Who Is The Father Of Pharmacy Education In India?

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Who Is The Father Of Pharmacy Education In India
Mahadeva Lal Schroff Mahadeva Lal Schroff : father of Indian pharmacy education.
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Who started pharmacy education in India?

INTRODUCTION – Innovation has become the watchword in every aspect of life all over the world. The ability of a nation to use and create knowledge capital determines its capacity to empower and enable its citizens by increasing human capabilities. In the next few decades, India will have the largest set of young people in the world.

  • The beginning of pharmaceutical education in India was initiated at the Banaras Hindu University was back in 1932 by Professor M.L. Schroff.
  • From there it was a long journey of almost 80 years for this profession in this country and the question is where we stand in the international scene.
  • Following a knowledge-oriented paradigm of development would enable India to leverage this demographic advantage.

In the words of our Prime Minister, “The time has come to create a second wave of institution building and of excellence in the field of education, research and capability building so that we are better prepared for the 21 st century. With this broad task in mind, the National Knowledge Commission (NKC) was constituted on 13 th June 2005 with a time-frame of three years, from 2 nd October 2005 to 2 nd October 2008.

In order to achieve this task we need to strengthen the base of our educational system so that the height of the pyramid of excellence could be enhanced. In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. The potentials for growth of pharmacy profession is enormous, if we are prepared to upgrade our standards to international and global expectations.

The curriculum followed by almost all universities in India are no were up to the world standards. In the past one decade the technical education in India has spread its roots at an astonishing rate particularly the pharmaceutical field. South India nourished the mushrooming of pharmacy colleges during the initial part of the decade which seems to have paved the way for the alarmingly low number of choosers for this profession in the last phase of the decade.

There is an overall decrease in admissions to professional courses particularly in undergraduate course (B. Pharm) in pharmacy during the last three academic years. It is a serious concern that 40% of the seats are lying vacant both in under graduate and postgraduate courses across the country. The placement in the sector has also gone done.

The Education Regulation of PCI which governs diploma education in India has not undergone any updation since 20 years. The students are still getting the 20-30 yrs older compounding practical exposure in labs during the graduation level. The current frame work of pharmacy education in India produces outdated and unskilled professionals.

The products of this form of education lack the much needed professionalism and rational thinking.4 yrs of education in graduation level does not even make them fit for dispensing drugs confidently in a drug store. This is one of the main reasons behind pharmacy being an under developed profession in India.

The situation is pathetic and through this article we are proposing some novel ways to improve this situation. We also suggest the application of TQM and innovation ecosystems in pharmacy education. We urge all the pharmacists to be a part and parcel of this rejuvenation process.
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Who is the father of world pharmacy?

Benjamin Franklin : A Founding Father of Pharmacy.
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When was pharmacy education started in India?

INTRODUCTION – India, a developing nation that occupies the greater part of South Asia, is a sovereign, secular republic consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories.1 With a population of approximately 1.2 billion, 2 India is the second most populous country on the planet.

  • In India, formal pharmacy education leading to a degree began with the introduction of a 3-year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) at Banaras Hindu University in 1937.
  • At that time, the curriculum was presented as a combination of pharmaceutical chemistry, analytical chemistry, and pharmacy, which prepared graduates to work as specialists in quality control and standardization of drugs for pharmaceutical companies, 3 but not for pharmacy practice.

Before India gained independence in 1947, there were 3 institutions offering pharmacy degree programs.4 In 1944, the Punjab University started a pharmacy department; in 1947 L.M. College was established in Ahmedabad (Table ​ 1 ).
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Who started the first course of pharmacy?

Dr.K.G. Revikumar | Wednesday, April 2, 2008, 08:00 Hrs An old classical approach defines pharmacy as “the art, science and practice of preparing, preserving, compounding and dispensing of drugs”. This definition was sufficient to satisfy the expectations of professionals and the requirements of the society in the past.

But in the 1990’s the American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA) considering the emerging concepts and practice, suggested a new definition for pharmacy, according to which pharmacy “is a patient oriented health services that applies a scientific body of knowledge to improve and promote health through assurance of safety and efficacy in drug usage and drug related therapy”.

This definition gives due significance to the concepts of contemporary pharmacy practice activities like hospital pharmacy, community pharmacy and clinical pharmacy. In Italy, France and some other parts of the world, public pharmacies began to appear during the 12th century.

  • Obligatory examinations based on academic standards were instituted in Prussia in 1725.
  • The first pharmacy college in the world – ‘College de Pharmacie’ – was established in Paris in 1777.
  • In 1803, six schools for pharmacy were started in France and private institutions for pharmacy education arose in Bavaria of Germany in 1808.

In America, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was founded in 1821 followed by Massachusetts College of Pharmacy in 1823 and New York College of Pharmacy in 1829. India is one of the latecomers in the area of pharmacy education. The pharmacy education in India was started in Banaras Hindu University in 1932 by a 30-year-old youth, Mahadeva Lal Schroff popularly known as ML Schroff.

  1. He could initiate pharmacy education in the country because of the encouragement and support he got from Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, a national figure and vice chancellor of the Banaras Hindu University.
  2. In 1937 July, the course was re-named as B.Pharm and in 1940 April, the first M.Pharm course (as a research degree) was started in the University (BHU).

Prof ML Schroff was the principal of Birla College, Pilani during 1949-52 and was the professor of pharmacy at Saugar University during 1958-60. In 1964, based on the invitation from Dr Triguna Sen, he organized the dept of pharmacy at Jadavpur University, Calcutta.

  1. In between he worked in few research institutions and manufacturing firms.
  2. A chemists and druggists course was started in Madras Medical College roundabout 1874.
  3. However, the course became popular in 1898 when a separate department of chemists and druggists was organized there.
  4. In 1939, a 2-year BSc pharmacy course was started in Madras Medical College with the help and advise of Prof.

ML Schroff and in 1946 a separate dept of pharmaceutics was started in the Medical College. In 1950 the Madras Medical College started 3-year B.Pharm course. In the beginning Prof. AN Ratnagiriswaran was the head of the dept and retired in 1954. He was succeeded by Prof KS Srinivasa Varadan.

The Punjab University started B.Pharm course in 1944 and the Bombay University started B.Pharm in 1947 at LM College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad. In the beginning, the growth and development of pharmacy education was very slow. In 1947 there were only five pharmacy colleges in India with an annual intake of less than 130 students.

By 2007, the number of pharmacy degree colleges risen to above 700. Prior to 1932 some hospitals and institutions in India were training pharmacists for hospitals and medical stores who were then popularly known as “Compounders”. Such courses were then known as compounder’s training course.

The Christian Medical College, Vellore, started in the year 1900, too initiated a compounder’s training course in 1921 which was later converted into a D.Pharm course in 1958. The first pharmacy course in Kerala was a PG ‘Diploma in Pharmaceutical Sciences’ started in 1945 at Maharajas College, Ernakulam.

This course was the 3rd or 4th pharmacy course in India. It was intended to provide trained chemists for the pharmaceutical and chemical industries in India. Dr KN Menon, prof. of chemistry in Maharajas College and a close associate of prof.M.L. Schroff at Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in the 1930s was responsible for starting the course.

  • In 1932, when ML Schroff started the first pharmacy course at BHU, Dr Menon was with him.
  • It was from Schroff that Menon got the inspiration to start the pharmacy course in Kerala.
  • Dr KN Menon managed to get a donation of Rs one lakh in 1945 from the philanthropist and industrialist, Dr RM Alagappa Chettiyar for starting the course.

Dr Chettiyar was also responsible for starting the Electro Chemical Research Institute at Karakudi and the AC College of Technology Madras as he had given generous donations for them. Many committees were constituted by the central/state governments during the post independence period to study various aspects of pharmacy including the education.

The Pharmaceutical Enquiry Committee (1954) under the chairmanship of Gen. SL Bhatia, the Expert Committee on Hospital Pharmacy (1967) under the chairmanship of Dr HS Sastry in Mysore, the Hospital Review Committee – Delhi (1968), the Committee on National Drug Policy which is popularly known as the ‘Hathi Committee (1975), the Bajaj Committee (1980), the Lentin Commission (1987) are examples of such committees which made detailed study of various aspects of the profession of pharmacy and their relationship with pharmaceutical education.

In 1953, the “Pharmaceutical Enquiring Committee” which is popularly known as “Bhatia Committee” observed – “the profession of pharmacy in this country is mostly represented by a set of people known as compounders whose status, functions and duties are ill defined and improperly understood.

  1. They carry on compounding, dispensing and sale of drugs including poisons in the private pharmacies and hospitals.
  2. Their pharmaceutical education is deplorably inadequate.
  3. In many states the profession of pharmacy has been the last resort of those who could not complete their high school education or who have found to be intellectually unfit for any other career.” Today the pharmacy education in India is of world-class quality.

We have hundreds of pharmacy colleges for D.Pharm, B.Pharm, M.Pharm and PhD programmes in pharmacy. About 50,000 students come out of the pharmacy colleges every year. By 2010, the annual output from the pharmacy institutions may be around 65,000 or more.

  • The Pharmacy Act 1948 helped considerably for the overall development of pharmacy practice in India.
  • The PCI was constituted through the provisions of the Pharmacy Act 1948.
  • According to the existing Education Regulations of the Pharmacy Council of India (ER 1991), 10+2 is the minimum qualification for getting admission to the pharmacy course.

The minimum qualification for registering a person as pharmacist in India is presently Diploma in Pharmacy (D.Pharm) which is a two-year programme after 10+2. The pharmacy diploma students have to study hospital pharmacy and clinical pharmacy as separate subjects.

Universities had already also introduced hospital pharmacy, community pharmacy and clinical pharmacy as separate subjects for their B.Pharm courses. The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) has fixed the norms for the pharmacy degree course in 1990 in which hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy and pharmacy management are included as separate disciplines.

These norms were made based on the provisions of the AICTE Act 1987. Emergence of Pharm D programme Pharmacy education in US has changed drastically by the end of 20th century. The 5-year baccalaureate level (BS and B.Pharm) was replaced with a 6-year curriculum that confers a professional doctorate degree known as Pharm D (doctor of pharmacy).

This programme right from the beginning is designed with the objective of moulding practice oriented pharmacists. The Pharm D curriculum gives importance to practice oriented aspects of pharmacy with emphasis on modern aspects of hospital, clinical and community pharmacy. The Pharm D programme was introduced in University of California at San Francisco in 1955.

Till 1998 both B.S (Pharmacy) and Pharm D programmes of 5-year duration were conducted in America. In 1998 orders were issued to all American Universities to replace their B.S (Pharmacy) and B.Pharm with Pharm D focused on clinical and community pharmacy practice.

The American pharmacy professionals initiated a project in this line in the early 1980s itself. All their pharmacists with B.Pharm qualifications were provided sufficient opportunities with a practicable approach to take Pharm D through various modules in the 1990s. In 1992, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) house of delegates voted “to support a single entry level educational programme at the doctoral level (Pharm D)”.

The Accreditation Council for Pharmaceutical Education (ACPE), the national organization that accredits pharmacy degree courses, also endorsed the decision. The five-year (in addition to one year pre-professional) Pharm D programme curriculum is designed to give educational preparedness in the area of patient care and disease management accepting the professional responsibility of providing pharmaceutical care.

The course helps to mould a new generation of pharmacists capable of collaborating with other health care professionals and to share in responsibility for the out comes of drug and related therapy. They can take active role on behalf of patients in making appropriate drug choices by assuming direct responsibilities to empower patients to achieve the desired results of therapy.

The programme helps to promote the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes and values necessary for the practice of pharmacy in hospital and community set ups. Because of their commitment and vision, the American Pharmacy professionals could successfully implement Pharm D through out USA by 21st century.

  1. Though the course content of the Pharm D programme of various universities differ considerably in certain aspects, all institutions are required to secure accreditation through the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP).
  2. Once the training programme is completed, pharmacists have to obtain licensure through examination in order to enter practice.
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Licensure is adjudicated by the respective states. US hospitals in general set higher qualifications like post graduation and experiential training for their professional hospital pharmacists. In 1984-85 Thailand signed an agreement with 9 American universities paying a sum of US$ 15 million to train their teachers in pharmacy schools in USA with the objective of starting Pharm D courses in Thailand.

  • Many other countries too initiated steps to introduce Pharm D programmes in their universities and academic institutions in the 1980s and 90s.
  • Inspired from the American clinical pharmacy activities, UK introduced their first MSc clinical pharmacy course in 1976.
  • It is sorry to note that India could not take seriously the matter in an organized manner.

Visualizing the global scenario, a postgraduate programme in the area of Pharmacy Practice was started in Delhi University (College of Pharmacy) by Dr BD Miglani who is known as the father of hospital pharmacy in India. In 1984 he started the M.Pharm Hospital Pharmacy with specialization in clinical and community pharmacy.

  • In 1996 CMC Vellore started a postgraduate diploma course in clinical pharmacy and in 1997 JSS Hospital & College of Pharmacy, Mysore started a postgraduate programme (M.Pharm) in pharmacy practice giving importance to clinical pharmacy was started.
  • Many institutions in India, majority of them being in the south, had initiated postgraduate educational programme in pharmacy practice in the next five years time.

KM College of Pharmacy, Madurai; Periyar College of Pharmacy, Trichy; SRIPMS, Coimbatore; JSS Ooty; Govt. Medical College, Trivandrum; Annamalai University, Chidambaram, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences Manipal (MAHE), KLE’s College of Pharmacy, Belgaum; Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore and Govt.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences Calicut are among the institutions that started M.Pharm pharmacy practice in the southern states of India. Many institutions like the Hamdard College of Pharmacy, Delhi and NIPER, Chandigarh also initiated pharmacy practice programme at masters level. A programme equivalent to the Pharm D is yet to be initiated in India though efforts are made at various levels during the last decade.

It is high time to initiate the Pharm D programme in India. Universities can initiate Pharm.D programmes for B.Pharm and M.Pharm degree holders. In 1998 the writer of this article made an effort to start a Pharm.D programme at Government Medical College, Trivandrum under the University of Kerala with the help of a couple of American Universities.

  1. Though the proposal was accepted and progressed considerably, it could not materialize at that time.
  2. The Indian universities with diverse geographic an infrastructure variations follow different curriculum structure and modules for the pharmacy undergraduate courses.
  3. In the curriculum there is no practice of incorporating mission statement with social and ethical context, goals and objectives of the education programme and practice aspects.

The curriculum does not prescribe any training for practicing pharmacists either part of the course or after the course. The pharmacy professionals who get the opportunity to take professionally useful decisions at the university level through their membership in academic bodies like Board of studies, faculty, academic council, senate and syndicate are often found to become orthodox and conservative.

They forget to initiate timely actions which are useful for the profession and its development. As professionals we have to remember that one may not get the opportunity to do great things in a great way. We all have the chance to do small things in a great way. That great opportunity should not be left behind.

Only after a continuous and persistent effort lasting for a period of over five years, the author of this write up, could start an M.Pharm pharmacy practice programme in College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, which is affiliated to the University of Kerala, in 2000.

When the proposal for starting the course was first made in 1996 to the authorities, there was no other college in India, both in government and private set up, imparting an M.Pharm programme in pharmacy practice (hospital and clinical pharmacy) other than the one in Delhi College of Pharmacy (of Delhi University), which was initiated in 1984 by Dr BD Miglani as M.Pharm in hospital pharmacy (incorporating clinical and community pharmacy).

Dr Miglani, who is considered as the father of hospital pharmacy in India, too had to struggle for years to start the course in Delhi University. The professionals of tomorrow have to be taught by the teachers of today using curricula that is designed for the future based on a thoughtful vision.

  • The syllabus of the D.Pharm, B.Pharm and M.Pharm courses have to be revised regularly.
  • Newer concepts and emerging trends have to be incorporated in the curriculum.
  • If we don’t do it pharmacy education will become a mere process by which professionals of tomorrow are taught by teachers of today using the curricula of yesterdays.

(The author is principal, School of Pharmacy, Amrita Deemed University, Kochi, Kerala).
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Who is the mother of pharmacy in India?

Biography – Bishnupada Mukerjee was born on 1 March 1903 at Barrackpore in the North 24 Parganas district of the Indian state of West Bengal, He did his early schooling at Barrackpore village school and Kolkata to pass the matriculation with a scholarship for further education. Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine Mukerjee did his residency under Green-Armytage at Eden Hospital for 18 months and moved to Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine where he worked under Sir Ram Nath Chopra who is reported to have successfully persuaded Mukerjee to turn to research by abandoning his medical practice.

In 1930, he took up the post of an assistant secretary to the Drug Enquiry Commission and assisted the commission in preparing a report advocating for drug standardization and pharmacy control. From 1931 to 1933, he worked at the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine on research on indigenous drugs when he received a Fellowship from the Rockefeller Foundation for research on vegetable drugs in China, America and Japan.

He moved to Peking Union Medical College where he worked under renowned pharmacologist, H.B. Van Dyke. In 1936, he secured DSc from University of Michigan, the first doctoral degree awarded by the university in pharmacology. Central Drug Research Institute Mukerjee continued his studies at the University of London under Joshua Harold Burn, at the National Institute for Medical Research, Hampstead under Sir Henry Dale and at the University of Munich under Geheimrat professor W.

Straub. In 1937, he returned to India to be reunited with Ram Nath Chopra at the All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health in their newly formed Biochemical Standardization Laboratory and became the director of the institution in 1941 at Kolkata and later at Kasauli, In 1947, he was appointed as the director of Central Drugs Laboratory and held the dual responsibility of Pharmacognosy Laboratory as well for three years.

FATHER OF INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION Prof. Mahadeva Lal Schroff

During this period, when he put forward the concept of an exclusive laboratory for drug research, the CSIR took it up further to establish the Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow with assistance from Edward Mellanby and Mukerjee was appointed as the first permanent director of the institute.

  • Mukerjee worked at CDRI till 1963 and moved to Chittaranjan National Cancer Research Centre, Kolkata as its director to hold the post till his retirement in 1968.
  • Post retirement, he worked as a visiting lecturer and scientist at the Department of Biochemistry of the University of Calcutta and as a consultant to the Kolkata office of the Ford Foundation,

Bishnupada Mukerjee died on 30 July 1979, at the age of 76.
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What is pharmacy education in India?

To practice as a pharmacist in India, one needs at least a diploma in pharmacy, which is awarded after only 2 years and 3 months of pharmacy studies. These diploma-trained pharmacists are the mainstay of pharmacy practice. The pharmacy practice curriculum has not received much attention.
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Who is the king of pharmacy in India?

Dilip Shanghvi (born 1 October 1955) is an Indian billionaire businessman and one of the country’s richest people. He founded Sun Pharmaceuticals.

Dilip Shanghvi
Born 1 October 1955 Amreli, Gujarat, India
Alma mater Bhawanipur Education Society College, University of Calcutta

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Who is the mother of pharmacy?

By Anyssa Garza, PharmD, BCMAS – Digital Pharmacist Staff Elizabeth Gooking Greenleaf is recognized as the first female pharmacist in the United States. Not only was she a mother to twelve children, she is considered the mother of pharmacy too. Elizabeth opened her own apothecary shop in 1727 in Boston.

  • Her husband, Daniel Greenleaf, a physician soon followed and they spent the rest of their lives running the apothecary together.
  • She was the only female among 32 New England apothecaries in the early 1700s.
  • Elizabeth died in 1762 but her legacy lived on and showed women across the country that a career in pharmacy was possible.

This Mother’s Day we want to pay tribute to Elizabeth and to other exceptional women whose trailblazing impact set the stage for the success of female pharmacists today.

  1. Elizabeth Marshall (1768-1826) is recognized as the second woman to be a pharmacist in the United States.
  2. Mary Corinna Putnam Jacobi (1842–1906) graduated from the New York College of Pharmacy in 1863 — becoming the first woman to graduate from a school of pharmacy.
  3. Mary Olds Miner owned a pharmacy with her husband in Kansas. She was elected as APhA third vice president in 1895 — becoming the first woman to serve as an APhA officer.
  4. Zada Mary Cooper (1875–1961) graduated in 1872 and then served as the secretary of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy from 1922 to 1942. Not only is she the founder the Rho Chi Society of Kappa Epsilon Fraternity, she is one of the founders of the Women’s Section of APhA. She is known for her support of women in pharmacy which has given her the title “grand and glorious lady of pharmacy.”

These women’s bravery and entrepreneurship have inspired women to join the profession of pharmacy. In fact, women make up slightly more than 50% of all full-time pharmacists. Happy Mother’s Day to these women pioneers and to all the mothers out there whether you are a present or soon to be a mom.

  • https://www.aphafoundation.org/sites/default/files/ckeditor/files/WIP%20mural%20descriptions.pdf
  • https://books.google.com/books?id=jr1mCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA115&lpg=PA115#v=onepage&q&f=false
  • https://books.google.com/books?id=ssS-CONcxdUC&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24#v=onepage&q&f=false
  • https://www.pharmacist.com/node/85850?is_sso_called=1
  • https://www.slideshare.net/zeyadmagdy37/the-role-of-women-in-the-history-of-pharmacy
  • https://www.aacp.org/about/Pages/Vitalstats.aspx

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What was the first pharmacy school?

A quick look at the past few centuries to present day Like all healthcare professions, the origins of pharmacy can be traced back thousands of years. In fact, the earliest pharmaceutical text ever discovered dates to the Mesopotamians in 2100 B.C.1 From the time our early ancestors realized there were medicinal properties contained within the natural world, there have been people whose role in society was to transform leaves, seeds, bark, insects, and other flora and fauna into medicine.

And although very little crushing of tree bark is done in the profession today, you can draw a straight line between these early practitioners and our modern pharmacists. However, chronicling the history of pharmacy back to multiple ancient civilizations is a bit ambitious, so we’ll start our history a few hundred years prior to our present day.2 American pharmacy in the 18th and 19th centuries The story of our more modern understanding of the pharmacy practice begins where many things in colonial America began — Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

It was in the City of Brotherly Love in 1729 the first known apothecary was opened by Irish immigrant Christopher Marshall. In 1752, Philadelphia Hospital, colonial America’s first hospital, opened the first hospital pharmacy. In these early days, many physicians found themselves concerned about the quality of both medicine and pharmacists in the country.

  1. They founded the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in 1820 to develop and publish uniform sets of guidelines and standards of practice.
  2. The USP still performs this function today.
  3. In addition to more standardization, there was a desire for more formalization and training within the practice, as well.
  4. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was subsequently founded in 1821, becoming America’s first pharmacy organization and first pharmacy school.

Its graduates would take to using the term “pharmaceutist” to differentiate themselves from the more untrained apothecaries. The “Soda Fountain” era: 1920 – 1949 The early 20th century saw the rise of industrialization across America, bringing unprecedented changes to every industry.

  1. And pharmacy was no different.
  2. Compounding medications — long a specialized role the pharmacist alone performed — was not as necessary as it once was because medicine was being mass-produced and shipped pre-manufactured to pharmacies.
  3. This created an identity crisis of sorts for the profession: They weren’t making much medicine; they were simply dispensing it.

Furthermore, ethical standards at the time barred pharmacists from talking to patients about their medications, considering it a violation of their privacy. Prevented from doing as much hands-on healthcare work as in the past, pharmacists turned to more front-end sales to be profitable.

Candy, household items, fountain-poured soda pops and — especially during Prohibition years — medicinal alcohol all became profit drivers for pharmacies. It got to the point where less than 1% of pharmacists in the country got more than 50% of their sales from prescription drugs. However, by the midpoint of the 20th century, things would start to change again.

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The customer turned patient era: 1950- 1979 This period in pharmacy history was defined by a deep divide within the profession around the mix of nonclinical vs. clinical activities of pharmacists. During the 1950s, pharmacists began to step away from the soda counter and back behind the pharmacist window.

  • However, they were still mostly dispensing medication, not clinical advice.
  • This began to change in the 1960s when Eugene White started modeling a transformational shift in how pharmacies could be run with an enhanced focus on patient care.
  • Some of his innovations would come to define what many people of the postwar generation would think of when they thought of pharmacy, including detailed record systems to keep track of a family’s prescriptions, a support staff to help with administration and patient care, and more availability to counsel patients on medications, drug interactions, and other clinical concerns.

This last point was a major difference in the ethical standards of how pharmacists had been able to care for patients. For decades, pharmacists were instructed to avoid counseling patients directly, but now that behavior was being viewed as an important part of the role.

  • The “Pharmaceutical Care” era: 1980- 2009 As the end of the 20th century approached, the pharmacy profession continued to embrace more patient care activities, establishing pharmacists as clinicians who could take responsibility for certain aspects of their patients’ health.
  • Patient counseling, in particular, was becoming more widely accepted and — after the passing of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 — even mandated within the federal Medicaid program.

In the 1990s, pharmacists also began to increase their role as community immunizers by administering vaccinations. Allowing pharmacists to immunize patients on-site at pharmacies was a critical reason for the increase in the immunized population going into the new century.

  • Pharmacies became critical vaccine distribution sites for national and more-localized outbreaks.
  • This was most recently observed during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • One more important milestone occurred during this period — Express Scripts® Pharmacy mailed out the first home delivery prescription in 1986.
  • If you’d like to learn more about the history of Express Scripts and Express Scripts® Pharmacy, check out this timeline of our company’s history of innovation and care.

An evolving landscape: 2010- present In the current era, we’ve seen a rise in the patient care and non-dispensing activities that began to crop up in previous decades. Immunizations, patient counseling, and other responsibilities are becoming an increasingly large part of what a pharmacist spends their day doing.

  1. A focus on partnering with healthcare providers is key to empowering the pharmacy practice to continue to evolve and expand its patient care role.
  2. To get a better sense of this changing landscape, Express Scripts® Pharmacy recently partnered with the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health to develop a research report, The Prescription of Trust.

Key findings included the expectation from pharmacists, healthcare providers, and patients that the pharmacy practice will fill gaps in primary care, expanding the role they play in patients’ health. Read the full report here to learn more about the ways the healthcare industry anticipates the practice of pharmacy to evolve alongside an ever-changing healthcare world.
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Who was the first chairman of pharmacy?

Pharmacy Council of India Statutory medical body

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Pharmacy Council of India Abbreviation PCI FormationMarch 4, 1948 ; 74 years ago ( 1948-03-04 ) TypeLegal statusActivePurposeHeadquarters, India President Dr. Montukumar Patel Prof.(Dr.) Pramod YeoleWebsite The Pharmacy Council of India ( PCI ) is the statutory body under,,
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Who were the first pharmacists?

The History of Pharmacy in Texas – The history of pharmacy in Texas closely follows the history of medicine in the New World. It is thought that Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was one of the first Europeans to practice pharmacy and medicine in North America. When his party landed on the coast of Texas, the Native Americans who greeted them soon enslaved him and forced him to treat victims of the epidemic diseases that accompanied the explorers.
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Who was the first female pharmacist in India?

Asia

Country Pharmacist Year
India Sneh Rani Jain
Indonesia Charlotte Jacobs 1879
Iraq Josephine Bourjouni and Rahima Youssef 1940
Iran Aqdas Gharbi and Akhtar Ferdows 1941

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What is the oldest pharmacy?

The Historical Shop of Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica di Santa Maria Novella The inexplicable way that scents can remind us of treasured travel memories often has a sense of alchemy about it. In Florence, the Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica di Santa Maria Novella, the oldest pharmacy in the world, has been crafting beautiful fragrances, remedies and herbal products since 1221. The ornate facade of Santa Maria Novella in Florence The origins of the historic pharmacy at Santa Maria Novella is directly tied to the history of the basilica. Like many of the religious sites in Florence, such as the Duomo and the Basilica of Santa Croce, the Basilica of Santa Maria Novella is a treasure trove of history and artwork and is certainly a must see.

  • The story begins in 1221 when Dominican friars arrived in Florence and founded a church that would become the city’s first great basilica.
  • Building on the church we see today began in the 13th century, but the striking façade was a later addition in the 15th century by the great Renaissance architect Leon Battista Alberti.

Inside you’ll find artwork by some of the greats of Italian art, such as Giotto, Masaccio, Filippino Lippi and Ghirlandaio, as well as two cloisters and a museum. Exquisite details on the ceiling of the Historical Shop To understand the start of the Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica di Santa Maria Novella, we have to look a little closer at those Dominican monks who founded the church. It was common for monasteries to have private gardens that included various types of medicinal herbs that were used to create early forms of medications as well as balms and tinctures.

  • Traditionally reserved for treating the monks within the monastery, by the 14th century news of the healing qualities of the remedies at Santa Maria Novella was beginning to spread outside the walls of the monastery.
  • Perfumed waters were used for all kinds of medicinal treatments, including to fight off the plague in 1381.

The Historical Shop, a main part of the store you can visit today, was originally built as the Chapel of San Niccolò by wealthy Florentine merchant Dardano Acciaioli as a gift of thanks for being healed by the Dominican friars. Stop in the Ancient Apothecary to admire the ornate designs and decorations Every space you visit today is full of history just as the sweetly scented products you’ll find on display have many stories to tell. The Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica di Santa Maria Novella products are still produced with ancient recipes, including perfumes quite literally fit for a queen.

  1. In 1533 Caterina de’ Medici was betrothed to Henry II, the future King of France, and she asked none other than the Dominican friars at Santa Maria Novella to create an essence that captured her beloved Florence.
  2. The masterpiece created was originally called “Acqua della Regina,” meaning “The Queen’s Water,” which was a grand success in the royal courts of France.

Not just a sweet scent, Acqua della Regina also made history as one of the first alcohol-based perfumes in the world. Today you can still buy the same perfume – now called Acqua di Santa Maria Novella, The Green Room with beautiful displays By the 16th century, the pharmacy was busy creating highly sought-after products and in 1612 the Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica di Santa Maria Novella was officially founded. Formulas and traditions that had been passed down orally were perfected and preserved, many still being produced to this day. The frescoed ceiling of the Sacristy at Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica di Santa Maria Novella You’ll see the Historical Shop in the former Chapel of San Niccolò, the elegant Green Room where the pharmacy’s own drinks were once served, the Ancient Apothecary, and the Sacristy with its beautifully frescoed ceiling with images of monks holding books and reading. Potpourri in silk sacks from Santa Maria Novella Today the production is high tech and a world away from the Dominican friars tending their gardens 800 years ago. However, what remains firm is a dedication to natural ingredients and tradition. Just outside of Florence, near the Medici Villa della Petraia, the Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica di Santa Maria Novella has recreated a traditional hortus conclusus (enclosed garden) in the 13th-century tradition that produces fresh herbs and ingredients used to create the special products you can bring home with you. Handmade lavender soap from Santa Maria Novella On display is a tempting selection of handcrafted perfumes, soaps, skincare and body care products, home scents, potpourri, and so much more. The candles and soaps with dried flowers are especially lovely souvenirs or gifts for friends and family.

  1. For something uniquely Florentine, there’s even an iris scented perfume,
  2. Irises grow wild in the hillsides around Florence and are the flower that inspired the iconic symbol of Florence.
  3. A visit to the Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica di Santa Maria Novella is an easy stop as you wander Florence.
  4. You’ll find it only a short walk away from our Italy Perfect vacation rentals in Florence,

Or while you’re waiting, take advantage of their store locations around the world and their online store with international shipping available. Why not have the sweet scents of travels from the past and travels to come fill your home right now? Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica di Santa Maria Novella Via della Scala 16, Florence www.smnovella.com All photos courtesy of Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica di Santa Maria Novella.
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What is the full meaning of pharmacy?

1 : the art, practice, or profession of preparing, preserving, compounding, and dispensing medical drugs 2 a : a place where medicines are compounded or dispensed
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WHO IS pharma queen of India?

Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw
Mazumdar-Shaw in 2014
Born Kiran Mazumdar 23 March 1953 (age 69) Bangalore, Mysore State, India
Alma mater Bangalore University ( B.Sc.) Melbourne University ( M.S.)
Occupation Founder & chairperson of Biocon
Spouse John Shaw
Awards Othmer Gold Medal (2014)

Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw (born 23 March 1953) is an Indian billionaire entrepreneur. She is the executive chairperson and founder of Biocon Limited and Biocon Biologics Limited, a biotechnology company based in Bangalore, India and the former chairperson of Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore,

  • In 2014, she was awarded the Othmer Gold Medal for outstanding contributions to the progress of science and chemistry.
  • She was on the Financial Times 2011 top 50 women in business list.
  • In 2019, she was listed as the 68th most powerful woman in the world by Forbes,
  • She was named EY World Entrepreneur Of The Year 2020.

She is married to John Shaw.
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Who is the first female pharmacist?

The first woman to qualify as a Chemist and Druggist – When she passed the Society’s Minor exam on 18 June 1873 Alice Vickery was the first woman to qualify as a Chemist and Druggist. She was born in Devon in 1844 but had moved to London by 1861, where she began her medical career in 1869 at the Ladies’ Medical College.

She trained as a midwife, qualifying in 1873, and while at the college met Charles Drysdale, her companion and co-worker. Both objected to the institution of marriage, an unusual stance at the time. Since no British medical schools admitted women, Alice went to France in 1873 to study medicine at the University of Paris, returning to London in 1877 to complete her training at the London Medical School for Women.

Alice spent her life supporting the rights of women. She gave frequent lectures promoting birth control as an essential element for the emancipation of women. She joined the National Society for Women’s Suffrage, later moving on to the more militant Women’s Social and Political Union, and then the non-violent Women’s Freedom League.
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What is the largest pharmacy in India?

MedPlus India’s Largest Retail Pharmacy Omni Channel.
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Who is first pharmacist in India?

Mahadeva Lal Schroff : father of Indian pharmacy education.
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What is pharmacy education?

Pharmacy is a healthcare profession requiring a high level of education and training. Pharmacy Education encompasses all fields within pharmacy, with the common purpose of education and training world-wide.Pharmacist requires a significant amount of formal education.
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What is Pharmacy Act in India?

Pharmacy Council of India PCI Introduction The Pharmacy education and profession in India upto graduate level is regulated by the PCI, a statutory body governed by the provisions of the Pharmacy Act, 1948 passed by the Parliament.

➤ The Pharmacy Act 1948 was enacted on 4.3.48 with the following preamble- “An Act to regulate the profession of pharmacy. Whereas it is expedient to make better provision for the regulation of the profession and practice of pharmacy and for that purpose to constitute Pharmacy Councils”. ➤ The PCI was constituted on 9.8.49 under section 3 of the Pharmacy Act. ➤ Regulation of the Pharmacy Education in the Country for the purpose of registration as a pharmacist under the Pharmacy Act. ➤ Regulation of Profession and Practice of Pharmacy. ➤ To prescribe minimum standard of education required for qualifying as a pharmacist. (Ref.: section 10 of the Pharmacy Act) ➤ Framing of Education Regulations prescribing the conditions to be fulfilled by the institutions seeking approval of the PCI for imparting education in pharmacy. (Ref.: section 10 of the Pharmacy Act) ➤ To ensure uniform implementation of the educational standards through out the country. (Ref. : section 10 of the Pharmacy Act) ➤ Inspection of Pharmacy Institutions seeking approval under the Pharmacy Act to verify availability of the prescribed norms. (Ref.: section 16 of the Pharmacy Act) ➤ To approve the course of study and examination for pharmacists i.e. approval of the academic training institutions providing pharmacy courses. (Ref. : section 12 of the Pharmacy Act) ➤ To withdraw approval, if the approved course of study or an approved examination does not continue to be in conformity with the educational standards prescribed by the PCI. (Ref.: section 13 of the Pharmacy Act) ➤ To approve qualifications granted outside the territories to which the Pharmacy Act extends i.e. the approval of foreign qualification. (Ref. : section 14 of the Pharmacy Act) ➤ To maintain Central Register of Pharmacists. (Ref. : section 15 A of the Pharmacy Act)

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: Pharmacy Council of India
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Who is the king of pharmacy in India?

Dilip Shanghvi (born 1 October 1955) is an Indian billionaire businessman and one of the country’s richest people. He founded Sun Pharmaceuticals.

Dilip Shanghvi
Born 1 October 1955 Amreli, Gujarat, India
Alma mater Bhawanipur Education Society College, University of Calcutta

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Which and where first pharmacy was started in India?

History of Pharmacy History of pharmacy is very old and ancient. A lot of people as well as civilizations have contributed in the development of modern medicines. One of the great names associated with the history of pharmacy is George.A. Bender who has defined the pharmacy as the practice of the profession of the art and science of preparing, preserving, compounding, and dispensing medicines, indeed has a proud heritage- an unequaled record of service to humanity almost as old as the human race itself.

  1. According to ancient Egyptians, the word pharmacy is derived from ph-ar-maki, which means the provider of safety and security.
  2. However, according to greeks, the word pharmacy was taken from the word pharmakon which means drug and poison.
  3. The expert in the field of pharmacy is the pharmacist earlier referred to as the shamans, priests, healers, chemists, and druggists.

The existence of humans has brought pharmaceutical care with itself although earlier the only person was the healer who provides all the physician as well as pharmaceutical care. Progression in Pharmacy in Different Traditions Mesopotamia and Egyptian Pharmacy Mesopotamians have developed the treatment to cure the disease by using plants, animals, and minerals.

  • For the compounding of various drugs, they have a set of standard weights for making the drugs.
  • A standard book is there named materia medica which deals with the medications associated with 250 drugs of plant origin, 120 of animal origin, and 30 of unmixed.
  • A concept of poly-pharmaceutical was also derived during this era.

Egyptians believe that the flow of four materials takes place i.e.blood, water air, and wekhudu (bodily waste), and believed that wekhudu was the main cause of illness and focused on its removal from the body. These beliefs lead to the birth of laxatives using senna and castor beans.

  • Perfumes were also a part of the Egyptian era using aromatic plants.
  • Ayurvedic Pharmacy Ayurvedic treatment has been derived from Ayurveda which means knowledge for longevity.
  • The detail of Ayurveda is in Charaka Samhita and Susruta Samhita.
  • Charaka Samhita deals with pharmacy and medicines associated with herbs.

Susruta Samhita deals with the surgery. According to Ayurveda three life forces or doshas are there –

Vata (air and energy)Kapha (earth)Pitta (fire)

Chinese Medicines Chinese medicines include five major elements – fire, metal, water, wood, and earth. They referred to illness as “bing”. Pen-Ts’ao, was a book that consists of medications and prescriptions and was written by Shen-nung focusing on herbal medicines.

  1. Literary works were used in Chinese medicines was the book of systematic pharmacology Zhenglei Bencao was there containing about 1740 remedies.
  2. Zhenzhu Nang (Bag of Pearls) mentioning about drug therapy and literature classifying the herbs according to five elements.
  3. Unani Medicines Unani medicines are generally a part of pharmaceutical care in the middle east and Asian countries and represent the Graeco-Arabic medicine system back around 2500 years ago and a combination of 4-5 % animal, 5-6% mineral, and 90% herbal.

According to the Unani system temperament (Minaj) matters the most in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The therapeutic approaches and treatments modalities include-

Ilaj- Bil-Tadbeer (Regimental therapy)Ilaj- Bil-Dawa (Pharmacotherapy)Ilaj- Bil-Yad (Surgery)Ilaj- Bil-Ghiza (Dietotherapy)

Allopathy System of Medicines The Allopathy system of medicines deals with synthetic or semisynthetic drug therapy. It is the most developed and modern system of medicines. Drugs are classified according to their pharmacological effect and provide rapid relief and inconvenience caused by the disease.

S.No. Year Event
1 1811 Opening of a chemist shop in Kolkata by Scotch M Bathgate.
2 1824 Indian version of London Pharmacopoeia
3 1840 Bengal dispensary and pharmacopoeia-Vol 1 published from Calcutta.
4 1864 Motion for publication of Indian pharmacopeia
5 1874 Chemists and Druggists Diploma” at MMC, Chennai
6 1901 Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical established
7 1909 Bengal Excise Act
8 1914 Punjab Excise Act
9 1919 Bengal Food Adulteration Act.
10 1937 Import of Drugs Bil
11 1940 Drug act
12 1941 DTAB was constituted
13 1945 Standardization of Pharmacy Education in India
14 1946 Indian Pharmacopoeial list
15 1948 Pharmacy Act
16 1948 Indian Pharmacopoeial Committee was constituted
17 1949 PCI established.
18 1954 Drugs and Magic Remedies Act
19 1955 Medicinal and Toilet Preparation
20 1955 The first IP published
21 1985 Narcotic and Psychotropic Substances Act

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Who became the first pharmacy graduate in India in 1940?

Subhadra Kumar Patni became the first Pharmacy Graduate in India in 1940. In April 1940, the BHU started M. Pharm research degree. In September 1938, The University of Madras started 2 years degree course leading to B.Sc Pharmacy.
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Who designed educational pattern of pharmacy?

Ambikanandan Misra, Thursday, December 6, 2012, 08:00 Hrs

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The beginning of pharmaceutical education in India was initiated at the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in 1932 by Professor M.L. Schroff. From there it has been a long journey of almost 80 years for this profession in this country. The enactment of the Pharmacy Act 1948 established the statutory regulation of pharmacy institutions in India. The Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) was established in 1949 under “Ministry of Health” and the first education regulations (ER) framed in 1953, which were subsequently amended in 1972, 1981 and 1991. On the other hand, the pharmacy education has never been part of paramedical team and hence, its development has been quite unique and quite different from rest of the world. Pharmacy Council of India and Pharmacy Act were created to establish minimum qualification required to be a pharmacist. The role of pharmacist in the society was never been given its due place and did not grow due to less paying job compared to job in industry. This would have been the reason for transfer of pharmacy education from PCI to All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) under the “Ministry of Human Resource Development”. Currently, PCI and AICTE regulate pharmacy profession and education respectively in India. Both of these regulatory bodies have been doing a regulatory function without bothering to create a permanent mechanism of updating curriculum along with development in the field. In short, it can be said that evolution of pharmacy education has been quite confusing and developed like a vagabond. Hence, evolution of pharmacy education has been primarily due to evolution of pharmaceutical industries and has lot of impact under curriculum of “Bachelor and Master in Pharmacy” programmes. Similarly, medical education in India grew with less focus on research and development and hence, India produced medical graduates more with clinical sense acquired through experience and less of a doctors with analytical bent of mind. Due to tight junctions at the entry point, integration of the thoughts of medical sciences, pharmaceutical sciences, nursing, engineering sciences and basic sciences have never taken place. Primarily, this resulted in isolated development of medical education without integration with other sciences including pharmaceutical. It is also true in case of pharmacy education. It may also one of the reason of pharmacy education not to be a part of healthcare system. Today, the global institutes are moving towards excellence in research and capability building in order to better meet the requirements of 21st century. This forces us to evaluate status of pharmacy education in India. There is a rapid transition in pharmacy profession worldwide and in the era of globalization, we cannot be silent spectators. If we have to compete with the rest of the world and become guiding torch for rest of the world, we will have to become proactive. It means, we have to define the goals of pharmacy education for present and future and re-frame our curriculum according to defined goals to meet the global challenges. In the past decade, the technical education in India has spread its roots at an amazing rate. On the other hand, there is sharp decrease in interest and overall admissions to undergraduate programme (B. Pharmacy) in pharmacy during the last three academic years. This decline may be attributed due to changed trends in pharmaceutical industry which has become primarily research and marketing oriented from production oriented. Role of knowledge in giving in increasing employability of the students has become need of the hour. Simultaneously, other facets of pharmacy profession should be given adequate attention in curriculum development and in creation of knowledge based manpower for service of the society. The products of this form of education lack the much needed professionalism and rational thinking required for problem solving. So, the situation demands a nudge for the system to ensure its revival in order to better meet the needs of 21st century. Pitfalls in the present system

Indistinct and unspecialised courseworkInability to attract meritorious students into the courseTight boundaries and less integration with other sciencesLack of social, industrial and clinical exposureInability to inculcate problem solving attitude in studentsResearch output from institutions rarely lead to commercialization and revenue generationChange in the mind sets from information impartation to knowledge basedGiven the market needs for trained man power, teaching takes total priority over research in our Universities

Solutions

Building professionalismPromoting pharmacy course to top preferenceImproving industrial and practical exposureImplementing Innovation Ecosystem

The concept of Innovation Ecosystem is meant for creating economic value from scientific research. It involves the interaction between the elements, which together turn an idea into a process, product or service resulting in national economic growth (Figure 1). A lesson can be taken from China to learn how to innovate by commercialization, as opposed to constant research and perfecting the theory. They’re happy to do three to four rounds of commercialization to get an idea right, whereas in the West companies spend the same amount of time on research, testing, and validation before trying to take products to market. When the Chinese get an idea, they test it in the marketplace for its perfection, work on them in parallel with finding out what the customer really likes and adapting to that. In India steps have been initiated under the aegis of Mission REACH (Relevance and Excellence in Achieving new heights in educational institutions), which aims at upgrading selected science and engineering colleges in the country as ‘Centers of Relevance and Excellence’ to broaden the level off education and also to meet the scientific and technological manpower requirements of India in advanced areas promising to show up on the horizon in the upcoming years. Applying principles of TQM to pharmacy education The concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) although developed by an American was successfully implemented by Japan in their recovery from World War II. The concept of TQM is applicable to academics. Many educators believe that the concept of TQM provides guiding principles for needed educational reform. Education is a fast moving commodity in the market and is mainly business oriented which means it should give some profit to the undertaker. TQM is a philosophy for perfection and continuous improvement in services offered to someone or one’s own performance. The TQM principles which are most salient to educational reform are as follows: Synergistic relationship: According to this principle, an organization must focus, first and foremost, on its “suppliers” and “customers”. In other words, teamwork and collaboration are essential. The concept of synergy suggests that performance and production is enhanced by pooling the talent and experience of individuals. In a classroom, teacher-student teams are the equivalent of industry’s front-line workers. The product of their successful work together is the development of the student’s capabilities, interests, and character. Continuous improvement and self evaluation: TQM emphasizes self-evaluation as part of a continuous improvement process. In addition, this principle also laminates to the focusing on students’ strengths, individual learning styles, and different types of intelligences. A system of ongoing process: The recognition of the organization as a system and the work done within the organization must be seen as an ongoing process. Quality speaks to working on the system, which must be examined to identify and eliminate the flawed processes that allow its participants to fail. Leadership: The upper level provides proposes basic way of functioning, provides quality staff, while the lower level are directly linked to the students as lecturers who perform the most important functions of the whole system. The school teachers must establish the context in which students can best achieve their potential. Conclusion It is difficult to conclude this article because it needs incorporation of ideas of many of my colleagues, friends and philosophers. We have to read and understand the development pattern of pharmacy education in many more developed countries to create our framework which may take the pharmacy education back to its glory. It is essential to understand the trends in the world before defining the course of development of pharmacy education in India. In case, we have to acquire the status of a developed nation, we have to become trend -setters rather than followers in the future. (The author is Professor in Pharmacy and Dean, Faculty of Technology & Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara.)

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