Who Is The Founder Of Basic Education?


Who Is The Founder Of Basic Education
Free Kerala SET Paper 1: Held on 10th January 2020 120 Questions 120 Marks 120 Mins Basic education was introduced in India by Gandhiji. Key Points

Mahatma Gandhi was the founding father of Basic Education, The founding father of Basic education is the father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi introduced Basis education in his ashram in the year 1946, Basic education is a principle that states that knowledge and work aren’t separate,

Additional Information Mahatma Gandhi promoted an academic curriculum with the same name based on this pedagogical principle, It can be translated with the phrase ‘Basic Education for all. The term ‘Basic’ is critical in Basic Education. Basic comes from the term “Base”.

Pre-basic (up to six years ) Basic (from seven to fourteen years) Post-Basic (from fifteen to 18) University education Social and adult education

Latest Kerala SET Updates Last updated on Oct 25, 2022 Kerala SET application date extended to 31st October 2022 at 5pm. The exams for the Kerala SET will be conducted on 22nd January 2023. Candidates who qualify this exam can apply for teaching posts at Higher Secondary Schools in the state.
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Who explained basic education system?

Development values through Basic Education: – Gandhiji was a great revolutionary person. He had deeply thought over all the aspects (factors) relating to life. He has show a new path for solution of problems of entire world by placing the universal human values at social and national level.

  1. “Welfare of all (universal welfare) is our welfare.
  2. The work of a barber and lawyer should be equality appraised because the right of livelihood is equal for all.
  3. Simple and laborious life of a farmer is the real life”.2

Gandhiji set up Phoenix Ashram (hermitage) in south-Africa to apply these doctrines in daily practice. He took up experiments of education, thus it can be said that the seeds of educational thoughts were in Gandhiji in South Africa. He conducted Educational experiment at phoenix Ashram and Tolstoy wadi (Garden) in South Africa. These include:

  • Education for character building, education thought mother-tongue.
  • Place of manual work in education and co-education.
  • Hostel residence and community life.
  • Moral education though character and good conduct.
  • Educational of soul should be imparted thought teacher’s (model) life rather than through books.
  • Health education for physical fitness and health and insistence for simple life.
  • Importance for self-help and self-reliance, education for thoroughness (strength), education for citizenship.
  • Education for self-help and self-reliance, education for personality development.
  • Education for avoiding caste and colour distinction, education for vocation useful for life.
  • Education for equality of all the religions, education based (founded) on truth, non-violence and justice”.

Gandhiji held educational experiment at Shantiniketan, Kocharab Ashram, Sabarmati Ashram and Gujarat Vidhyapeeth after returning form South Africa, and gave a new vision (philosophy) of education to educational world by placing “Vardha educational Scheme” before the nation in 1937.

  • The report of “Vardha Education Schme-1937 include ( covered) only the primary stage of education.
  • But in 1945, Gandhiji put the concept of “comprehensive basic Education (Samagra Nai Talim) Training before the nation”.
  • The five national values presented under the title of national Panchsheel included in NPE 1986 viz (1) Cleanliness (2) Truthfulness (3) Hardwork (3) equality and (5) co-operation are naturally developed in basic education.

In basic education system it is recommended to impart education thought mother tongue and if is already so. Gnadhiji, too believed that the foundation of education should be laid through mother tongue. It helps inculcating values like love towards mother tongue and Swadeshi (native).

Education through industry is the basic principal of basic education, Basic education, because it help developing values like respect for manual labour, sense of co-operation, feeling of being mutually helpful through manual work, development of friendship feeling, economical self-reliance, team spirit and sincerity.

Today we have forgotten self-help (self-labour) I education. As a result children seem to be lacking behind in routine dealing skills in daily life. Present education has become examination centered. Due to this curiously enough a student, fluently uttering any principal of since, answer of questions of history or fluently reciting any of the Gujarati poems becomes nervous when the fuse of home light burns or a nail of shoe is dropped out.

  • Everybody must learn to do his/her own work by him/herself.
  • Present children seem to understand that clearing house, sweeping room, cleansing room with wet cloth, cleaning vessels; washing clothes are the foundations of work women.
  • Such mis-concept of child’s mind prevents their comprehensive development.

Such misconnect will be removed only when self-labour will be given an important place in education. Self- labour is given an important place in basic education. Here children do as many activities as possible on their own accord. As a result, values like exertion, efforts, courage, initiation, respect for manual labour, self-confidence and self-confidence and self-dependence etc.

Develop automatically in children. Basic education imparts children training of self-reliance. One of the four major resolutions formed by Vardha Parishad reads thus: “During the entire time period, the centre of education must be some type of physical and (useful) productive work, and the abilities of children should be developed and education should be imported as far as possible in co-ordination with the central major industry selected by them and keeping in view the environment of children” in this productivity is directly connected with self-reliance.

Gandhiji has said in context of self reliance. “I would prefer to start a child’s education after teaching him some useful manual industry and enabling him for some innovative creation. Every school can be self-reliant”.7 Education should offer a child such a strength that he can be free form tension about his future (i.e.

  • What to do?) at the end of education.
  • Shastri Jayendra Dave while explaining the meaning of self-dependence says, Self-dependence means relief from economical, social, mental or any type of surjection – individual’s being self-reliant.
  • An individual should acquire three-fold independence (self-reliance) after completing education”8 that is why Gandhiji had advocated education through industry, so that the individual can stand on his legs (be -self-reliant), that is he/she can be self-dependent, self-reliant.
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Collective (inseparable) education, too, has been given place as important as industry and community life. Saint Vinobajee has said. “The learning process between teacher and student is not possible without harmony among (home) family, society, environment, and embellishment.

If even one of them is absent, it raises a risk of failure of education exereise”19 That is way Gandhiji has show us the path of comprehensive education generated by experience through perceptible functions or industry going to the open environmental rather than the education process in a close room of four walls.

Thus education thought comprehensive education system leads to the promotion of values. Like environmental preservation, human viewpoint, awareness of social accountability and social service. In basic education Gandhiji has given the same importance to community life as to industry as a medium of education.

Education thought community life develops in children the qualities like team spirit should to shoulder work that is co-operation and a sense of mutual help. A Children acquires competence of social adjustment thought community life. In traditional education system, only class-room teaching talks place collectively.

There too, the education is being imparted through talking or lecture method rather than activities. As a result the development of sociability in children does not reach the expected level. While in the other hand, in Gandhiji basic education system, the education of community life is imparted through perceptible activity of daily life dealings and various activities of industry.

  1. Daily activities of school and laborious, creative and productive activities of hand industry have been made a medium of community education.
  2. Thus a child naturally develops sociability.
  3. Ashrami (Residential) Education has been given a crucial place in basic education Present residential education has its roots in our ancient Indian culture.

Gandhiji said, “I erect an Ashram wherever I go, as if I don’t know anything else”. This is true. This ‘Ashram’ Itself becomes the form of education. In our country there prevailed an Indian traditional of this Ashrami education in ‘Penance forest’ (ascetics dwelling) and ‘Gurukul’.

Gandhiji comes and conducted experiment as to what Ashrami education can be suitable to modern circumstance (time and place), wherever he went. According to him, “Ashram was his laboratory of education”. In Ashrami education system, the education for comprehensive development of children isimparted through co-curricular activities like community life, mass prayer, common dinner, physical exercise, team works, games and sports, assignment (homework), cultural programmes, celebration of special days, and creative programmes.

Ashrami (residential) education is necessary in Basic Education. Children arise in the early morning, complete their routine work and recite collective all religions prayer is recited in the evening, too, at the hostel. Collective (mass) prayer programme is inevitably implemented in school also.

This helps cultivating values like spiritual values, non-indulgence in taste, non-stealing (not using more than one’s needs), non-violence, outlook of equality to words all religious, honestly, holiness, peace in children. During hostel residential children take up various activities in various teams or collectively.

These include room cleaning, ground cleaning, dining hall cleaning, toilet and urinal cleaning, fetching water, cooking activities, corn cleaning, watering plants, beside there own (personal) activities like washing cloth, taking bath etc. In short, training of all the functions related to life is imparted in basic education system.

Due to this, values like cleanliness, self-reliance, labour, team spirit, co-operation, endurance power, loyalty, good conduct, honestly, duty observance (discipline), obedience, time-keeping, Exercises, games and sport related to physical education are also organized with a view to developing health related values in children.

In basic education, various celebrations such as national festivals, birth anniversary, death anniversary, parents (guardians) day, self-education day, environment day, world population day and such other days are celebrated. Cultural programmes are organized on such occasions.

Moreover, creative programmes given by Gandhiji such as village cleaning, prevention of untouchability, communal unity, prohibition (of alcoholic drinks) Khadi activities, adult education, women uplift, health education, nursing of lepers, addiction relief, etc. are celebrated in basic schools as well as in community and hostels.

All these help developing moral values, spiritual values, social values, national values, cultural values and individual values naturally among children. Thus basic education is such a medium through which values useful for the life are naturally developed among children.
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Who was the chief exponent of basic education?

Mahatma Gandhi’s Important Principles or Tenets : – The important tenets of his educational philosophy are as follows: (i) Free and Compulsory Primary Education : Gandhiji envisaged seven years free, compulsory and universal primary education up to matriculation minus English.

In other words, he wanted to combine the present primary and secondary education into one—called the English-less matriculation. It should be free because India is a poor country and all the parents cannot afford the cost of education. It should be compulsory because majority of people do not realize the central value of education in life and do not send their wards o the school.

Therefore, he wanted to make education compulsory for all so that the children may attend the school regularly rather than attending some other duties assigned by their ignorant and illiterate parents. Moreover, nobody would be denied to receive education up to 14 years of age.

As such, it is universal in nature. (ii) Craft-centred Education : Craft-centred education is not education plus crafts but it is education through craft. Craft is the nucleus of education. It is the centre of the entire teaching-learning process. Education in a sense should be centred around some productive craft.

It is this education through which all-round development of the child can be possible. He said, “It was his wish that, the whole process of education should be imparted through some handicraft or industry.” Further he added that the handicraft should not be taught mechanically but scientifically which implies that the child should know the why and wherefore of every process.

  • For example, by teaching Takli-Spinning, knowledge of different varieties of cotton, the different soils in different pockets of India, the history of the decay of handicraft, a knowledge of Arithmetic etc.
  • Should be imparted.
  • The craft should not be taught merely for production work but for developing the intellect of the pupils.
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His object was not to produce craftsmen but he wanted to exploit it for educative purposes. He wanted that stress should be laid on the principles of co-operative activity, planning, accuracy, initiative and individual responsibility in learning.

  • He outlined the following factors as regards to the selection of craft:
  • (a) It should be the centre around which the different subjects can be clubbed,
  • (b) It should find natural point? of correlation with important activities and interests,
  • (c) It must be according to the natural and social environment
  • (d) It should be tied with the life of the children,
  • (e) It should meet the vocational needs of the child in the changing social order.
  • Craft-centred education is significant on the following scores:

(a) It is psychologically sound as it relieves the child from the tyranny of a purely academic, theoretical and monotonous instruction. It is a means of fostering the power of imagination and sharpening the intellect. It gives wide scope to children for self-expression by sublimation of their instincts.

Moreover, the psychological needs of the children i.e. need for affection, self-respect, creativeness are fulfilled through craft-centred education. (b) It is sociologically sound as the introduction of practical productive work can break down the hiatus between urban and rural life when it tends to infuse a sense of dignity of labour in the children.

It breaks the existing wall of prejudice between manual and intellectual work. It brings a sense of co-operation, discipline, belongingness, tolerance and self-government in children. (c) Economically, it is considered as sound as it increases the productive capacity of our workers and also enables them to utilize their leisure advantageously.

  • It also helps in attaining the aim of self-supporting aspect of education.
  • D) It is pedagogically sound since it gives reality to knowledge.
  • It helps to bring correlation of knowledge with life and its various aspects.
  • E) From the biological stand-point, it is sound as it provides opportunities for earning while learning.

(iii) Self-Sufficiency : It implies that the child should be able to cover some part of his educational expenses by engaging himself in some productive works which would give him earning along with learning. It also enables the child to earn a living after completing his course of education—preparing the child for future life.

  1. Secondly, education imparted in itself should be self-supporting to an extent that the productive work of the pupils would meet the expenses of the school viz, salaries of the teachers, expenditure on raw-materials and maintenance of equipment and furniture.
  2. Gandhiji realized that a poor nation like India that cannot provide education to all the pupils free of cost which necessitates education to be self-supporting and self-sufficient.
  3. His self-sufficiency aspects was criticised on the grounds of the following:

(a) Critics thought that by indulging children in productive works, school would exploit them. It was nothing but exploitation of the child labour. Therefore, the tender age of children is grossly exploited and spoiled. (b) Some develops fear that if children are left free in making goods, they would mishandle the machinery which would cause irreparable loss.

  • (d) Critics argue that parents would reap the advantage of child labour by propelling the child to do some works in the hope of shunning their onus.
  • (e) Lastly, it was thought that children might produce articles which could not compete with the marketable articles produced in factories because their products were very rough and crude.
  • In-spite of its drawbacks, craft-centred education is unique for its self-sufficiency aspect which brings about economic prosperity.
  • (iv) Emphasis on Mother-tongue:

He realized that the greatest handicap of the prevailing system of education was that learning was being imparted through the medium of English. This affected the development of understanding, precision of thought and clarity of ideas. Mother tongue, on the contrary, would enable the children to understand clearly the rich heritage of people’s ideas, emotions and aspirations, to express freely, clearly and lucidly in speaking and writing, to use the list of contents and the indices, and to consult dictionaries and reference books.

  1. V) Correlation as a Method of Teachings : It was envisaged that correlation should be the guiding principle of teaching all subjects.
  2. Different subjects are to be taught making craft as the focal point of teaching-learning process.
  3. Gandhiji wanted an effective and natural correlation between the craft and other subjects and the,co-ordination of various subjects.

For example, in Geography teaching, it can be correlated with spinning through a thread-bare discussion on the nature of soil required for plantation of cotton, climatic condition, period of vegetation etc. In language teaching, it can be done by stimulating pupils to write an essay on cotton.

  1. In Science subject, pupils can be asked to make a nature study for the growth of the cotton plants.
  2. Therefore, it is the starting point of teaching all other subjects and it is the medium through which different subjects are to be taught effectively by means of correlation.
  3. As such, he had distaste towards water tight compartmentalization of manifold subjects.

(vi) Creed of Non-violence: A very outstanding feature of his educational philosophy was the application of the law of Ahimsa in the training of the child as a prospective world citizen. He thought that non-violence was the panacea for all evils. He said, “Where the whole atmosphere is redolent with the pure fragrance of ahimsa, boys and girls studying together will have like brothers and sisters in freedom and yet in self-imposed restraint; the students will be bound to the teachers in ties of filial love, mutual respects and mutual trust.” His scheme of education wanted to establish a society free from communal hat redness and all forms of and exploitation.

  1. His plan of education was based upon the pillar of non-violence (Ahimsa).
  2. His aim was to evolve a non-violent society based on love, mutual respect, sympathy and co-operation through education.
  3. Vii) Ideal of citizenship : Gandhiji wanted to make children right type of citizens endowed with civic sense, conscious of one’s own duties and rights, responsibilities and opportunities.

This would be possible by his new indigenous system of education. Education should, therefore, be directed to conform to this standard of citizenship.
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What is basic education theory?

There are five primary educational learning theories: behaviorism, cognitive, constructivism, humanism, and connectivism. Additional learning theories include transformative, social, and experiential.
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What is the main aim of basic education?

What are the Aims and Objectives of Education? Education is a never-ending journey. Its primary goal is to promote a child’s holistic development. As the child grows, the results of education are visible in the form of a better and more prosperous life.

Education teaches us to distinguish between fair and evil, unethical and ethical.Education provides a person hope that they will be able to address the difficulties that humanity is currently facing.Education empowers you to challenge everything that appears to be incorrect.Education teaches you how to conduct yourself correctly and effectively.Education assists you in discovering the truth and challenges you to think in new ways.Illusions get dispelled by proper education.It increases your awareness and confidence.Education aims to develop children into good citizens. Responsible citizens apply their learning and gained skills to help themselves and others. They help to move the human race ahead in areas such as equality, justice, and harmony.

Aims of Education Vocational Aim: Education enables students to make a good living in the future. It makes them independent and successful not just culturally but also financially. Occupational competence should be a strong focus of education. Knowledge: Knowledge is as essential for intellectual development as nutrition is for body development.

It encourages lifestyle changes, self-realization, and societal progress. Thus, knowledge is as much a source of strength as comfort. It leads to effective interpersonal relationships and healthy life adaptations. Thus, knowledge acquisition should be a significant goal of education. Complete Living: Education must familiarise a child with the actions of healthy living.

These may include childbearing and childrearing, consciousness, activities connected to socioeconomic and cultural responsibilities, and aspects linked to the appropriate use of free time. Total Development: Education seeks to grow the overall personality of the learner.

  1. These include physiological, intellectual, moral, social, and spiritual growth.
  2. Harmonious development: Harmonious development refers to the overall growth of humans.
  3. It includes physical, mental, artistic, and ethical aspects of growth.
  4. The goal of education is to develop a balanced personality.
  5. Education must nurture every child’s capabilities and qualities in a coordinated manner.

Moral Development: Herbert Spencer, an outstanding English educationist, placed a high value on this educational goal. He considered that education should help children develop moral ideals. Education must develop attributes like kindness, integrity, courage, respect, and honesty.

Character Development: According to some educational systems, this is the ultimate goal of education. It is believed that education comprises the nurturing of particular human ideals. Education helps the formation of mindsets and preferences that comprise a person’s personality. Some renowned personalities, such as Mahatma Gandhi, Swami Vivekananda, and John Dewey, regarded character development as the fundamental goal of education.

Self-realization: According to some professional educators, this is one of the most important aims of education. Education should assist a person in becoming what they need to become, depending on their specific potentials. Cultural Development: Through education, every individual must become sophisticated and civilized.

  1. Artistic growth is also a crucial component of education and results in the improvement of artistic sense and compassion.
  2. Further, it increases an individual’s regard for others and their cultures.
  3. Citizenship: We educate students to become excellent citizens of their country.
  4. Education helps them acquire traits that will benefit society.

It makes them aware of their commitments, obligations, and responsibilities to society. This goal is critical in a democratic setting. As a democratic citizen, the child should be taught to respect diverse ideas. He should be able to balance rational thinking, openness to new perspectives, and nationalism.

  • Personal and Community Goals: A few educationists believe that the most crucial goal of education is the complete growth and evolution of the student.
  • In contrast, others believe that the fundamental goal of education is societal growth.
  • Humans are social beings who require a community to survive.
  • A person owes everything to society that they must repay.

One must work for the betterment of society. Individuals need communities, and communities require individuals. Individual growth requires social connections and bonds. Education should aid in developing and maintaining a sense of commitment and devotion to society and its interests.

  • Education should create a synergy between personal and social goals.
  • They must be mutually beneficial.
  • There is no necessity for any dispute between the two.
  • The ultimate goal of education is a child’s progression as a community member.
  • Personal ambition and social provision should complement each other.

Individual and societal development should take place at the same time. Education for Leisure: Leisure is defined as time spent for recreation purposes. Leisure is an essential aspect of human life. It is required to maintain rest and replenish energy. One should spend leisure time on tasks that benefit both the individual and the community.

  • Leisure, when used appropriately, creates cognitive and emotional equilibrium.
  • Practical leisure time usage can stimulate creative, ethical, and aesthetic advancements.
  • Children should be taught how to spend their free time productively and imaginatively.
  • Elevating all aspects of personal and societal growth is the foundation of education.

The aims of education reflect the need and perspectives of education. These aims simply indicate the effect education must have on the learner. The aims are not definite or everlasting. With time, we can update and modify the aims of education as per the current requirements.
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Who is the Minister of Basic Education in Cameroon in 2022?

#BackToSchool2022: Government’s Assurances – Four Cabinet Ministers granted a joint press conference at the auditorium of the Ministry of Communication in buildup to the 2022/2023 School Year. The Minister of Communication René Emmanuel Sadi, the Minister of Secondary Education, Prof.

  1. Nalova Lyonga, the Minister of Basic Education, Prof.
  2. Laurent Serge Etoundi Ngoa and the Minister of Public Service and Administrative Reforms, Joseph Le exchanged with pressmen on salient issues.
  3. These members of government presented all the measures taken to make resumption of classes effective on Monday, September 5, 2022, throughout the national territory.

More of this story on pages 5 and 6 of the National Bilingual Daily, Cameroon Tribune. Still on school resumption, L’Eveil Republicain this morning on page 2 presents the background of the special security assessment meeting by the Ministry of Defence.
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