates better than anyone else. Adding to this, line managers are furthermore able to monitor employees’ improvement following learning and development activities. HR Department: Some larger organisations may have a dedicated Learning and Development team within their overall HR Function, however if this is not the case, the HR Manager will be responsible for coordinating learning and development activities. The HR Department is responsible for the effective analysis of training needs, overall design, structure and delivery of training programs as well as demonstrating return on investment of all learning and development activities.

Included in this category are also the training facilitators / instructors themselves. Whether learning and development be offered in-house as a part of a structured organisational development program, or offered out-of-house from a specialist trainer, the impact upon the overall training success largely hinges on how effectively material is communicated.

Employees: Whilst the most obvious participant in learning and development activities within an organisation it is often overlooked just how important an employee’s level of commitment to training and development is to the success of such programs. Through promotion by line managers and the HR department, employees should be able to easily identify the benefits training activities will have on their ability to perform their jobs more efficiently in the future. Aside from the organisational context, employees need to take ownership of learning and development opportunities to better equip themselves with the necessary skills, knowledge and abilities to remain competitive in today’s changing business environment and to keep up with those around them if they are to progress career-wise.

As with many HR activities, learning and development is a process of collaboration and cannot be viewed in isolation from all other activities. Who is exactly in the learning and development process will depend on the size of an organisation, and in particular, the level of dedicated HR personnel to manage the learning and development function.

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Whilst it is quite common for larger organisations to have a dedicated learning and development team within the HR Department, smaller organisations may only have one manager who is responsible for all staff and need to manage the learning and development activities of everyone within their business.

Regardless of size restraints however, in all circumstances the two main roles responsible for learning and development are the direct managers and individual employees. : Who is responsible for Learning and Development activities?
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Who should be responsible for children’s education?

It is one of the primary roles of parents to ensure that a happy learning environment is provided to a growing child.
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Who is the best educational person in the world?

Daniela Simidchieva With an IQ of 200, Daniela Simidchieva is one of the smartest people in the world. She’s also one of the most well-educated.
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Who is the most important stakeholder in education?

Students are the primary stakeholders in education. The primary purpose of why the school was created is for student learning. Thus, students are directly impacted by the educational system and are the greatest stakeholders in education.
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Who are the role players?

1. One who assumes or acts out a particular role.2. One who engages in role-playing.
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What plays most important role in teaching?

Dedication – One of the most important parts of teaching is having dedication. Teachers not only listen, but also coach and mentor their students. They are able to help shape academic goals and are dedicated to getting their students to achieve them. Teachers have patience for their students and are understanding when a concept isn’t taking.

Teachers do what they do because they want to help others. They are not teaching for recognition or a paycheck but because they have a passion for youth and education. Teachers typically believe in the power of education and the importance of providing children with good role models and are teaching because of that belief.

They are dedicated to the cause. Finally, teachers’ dedication is shown by their ‘round-the-clock work habits. Teachers don’t stop working when the school bell rings. They are grading papers, making lessons, and communicating with parents after school and on weekends.
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Who are the 4 main role players in the economy?

Economic and Management Sciences Grade 4-6: Overview of Learning Outcomes Learning Area: Economic and Management Sciences Phase: Intermediate Phase (Grades 4-6)

Overview of the Learning Outcomes Learning Outcome 1: The Economic Cycle The learner will be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the economic cycle within the context of the “economic problem” Learning Outcome 2: Sustainable Growth and Development The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of reconstruction, sustainable growth and development, and to reflect critically on related processes Learning Outcome 3: Managerial, Consumer and Financial Knowledge and Skills The learner will be able to demonstrate knowledge and the ability to responsibly apply a range of managerial, consumer and financial skills Learning Outcome 4: Entrepreneurial Knowledge and Skills The learner will be able to develop entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and attitudes

The flow of money, resources and services, which characterises the economic cycle, facilitates demand and supply. The role-players in the economy include households, business, government and the foreign sector. These participants are involved in the processes of production, consumption and exchange.

  • The learner is made aware of the rights and responsibilities of participants in the economic cycle.
  • The production of goods and services using limited resources faces the problem of unlimited demand.
  • Ways of balancing production and consumption by managing the money supply must be found in order to control inflation and to ensure adequate savings and investment for new products and services.

In this Learning Outcome, the interdependence between economic activity and the physical, technological, social, political and legal environments is discussed in addressing the problem of limited resources and unlimited demand. Learners of all ages should understand the need for sustainable growth, reconstruction and development in South Africa.

  • As the inequalities of the past and present – especially the extremes of poverty and wealth – cannot be adequately addressed by conventional socio-economic policies alone, other innovations can also be explored.
  • These involve the development of small, medium and micro enterprises in production, as well as the need for workable alternatives in education, health and other social services.

The learner should be able to identify and critically analyse the values and attitudes within civil society and government that support the achievement of these goals. This Learning Outcome focuses on the actions, processes and structures that advance sustainable reconstruction and development in the national economy.

All individuals and organisations manage their activities on a daily basis by using specific management and leadership skills. This Learning Outcome will enable the learner to develop consumer and financial skills, and to manage his or her life and business activities responsibly and effectively. The learner will be given the skills needed to be effective in formal interpersonal communication situations (e.g.

interviewing, performance assessment, negotiation, arbitration and conciliation). Entrepreneurship focuses on an individual identifying a viable business opportunity, and then financing and starting a business. Entrepreneurs take calculated risks and utilise opportunities to start businesses by producing goods or services for society.

Entrepreneurs are important to the development of a country and can make an important contribution to sustainable economic growth. Entrepreneurial activities can impact positively on job and wealth creation, and improve the standard of living of citizens. Entrepreneurs can encourage communities to take pride in their uniqueness and environment, while making economic gains (e.g.

in taking ownership of local tourism activities). Through this Learning Outcome, the learner’s entrepreneurial talents and potential will be unlocked and developed through learning about entrepreneurial activities and approaches. : Economic and Management Sciences Grade 4-6: Overview of Learning Outcomes
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What is the vital for children?

VITAL for Children is a charitable organization (a registered charity) which works to eliminate child poverty, It has registered offices in England (charity number 1121532) and the United States, The charity is 501(c)3 registered in the U.S. The main administrative function is carried out at the office on Grosvenor Road in London, England.

  1. VITAL aims to restore the basic human rights to all children suffering from the oppression & injustice of poverty by supporting projects which ensure the many disadvantaged and vulnerable children.
  2. That they receive access to quality education, healthcare facilities, nutrition and clean water, protection and emergency shelter.

“In the very heart of Kolkata, From the red light district to the slums and the slave trade, VITAL is tremendously changing the quality of life among untold numbers of children.”
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Which is a vital part of patient education?

Discharge patient education should focus on: Medication instructions. Care management or techniques to meet clinical needs. Individual patient needs or circumstances.
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What is the most important role of a teacher and why?

Why Are Teachers Important? – Teachers are important because they change lives, inspire dreams, and push the limits of human potential. A teacher’s job is to nurture, teach, and raise children to become useful to society. Teachers’ role in the classroom, society, and the world at large has taken a different turn from what it was back in the day.

  • Over time, teachers were given a specific curriculum to follow and instructions on how to teach the curriculum.
  • Today, the teachers’ role has gone beyond teaching.
  • Their role now involves counselling students, mentoring students, and teaching them how to use and apply knowledge in their lives.
  • Teachers are now looking for ways to impact students on a different level and even inspire them to be more and do more.

Do you want to advance or start a career in teaching? If yes, check out some of the online teacher training courses below. Professional Global Diploma In Education (PGDE) NCFE CACHE Courses
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Why teachers are important across the world?

A few years ago, one of my secondary school teachers passed away. His name was Juan Canal and he taught history and geography. But this is not what I remember the most about him. What I remember are his efforts to engage and capture the imagination of all students, even of those less comfortable discussing Ancient Greece or the pre-Inca cultures.

  • I remember his eagerness to find innovative ways to engage students, and our discussions on leadership and social responsibility.
  • I didn’t really grasp the significance of those discussions at the time.
  • However, I remember those debates decades later.
  • Teachers shape the future of millions of students every day, affecting how we treat each other, the way we work, how productive we are, and even how happy and confident we are as adults.

Through this, they shape societies and countries. Everyone remembers by name that teacher that many years ago said or did something that was an inspiration, a life changer. Those are the teachers that understand how critical their day-to-day actions and behaviors are in shaping the futures of their students.

  1. Research shows that the quality of teachers is a major determinant of children’s learning and well-being.
  2. Going from a poor-performing teacher to a great teacher can increase student learning by multiple years of schooling,Great teachers also have a substantial impact on the well-being of students throughout their lives, affecting not only their academic achievement, but also other long-term social and labor outcomes.

Yet, a large share of children do not have access to high quality teachers. A survey in six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa showed three worrying facts.

First, high teacher absence leads to students receiving only two hours and fifty minutes of teaching per day, just over half the scheduled time. Teachers being absent is the clearest symptom of a lack of understanding of the importance of the teacher-student interaction for learning. Second, 84 percent of grade 4 teachers have not reached the minimum level of mastery of the curriculum they teach. Third, less than 1 in 10 teachers exhibit good teaching practices, such as regularly checking for student’s understanding and providing feedback.

Studies in Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Lao PDR, Peru, and Tanzania show similar quality issues in different settings. Poor teaching is not the fault of the teachers, but the result of system-level policies that do not appropriately recruit, prepare, support, manage, and motivate teachers.

A handful of countries, such as Finland, Japan, and Singapore, boast a cadre of successful teachers. In most other countries, teacher policies are either ineffective or lack internal consistency. Entry into teacher preparation programs might lack selectivity, and teacher entry-level qualifications might be set much lower than other professions.

Good teacher performance might not be recognized or rewarded. Teachers hiring or promotion might be stained by politics or clientelism. Unprepared and poorly trained teachers might be expected to teach a complex curriculum, which even they have a weak grasp on.

Too many students across the world sit in classrooms exposed to ineffective teaching every day, every year, as they go through school. No wonder that schooling does not assure learning and that we are living a learning crisis. Covid-19 has deepened the crisis. The pandemic has challenged education systems to ensure learning continuity, substantially increasing the demands placed on teachers.

Education systems, more than ever, require effective teachers that facilitate and support learning instead of delivering content; that use a combination of in-person and digital methods to deliver lessons; that foster creative thinking, communication, and collaboration; and that instill a love of learning, how to persevere, and have self-control.

As schools gradually reopen, teachers will have the challenge of rapidly assessing students’ knowledge to identify learning gaps and adapt their teaching to the level of each student. Further, they will need to provide psychosocial support and manage their own stress, as students will return to schools after a very stressful time.

It is a tough task. It is very difficult and demanding to be a good teacher, especially now. The extraordinary nature of the challenge calls for an equally powerful response. Before the pandemic, the World Bank launched the Global Platform for Successful Teachers to help countries enhance their teacher policies to improve teaching and learning. Who Plays A Vital Role In Education System The platform drives change by supporting governments with technical advice, financial support, and tools and resources. The World Bank is currently supporting the work of more than 16 million teachers, about a third of the teacher population in low- and middle-income countries, covering all the principles mentioned above.

  1. For instance, to make teaching attractive, the Dominican Republic has embarked on a comprehensive teacher reform that improves the selection, training, induction, and evaluation of teachers.
  2. Ethiopia and Zambia are improving pre-service by strengthening the curriculum and establishing a practicum component.

The Peruvian Ministry of Education increased their capacity to implement merit-based promotion nationwide, To improve professional development and school leadership, the Edo State in Nigeria uses tablets to deliver scripted lesson plans that facilitate teachers’ classroom work, track attendance and use of lessons, and provide feedback.

Understanding what happens in the classroom. Improving learning requires understanding what is going on inside the classroom. In 2019, the Bank launched Teach, an open-access, adaptable, classroom observation tool that measures teaching practices inside the classroom and identifies teachers’ professional development strengths and needs. To date, Teach has been used in over 30 countries and is available in ten languages. Teach has been adapted to unique needs and contexts: in Punjab, Pakistan, for example, a customized version is now being used by mentors as a diagnostic to observe and provide feedback to 15,000 teachers per week. Professional development. The most impactful teacher professional development programs tailor to the specific needs of the teacher, are linked to professional incentives, and are focused on practice with other teachers and in their own classrooms. Unfortunately, that is not the norm. To help fill this gap, the World Bank has developed Coach, a tool that aims to support teacher in-service professional development so that it is tailored to the needs of individual teachers, focused on critical skills, and embedded with practice and feedback. Additionally, given evidence of the effectiveness of structured pedagogy over learning in settings where teachers lack mastery of the curriculum, we developed a Compendium of Structured Lesson Plans and Tools for Improvement of Early Grade Reading Instruction, as a building block in teachers class planning and preparation. Teacher working conditions. In many countries, teachers have no transparent and efficient recourse when their professional entitlements are unmet. We developed a guidance note on how countries can build grievance redress mechanisms to reduce the non-teaching daily challenges faced by teachers, freeing them to operate as professionals and increasing the appeal of the career. Technology, Tech-based support to improve teachers’ instruction has become even more urgent due to the pandemic. We developed a guidance note on key principles for investing in technology for effective teachers, Additionally, since evidence on which EdTech interventions work for improving teacher in-service professional development is limited, the Technology for Teaching (T4T) initiative aims to identify scalable in-service tech-based teacher professional development interventions so that policymakers can better support teachers using remote means.

These are just a few examples. The education community and society in general has a long way to go to support our teachers so that every classroom has their own Juan Canal. Especially now, that we are facing the worst education crisis in a century, We need to work together and act today to empower and support our teachers so that the magic of learning can happen in each and every classroom worldwide.
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Who is responsible for the success of students?

Billy is an average middle school student. He sits down and takes a test. The grade comes back. Who is responsible for that grade? This should be the dumbest question you can ask in the field of education. The answer should be obvious. Billy is responsible.

  • Billy did the work, he took the test, he earned the grade.
  • But all across this great country of ours we’re giving the wrong answer.
  • We’re saying teachers are responsible for that grade,
  • This is ridiculous.
  • Teachers could not do the work for the student.
  • Teachers could not take the test for the student.
  • How can you possibly assume the teacher is responsible for the grade? In fact, if the teacher really were responsible – if she did all the work and took the test – how could you rationally say this grade belonged to the student? No, it wouldn’t be Billy’s, it would be his teacher’s.

The truth goes something like this: You are responsible only for things within your control. The greater your degree of control, the greater your degree of responsibility. This is not complicated. It is simple logic. Cause and effect. But ignoring it is perhaps the most virulent, incorrigible, fact-resistant mistake in the entire field of public education.

  1. Lawmakers are getting it wrong.
  2. The media is getting it wrong.
  3. Superintendents, principals – even teachers are getting it wrong.
  4. And the reason is somewhat pernicious.
  5. We’ve been sold a lie.
  6. We’ve been told for so long that educators are responsible for their students’ work that we’ve begun to accept it without question.

Just today at a training in my district, I was shown a spreadsheet of student test scores and told in no uncertain terms that this was something I have control over. I DON’T. I don’t have control over the raw scores. I don’t even have control over how much a student improves from one year to another.

  1. The student does.
  2. HE controls how hard he works on assignments.
  3. HE exhibits the most control over the results of his assessments.
  4. This doesn’t mean I’m completely helpless.
  5. I do have control over certain aspects of students’ academic experience.
  6. I control what work is assigned, when it is assigned and to whom.

I control whether there is extra credit, what counts as homework, who gets extra help, etc. In many cases, I even get to decide whether students have completed their work and if assessments have been completed successfully. As long as I am exhibiting best practices, giving age-appropriate work and evaluating it fairly, I’m doing my part.

  • It is not then justified to assume I am solely responsible for the end result.
  • I raise the hurdles, but the student actually goes through the obstacle course.
  • The teacher is a factor, but not the largest one,
  • That is the student, Billy.
  • Yet he is not alone here.
  • Besides, me, his teacher, there is also the principal, the student’s parents, his friends and even society as a whole.

All of these and more contribute to student success. The principal controls school policy. He determines what discipline the student receives, the clarity of school rules, etc. Likewise, students’ friends are part of their social network. They can help with homework, form a study group, or distract from school work, denigrate work ethic, etc.

  • Society also plays a role.
  • If a student is part of a community that values education and work ethic, that student will more likely put forth more effort.
  • If the student lives in a community where school is seen as unimportant and teachers are not respected, that will have a negative impact, etc.
  • And the number one factor other than the student, himself, that contributes to his success is parents.

They control home life, emotional support, tutoring, nutrition, etc. All of these complex factors combine to add up to an individual student’s success. However, at the end of the day, it is the student, himself, that bears the brunt of the responsibility for what he does.

That’s why we call it HIS grade and not someone else’s. This is the most obvious thing in the world, but it has certain consequences for education policy. For instance, it immediately invalidates the majority of teacher evaluations given throughout the country, The reason? Most evaluations are based at least in part on student test scores.

As we’ve seen, this misrepresents the student-teacher relationship. It blames the teacher for things well beyond his or her control. It turns students into passive objects acted on by magical super teachers who can somehow make them learn simply by – what – endless repetition of test prep materials ? Why would students put forth their best in this scenario? If they’re failing, it’s somehow not their fault.

  1. It’s their teachers! But even worse than this misrepresentation, it completely ignores a plethora of vital factors in the education process.
  2. Parents, for instance, are crucially important, but we’re leaving them completely out of the loop.
  3. When parents struggle to fulfill their responsibilities, why is there little to no help? The answer: because we’ve hidden the fact that such responsibilities even exist.

We’ve thrown it all on the teacher and the school. All these out-of-school factors are obscured, yet taken together they are almost determinate. After all, this is why poor and minority students disproportionately struggle academically. You can demand every student jump six feet straight up, but those with the best resources will meet this goal much more frequently than those without.

  • And who is in control of those resources? Who decides which children get the smallest class sizes, the best home environments, the most conducive social networks, etc.? The myth of teacher accountability is what stops such resources from being sent,
  • We’re told all you need is a good teacher.
  • But this is not true.

You need much more. The ultimate responsibility may rest with the student, but until we all realize and acknowledge our collective responsibilities to all students, success will always be out of reach for far too many of them. Billy may take the test, but it is society that is failing to meet its responsibilities.
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Which of the following is responsible for education?

Which one of the following is responsible for assessment and Free 15 Questions 30 Marks 15 Mins The National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC)

It conducts assessment and accreditation of Higher Educational Institutions (HEI) such as colleges, universities, or other recognized institutions to derive an understanding of the ‘Quality Status’ of the institution. It evaluates the institutions for its conformance to the standards of quality in terms of its performance related to the educational processes and outcomes, curriculum coverage, teaching-learning processes, faculty, research, infrastructure, learning resources, organization, governance, financial well being, and student services.

Its objective is to promote the following core values among the HEIs of the country:

Contributing to National Development Fostering Global Competencies among Students Inculcating a Value System among Students Promoting the Use of Technology Quest for Excellence

The University Grants Commission of India (UGC) is a statutory body set up by the Government of India in accordance to the UGC Act 1956 Which one of the following is responsible for assessment and

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Who is responsible for education in Jamaica?

Education in Jamaica is administered primarily by the Ministry of Education (MOE), through its head office and six regional offices. Formal education is provided mainly by the government, solely or in partnerships with churches and trusts. Formal education also is provided by private schools.
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