Who Is The Founder Of Pre Primary Education?


Who Is The Founder Of Pre Primary Education
Friedrich Froebel – A major influencer was Friedrich Froebel (1782 – 1852), who believed that children learn through play, He designed teacher training where he emphasized the importance of observation and developing programs and activities based on the child’s skill level and readiness. Froebel formalized the early childhood setting as well as founded the first kindergarten.
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Who is the father of preschool?

Jean Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau

Born: 1712 Died: 1778 Nationality: French Occupation: philosopher, social and political theorist, musician, botanist, writer Philosophical/Educational School of Thought: Existentialism Publications: Discourse on the Arts and Sciences (essay) Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality La Nouvelle Heloise Lettre sur les spectacles The Social Contract Emile Confessions Rousseau, juge de Jean Jacques Reveries Les Muses galantes (opera)

Educational Viewpoint: Rousseau’s theory of education emphasized the importance of expression to produce a well-balanced, freethinking child. He believed that if children are allowed to develop naturally without constraints imposed on them by society they will develop towards their fullest potential, both educationally and morally.

  • This natural development should be child-centered and focused on the needs and experiences of the child at each stage of development.
  • Educational Impact: Rousseau is known as the father of early childhood education.
  • As a result of his educational viewpoint, early childhood education emerged as a child-centered entity rich in unlimited, sensory-driven, practical experiences.

Active participation in drawing, measuring, speaking, and singing also emerged as a result of Rousseau’s educational viewpoint. Today, many elements of Rousseau’s educational principles remain as a dominant force in early childhood education. References: Harrison, P.
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When was pre primary education started in India?

India – Preprimary Primary Education Basic Principles: While “primary education provides the fundamentals of all formal learning” (Sharma 1997), preprimary learning may be called the foundation for both education and personal development. Little information exists on formal preprimary education in rural India, although the family and community function as a broader arena for holistic learning.

  • In urban communities, the level of preprimary education corresponds directly to the factors of class and wealth.
  • Only the rich and educated opt for kindergarten and Montessori schools, which abound in affluent neighborhoods, while poor, neglected, underprivileged children languish in the streets of Indian cities.

At least in terms of national priorities, primary education takes as a model a humanistic pedagogy, emphasizing the needs of the child over all means and methods of education. Neerja Sharma succinctly writes: The buildings, school administration, teachers and personnel, syllabi and textbooks, furniture and uniforms exist because children need education.

This truism has been recognized in the Program of Action of the National Policy on Education (1986) that states under its Implementation Strategies: The country’s faith in its future generations will be exemplified in the system of elementary education, which will get geared around the centrality of the child (11).

(1997) A 1988 governmental reform of the primary curriculum set forth the principles that were to govern this type of education. Students were entitled to a “broad and balanced curriculum” including such diverse subjects as religious education, science, and technology.

In addition, the standards for students’ academic achievement were to be raised, and assessment methods were to serve “formative purposes” (Venkataiah 2000). The implementation of these goals is somewhat confounded by the diversity of India’s population and the complexity of its governance. In practice, primary education is a dilemma-ridden field where teachers, schools, communities, and states muddle through a rugged terrain without consensus.

As a result, local, regional, and political influences override the foundational issues in pedagogical discourse. In particular, zealous religious groups have been divisive.S. Venkataiah, a leader in primary and secondary education in India, argues that the legal force and the professional support, even the very goals, of the 1988 reform act created a problem of manageability: “One of the paradoxes was that there would have been no manageability problem without the principles embodied in the curriculum required by the 1988 Act” (2000).

Venkataiah identifies three types of problems that arose for those charged with managing the curriculum at the school level: curriculum time allocation, teacher expertise, and resources in primary schools. A further problem with meeting the expansive goals of the nationally determined curriculum of primary schools has been many teachers’ shallow approach to education.

“The dominating difficulty in the purpose of primary schools is the fact that ‘knowing’ is rated more highly than ‘teaching,’ despite the importance of the latter and its equally intimate connection with ‘learning,”‘ writes Venkataiah (2000). Venkataiah adds: The agency responsible for the National Curriculum advised the Government that the statutory curriculum would have to be slimmed down; the agency responsible for the national inspection arrangement reported that those schools that had nearly covered the statutory curriculum had done so only by encouraging superficial learning in their pupils.

  • 2000) Initiatives: Universalization of the entire educational system has been the main goal of government since independence.
  • Formal and nonformal primary education, however, have been the main challenge to this goal.
  • Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) is fraught with systemic and socioeconomic factors that call for massive public education and advocacy.

A total-literacy campaign is underway despite numerous barriers. Even provision of textbooks in poverty-ridden areas is a challenge. A comprehensive program seeks to target “i) teachers and all those involved in education of children; ii) students and parents of students, particularly non-literate parents; and iii) community opinion leaders” (Government of India 2001).

  1. Residential education of girls, especially from broken homes and poor families, has lately received planners’ attention.
  2. A program named after Mahatma Gandhi’s wife, the Kasturba Gandhi Shiksha Yojana, has been funded with Rs.2,500 million (rupees).
  3. Other financial incentives and scholarships for poor girls have been provided.

All such programs, as recorded in the NPE-1986, “pay special attention to increasing girls’ enrollment, improving educational outcomes, strengthening community involvement, and improving teaching and learning materials and providing in-service teacher training” (Government of India 2001).

  1. The status of some of these initiatives is discussed below.
  2. Operation Blackboard: According to the government of India, the number of primary schools that have been transformed under this initiative with central assistance is 523,000.
  3. The main purpose of this program is to improve the environment in schools by providing basic facilities.

Decentralization: According to the government of India, the management of elementary education, as envisioned by the NPE, has emphasized direct community involvement in the form of Village Education Committees (VECs). The 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments provide for decentralization of the local self-government institutions, called Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs).

PRIs have thus become pivotal in the delivery of education in rural and urban communities. The oppressed groups—women, Scheduled Castes and Tribes, and minorities—have especially found PRIs very helpful. This approach is essentially grass-roots educational policy and delivery. Decentralization has been reinforced during the Eighth Five-Year Plan.

The VECs, District Primary Education Program, and Lok Jumbish have been chiefly instrumental in this process. A Special Orientation Program for Primary Teachers has further reinforced support to primary level teachers. During 1992 to 1993 and 1995 to 1996, Rs.8,163 million were allocated; the outlay for 1996 to 1997 was Rs.2,910 million.

  1. More recent data is not available.
  2. Mobilizing the village community to take responsibility for ensuring quality education for every child is the core strategy of both the Shiksha Karmi Project and Lok Jumbish and in their efforts to universalize and improve primary education.
  3. Community involvement has been crucial for the success of these projects.
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Shiksha Karmi Project: The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency has assisted in the implementation of the Shiksha Karmi Project. The project aims at universalization and qualitative improvement of primary education in the remote and economically disadvantaged villages of Rajasthan with a focus on girls.

The Shiksha Karmi Project has constituted VECs in 2,000 villages to promote community involvement in primary education and encourage village-level planning. The role of the VEC is to mobilize resources for maintenance, repair, and construction of school infrastructures. The VEC also helps in determining the school calendar and school-daytimings in consultation with the local community and Shiksha Karmis (educational workers).

Shiksha Karmis are frequently used as substitutes to compensate for teacher absenteeism. In addition to the more formal courtyard schools ( Angan Pathshalas ), the Shiksha Karmi Project also runs nonformal classes called Prehar Pathshalas (schools of convenient timings).

  1. For girls’ education, Angan Pathshalas are run in three blocks.
  2. As of 2001 the program covered over 150,000 students in 1,785 schools and 3,520 Prehar Pathshalas, involving over 4,271 Shiksha Karmis.
  3. Lok Jumbish Project: Lok Jumbish is extended to 75 blocks covering a population of approximately 12 million in Rajastahan.

The project involves government agencies, teachers, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and elected representatives to promote universalization of primary education. The seven guiding principles of Lok Jumbish are (a) a process rather than a product approach, (b) partnerships, (c) decentralized functioning, (d) participatory learning, (e) integration with the mainstream education system, (f) flexibility of management, and (g) multiple levels of leadership.

to provide all children with access to primary education either in the formal system or through the non-formal education (NFE) program; to reduce differences in enrollment, dropout rates, and learning achievement among gender and social groups to less than 5 percent; to reduce overall primary dropout rates for all students to less than 10 percent; to raise average achievement levels by at least 25 percent over measured baseline levels; and to ensure achievements of basic literacy and numeric competencies and a minimum of 40 percent achievement levels in other competencies by all primary school children.

The Government of India finances 85 percent of the project cost as a grant to the DPEP State Implementation Societies, and state governments provide the rest. As of 2001, the International Development Agency (IDA) of the World Bank had approved credit amounting to $260 million and $425 million under Phase I and Phase II of DPEP, respectively.

  1. The European Union is providing a grant of 150 million euros.
  2. The ODA (of the United Kingdom) is extending a grant of $80.21 million, and a grant from the Netherlands amounts to $25.8 million.
  3. DPEP has been implemented in phases in different states beginning with 42 districts in the states of Assam, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, and Madhya Pradesh.

In the second phase, the program was launched in 80 districts of Orissa, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, and in Phase I States. The main projects are summarized below to exemplify varied governmental objectives. Bihar Education Project: The Bihar Education Project, launched in 1991, emphasized participatory planning to uplift the deprived sections of society, such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and women.

A midterm review highlighted major achievements including (a) a strong Mahila Samakhya component; (b) organization of VECs and community involvement in program implementation at grassroots levels; and (c) nonformal education through NGOs. Uttar Pradesh Basic Education Program: The government of Uttar Pradesh launched the World Bank project Education for All in June 1993.

The project, operating in 12 districts as of 2001, is planned to expand its coverage to 15 districts under DPEP Phase II. It has an outlay of Rs.7,288 million spread over 7 years. The IDA would provide a credit of $163.1 million, and the state government’s share would be approximately 13 percent of the total project cost.

About 40,000 teachers have been trained. Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project: The Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project (APPEP), implemented in the south-central state of Andhra Pradesh, adopts a two-pronged strategy of improving classroom transaction by training teachers and giving a fillip to school construction activities.

The Andhra Pradesh area has a female literacy rate of just 34 percent. The project has trained an estimated 80,000 teachers in 23 districts, and more than 3,000 teaching centers have become operational. The project is assisted by the UK’s ODA with an estimated outlay of Rs.1,000 million in the Eighth Five-Year Plan.

National Program of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (School Meal Program): Providing a free, nutritious cooked meal of 100 grams of food grains per school day to all children in classes I-V is an ambitious program in a country of 1 billion people. The program was launched in 1997 to 1998 to support UEE in achieving its goal of increasing enrollment, retention, and attendance in primary classes.

In 1997 to 1998 the program covered nearly 110 million children in primary classes. Reportedly school enrollment and rates of retention have increased. : India – Preprimary Primary Education
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Who thought about pre primary education in India?

India – Pre Primary Education. – Primary School India The pre primary education in India is also known as Kindergarten. Kindergarten, a term created by Mr Friedrich Frobel in 1837, which means “children’s garden”. Various types of Pre primary schools are now available in India, and more and more children are now attending preschool, indicating a rise in the need for education of kids.

Pre-primary education is considered to be very important for the child as it is the first step towards entering the world of knowledge as well as a healthy and purposeful life. Pre-primary education helps children become more independent and confident as well as promote the all round development of the children.

This overall increase raises questions such as whether this demand has increased everywhere. Are all children attending pre-schools if they are available? Which types of preschools do children belonging to different socio-economic groups attend? There are many factors which combine in this vast education sector, compiling a neat amount of plus points for the growth of Preschool education in India.

To ensure the quality of preschool education it is important to provide well qualified and trained teachers for pre primary schools. Facilities and Amenities are important and must provide safe, healthy and suitable environment for young children. Free food distributed in pre primary schools plays an important role in helping the poorest sections of society and curbing nutritional problems.

These schemes should be well maintained and expanded. Pre schools are diverse all around the world, with a variety of different institutions that have been developed for children ranging from the ages of two to seven, depending on the country concerned.

The preschool tutelage in India is divided into two stages- junior kindergarten (Jr. KG) and senior kindergarten (Sr. KG). The Jr. KG class would comprise of children three to four years of age, and Sr. KG class would comprise of children aged four to five years. A child enters Class 1 of Primary School once he is done with the Sr.

KG. Kindergarten plays an important part of regular schools; as well it is part of separate private chain. This versatility is because education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state, and local.

  1. Children belonging to low income groups in society, particularly girls, depend on public preprimary schools, whereas those belonging to higher socio-economic groups are more likely to attend private pre schools.
  2. Education of children between 3-6 years old is not a fundamental right, thus it is not in the thick light.
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Because of this preschool education is suffering from inadequate coverage and poor quality which benefits very few children. The importance of pre-primary schooling has been recognized by educational policy and programmes in India and it has also been a constitutional commitment as a part of the directive principle of the constitution.

All in all the pre primary education scene in the country is on a boom, yet with mixed reactions as there are still many loopholes to be filled in various fields. Richa Sharma, is a author who likes to write about, If you would like to know more about preschool, kindergarten, Pre School Franchisee you can see http://www.littlemillennium.com/.

: India – Pre Primary Education. – Primary School India
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Who started preschool in India?

India’s unsung ECCE pioneers EducationWorld March 2020 | Expert Comment In an era when educationists — including early childhood educators — are rightly encouraged to think and act ‘glocal’, i.e, global and local, it’s equally important to realise that at the formative age of 0-6 years, education rooted in a child’s mother tongue and local culture has a lasting impact on the cognitive and socio-emotional development of youngest children.

Therefore, while it’s important to know about the seminal contributions of European early childhood educators such as Friedrich Froebel, Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner, it’s equally important for ECCE (early childhood care and education) providers in India to be aware of the education philosophy and work of indigenous pioneers who drew upon best practices from around the world and adapted them to local conditions.

Four pioneer Indians who made a significant impact on early childhood education and from whom all educators need to learn are: Gijubhai Badheka (1885-1939), Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), Tarabai Modak (1892-1973), Anutai Wagh (1910-1992) and Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948).

A creative disruptor, Gijubhai introduced several innovative child-friendly practices into ECCE. Among them: teachers greeting children instead of the other way round; encouraging child-crafted plays/concerts; according children respect and freedom to voice their opinions; banning corporal punishment in schools and educating parents about its negative consequences.

Another great ECCE educator was Tarabai Modak, a social worker of Maharashtra. Inspired by Gijubhai’s experiments in early childhood education, she began working with him in Bal Mandir, a preschool in Bhavnagar. Together they also started India’s first training college for pre-primary teachers, way back in 1925.

  1. Sadly almost a century later, India does not have a formal early childhood teacher training programme similar to the B.Ed study programme.
  2. In 1936, following criticism that ECCE being provided was for “rich children”, Tarabai started the Shishu Vihar Kendra in Bombay.
  3. In 1945, she moved to Bordi, a tribal area of Maharashtra, where she founded a Gram Bal Shiksha Kendra (pre-primary).

Indeed Tarabai Modak should be credited with having pioneered the concept of balwadis — preschools for youngest children. In Bordi, she experimented with two types of preschools — central and angan balwadis. Central balwadis were run for five hours with children brought from their homes to preschools.

Conversely, angan balwadis were conducted in courtyards of homes by teachers who sang ballads and conceptualised games to teach children hygiene, language etc. Together with Anutai Wagh, she developed an indigenous curriculum using low-cost teaching aids. The idea of anganwadis promoted under the ICDS scheme has been drawn largely from Tarabai’s work.

Another great stalwart of pre-independence India’s cultural renaissance who was an ECCE proponent, was poet-writer Rabindranath Tagore, also a great admirer of Dr. Maria Montessori’s ECCE philosophy and pedagogy. In 1929 when the first International Montessori Congress was organised in Denmark, Tagore travelled to that country to attend it where he also met the famous Swiss educationist Jean Piaget.

In 1940 when Dr. Montessori visited India, Tagore welcomed her warmly and learning from her, began propagating education for youngest children through music and play. Moreover, almost a century ago, he introduced drama and arts as compulsory subjects in preschool. Even Mahatma Gandhi, who successfully masterminded India’s freedom movement, drew up a detailed vision for Indian education in 1937 — Nai Talim (basic education).

But it was later in 1944 that he became aware of the importance of early childhood education. “Real education begins from conception, as the mother begins to take responsibility for her child. It is very clear that if this new education is to be effective, its foundation must go deeper, it must begin not with the children but the parents and the community,” he said.

In his explanation of Nai Talim, he defined ‘pre-basic education’ for children below seven years of age, as “the development of all their faculties, conducted by school teachers in cooperation with the parents and the community in schools, in the home and in the village.” The plain truth is that immersive pedagogies such as experiential learning, exploration and discovery through the playway method which are being introduced as contemporary, were already being practised by India’s ECCE pioneers much before independence, albeit in small corners of the country.

For educators, particularly ECCE teachers, it would be useful to revisit these early pioneers and incorporate their work and teaching in contemporary preschools. Swati Popat Vats I recommend that all ECCE professionals read Divasvapna: An Educator’s Reverie (1931) by Gijubhai Badheka, A Parrot’s Training (1918) by Rabindranath Tagore, Kosbadcha tekadivarun (2008) by Anutai Wagh and Basic education (1940) by Mahatma Gandhi.
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Who is the founder of kindergarten?

Next to Pestalozzi, perhaps the most gifted of early 19th-century educators was Froebel, the founder of the kindergarten movement and a theorist on the importance of constructive play and self-activity in early childhood. He was an intensely religious man who tended toward pantheism and has been called a nature mystic.

  1. Throughout his life he achieved very little literary fame, partly because of the style of his prose and philosophy, which is so academic and obscure that it is difficult to read and sometimes scarcely comprehensible.
  2. In early life, Froebel tried various kinds of employment until 1805, when he met Anton Gruner, a disciple of Pestalozzi and director of the normal school at Frankfurt am Main, who persuaded him to become a teacher.

After two years with Gruner, he visited Pestalozzi at Yverdon, studied at Göttingen and Berlin, and eventually determined upon establishing his own school, founded on what he considered to be psychological bases. The result in 1816 was the Universal German Educational Institute at Griesheim, transferred the following year to Keilhau, which constituted a kind of educational community for Froebel, his friends, and their wives and children.

  • To this period belongs The Education of Man (1826), his most important treatise, though typical of his obscurantism.
  • In 1831 he was again in Switzerland, where he opened a school, an orphanage, and a teacher-training course.
  • Finally, in 1837, upon returning to Keilhau, he opened his first Kindergarten, or “garden of children,” in nearby Bad Blankenburg.
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The experiment attracted wide interest, and other kindergartens were started and flourished, despite some political opposition.
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What is called pre-primary education?

OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms – Pre-primary education (ISCED 0) Definition

Pre-primary education (ISCED 0) is defined as the initial stage of organised instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment, that is, to provide a bridge between home and a school-based atmosphere. ISCED level 0 programmes should be centre or school-based, be designed to meet the educational and developmental needs of children at least three years of age, and have staff that are adequately trained (i.e., qualified) to provide an educational programme for the children.


Source Publication:
Education at a Glance, OECD, Paris, 2002, Glossary.


Statistical Theme: Education and training statistics


Created on Thursday, January 30, 2003



Last updated on Wednesday, February 12, 2003


OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms – Pre-primary education (ISCED 0) Definition
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What is NEP in pre-primary?

Implementation of NEP 2020: Focusing on early childhood learning Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) is considered a precursor to school education. The pre-school years play a significant role in preparing children for the school education ahead.

  1. An effective ECCE contributes to enrolment, helps reduce dropouts in early years and helps children acquire Foundational Literacy and Numeracy in early grades.
  2. One of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) number 4 global indicators in the thematic area of Early Childhood measures student participation rate one year before primary school.

This indicator captures the percentage of five-year-old’s who are undergoing organized learning. According to the 2022 UNESCO report ‘Setting Commitment: National SDG 4 Benchmarks to Transform Education’, globally, the rate increased from 65% in 2002 to 75% in 2020.

  1. In India, the participation rate in organised learning at least one year prior to entering primary education reached 87.2% in 2020.
  2. The government of India has set targets for this participation rate to reach 95% by 2025 and 100% by 2030.
  3. The Yearly Status of School Education in States and Union Territories of India 2022 report has highlighted the importance of ECCE and interventions being undertaken therein under National Education Policy (NEP), 2020.

NEP 2020 has envisaged an expansion of early childhood education institutions, with particular emphasis on inclusion of economically weaker sections. In the new structure under the NEP, for the first time, early childhood care and education has been considered from age 3 onwards.

NEP focuses on children’s physical and motor, cognitive, socio-emotional-ethical, cultural/artistic, communication and early language, literacy, and numeracy development skills. The policy envisages that National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) would develop National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education including guides for parents and institutions.

Several structures are likely to emerge for pre-school education including standalone Anganwadi centres and Balvatikas; Anganwadi centres and Balvatikas co-located with primary schools; and primary schools adding pre-school segments. For implementation at scale, each of the structures will have different requirements of teachers and resource persons, infrastructure and administrative arrangements.

The planning and implementation of the ECCE will need to be carried out jointly by ministries of Women and Child Development, Education, Health and Family Welfare etc. The government has launched Vidya Pravesh, a pre-school module. This three-month, play-based school readiness preparation module will be for students entering Grade l.

Developed by NCERT, this School Preparation Module can be adopted/adapted by states and union territories. The implementation of ECCE initiatives will not be without challenges. Safety of pre-primary school children, especially where Anganwadis and Balvatikas will be co-located with schools, needs to be ensured.

Large-scale training of schoolteachers will also be required in delivering the Vidya Pravesh module and for mentoring Anganwadi and Balvatika staff. These teachers will also need to be sensitised in aspects related to childcare. School systems will need to fill up vacant positions for schoolteachers as this additional ECCE work will accentuate teacher’ shortage.

Similarly, large-scale hiring of resource persons for Anganwadis and Balvatikas will need to be undertaken. Schools may need to construct a significant number of additional classrooms and other associated facilities, including child-friendly toilets and drinking water facilities.

There will be a need to apply BALA (Buildings As Learning Aids) concepts, as well as to organise child-friendly furniture, outdoor and indoor playing equipment and learning materials, pre-school books, etc. For the hub-and-spoke model where a school mentors nearby Anganwadis and Balvatikas, and Cluster level Education Department officials provide training inputs to resource persons, enabling logistics arrangement will need to be institutionalised.

Further, as the mid-day meal scheme is extended to pre-primary children, adjustments may have to be made in food served and when and how it is served to younger children. Similarly, as the vaccination, food supplements and other health interventions are incorporated to the ECCE programme, the scale and scope of work at schools may increase substantially.

With a specific focus on ECCE, the NEP has made its intent clear on strengthening the foundation of learning. Implementation of these thoughtful and long-pending interventions will need to be undertaken with the same intent. This may then prove to be one of the most significant contributors to school education in particular and education in general.

The emphasis on the ECCE programme in NEP 2020 has the potential to create wide-ranging developmental benefits for India. Healthier and better prepared children entering schools could substantially enhance what they would get from their school education.
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Which class is called pre-primary?

Pre Primary Education –

Pre-primary education in India generally starts at the age of 3 and goes on till the age of 6, which comprises kindergartens or playschools. These schools have varying names for different levels of classes, beginning from – Pre-Nursery, Nursery, KG, LKG (Lower Kindergarten), and UKG (Upper Kindergarten).

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    Who is the first father of Indian education?

    Who is the father of modern legal education in India? Answer at BYJU’S IAS Neelakanta Ramakrishna Madhava Menon is considered by many as the father of modern legal education in India. He was an Indian civil servant, lawyer and legal educator. He is the founder of the National Law Universities system. Further Reading: : Who is the father of modern legal education in India? Answer at BYJU’S IAS
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    What is the aim of pre primary education?

    The main aim of pre-primary education is to attain an optimal perceptual and motor, cognitive and socio-emotional levels as the basis for readiness for school education and the life in the society. The starting ground is the uniqueness of the child, active learning, and integration in a group and a collective.
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    What is pre primary education in India?

    Pre-school, which comprises Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) enrols children in nursery (infants upto three years), lower kindergarten (LKG) (three to four yours olds) and upper kindergarten (UKG) (four to five year olds). This caters to infants and children upto six years of age.
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