Who Introduced Education System In India?
The Education System in India – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation In ancient times, India had the Gurukula system of education in which anyone who wished to study went to a teacher’s (Guru) house and requested to be taught. If accepted as a student by the guru, he would then stay at the guru’s place and help in all activities at home.
- This not only created a strong tie between the teacher and the student, but also taught the student everything about running a house.
- The guru taught everything the child wanted to learn, from Sanskrit to the holy scriptures and from Mathematics to Metaphysics.
- The student stayed as long as she wished or until the guru felt that he had taught everything he could teach.
All learning was closely linked to nature and to life, and not confined to memorizing some information. The modern school system was brought to India, including the English language, originally by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in the 1830s. The curriculum was confined to “modern” subjects such as science and mathematics, and subjects like metaphysics and philosophy were considered unnecessary.
Teaching was confined to classrooms and the link with nature was broken, as also the close relationship between the teacher and the student. The Uttar Pradesh (a state in India) Board of High School and Intermediate Education was the first Board set up in India in the year 1921 with jurisdiction over Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior.
In 1929, the Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana, was established. Later, boards were established in some of the states. But eventually, in 1952, the constitution of the board was amended and it was renamed Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).
All schools in Delhi and some other regions came under the Board. It was the function of the Board to decide on things like curriculum, textbooks and examination system for all schools affiliated to it. Today there are thousands of schools affiliated to the Board, both within India and in many other countries from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe.
Universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group of 6-14 was a cherished dream of the new government of the Republic of India. This is evident from the fact that it is incorporated as a directive policy in article 45 of the constitution.
But this objective remains far away even more than half a century later. However, in the recent past, the government appears to have taken a serious note of this lapse and has made primary education a Fundamental Right of every Indian citizen. The pressures of economic growth and the acute scarcity of skilled and trained manpower must certainly have played a role to make the government take such a step.
The expenditure by the Government of India on school education in recent years comes to around 3% of the GDP, which is recognized to be very low. “In recent times, several major announcements were made for developing the poor state of affairs in education sector in India, the most notable ones being the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government.
The announcements are; (a) To progressively increase expenditure on education to around 6 percent of GDP. (b) To support this increase in expenditure on education, and to increase the quality of education, there would be an imposition of an education cess over all central government taxes. (c) To ensure that no one is denied of education due to economic backwardness and poverty.
(d) To make right to education a fundamental right for all children in the age group 6–14 years. (e) To universalize education through its flagship programmes such as Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal.” ()
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Who created the education system?
Horace Mann By David Carleton Known as the “father of American education,” Horace Mann (1796–1859), a major force behind establishing unified school systems, worked to establish a varied curriculum that excluded sectarian instruction. His vision of public education was a precursor to the Supreme Court’s eventual interpretation of the and church-state separation principles in public schools.
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When was education first started in India?
About History of Education in India – The education in India has a rich and interesting history. It is believed that in the ancient days, the education was imparted orally by the sages and the scholars and the information was passed on from one generation to the other.
After the development of letters, it took the form of writing using the palm leaves and the barks of trees. This also helped in spreading the written literature. The temples and the community centers formed the role of schools. Later, the Gurukul system of education came into existence. The Gurukuls were the traditional Hindu residential schools of learning which were typically in the teacher’s house or a monastery.
Even though the education was free, the students from well-to-do families paid the Gurudakshina which was a voluntary contribution after the completion of their studies. At the Gurukuls, the teacher imparted knowledge on various aspects of the religion, the scriptures, the philosophy, the literature, the warfare, the statecraft, the medicine astrology and the history.
- This system is referred as the oldest and the most effective system of education.
- In the first millennium and the few centuries preceding, there was a flourishing of higher education at Nalanda, Takshashila University, Ujjain, and Vikramshila Universities.
- The important subjects were mainly the art, the architecture, the painting, the logic, the grammar, the philosophy, the astronomy, the literature, the Buddhism, the Hinduism, the arthashastra, the law, and the medicine.
Each university specialized in a particular field of study. For instance, the Takshila specialized in the study of medicine, while the Ujjain laid emphasis on astronomy. The Nalanda, being the biggest centre, had all the branches of knowledge, and housed up to 10,000 students at its peak.
- The British records reveal that the education was widespread in the 18 th century, with a school for every temple, mosque or village in most regions of the country.
- The main subjects were the arithmetic, the theology, the law, the astronomy, the metaphysics, the ethics, the medical science and the religion.
The school had the student representatives from all classes of the society. The present system of education was introduced and founded by the British in the 20 th century, by the recommendations of Macaulay. It has western style and content. The British government did not recognize the traditional structures and so they have declined.
It is said that even Gandhi described the traditional educational system as a beautiful tree which was destroyed during the British rule. The first medical college of Kerala was started at Calicut, in 1942-43, during World War II. As there was a shortage of doctors to serve the military, the British Government opened a branch of Madras Medical College in Malabar, which was under Madras Presidency then.
After independence, the education became the responsibility of the states and the Central Government coordinated the technical and higher education by specifying the standards. In 1964, the Education Commission started functioning with 16 members of which 11 were Indian experts and 5 were foreign experts.
- The Commission also discussed with many international agencies, experts and consultants in the educational as well as scientific field.
- Later in 1976, the education became a joint responsibility of both the state and the Centre through a constitutional amendment.
- The central government through the Ministry of Human Resource Development’s Department of Education and the governments at the states formulated the education policy and planning.
NPE 1986 and revised PoA 1992 envisioned that free and compulsory education should be provided for all children up to 14 years of age before the commencement of 21st century. Also, the Government of India made a commitment that by 2000, 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will be spent on education, out of which half would be spent on the Primary education.
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Who changed Indian education system?
Macaulay to decide how to divert the money, what should be the medium of instruction and the mode of educating the Indian. He made English the medium of instruction and diverted the money for English education.G.D. Trevelyan writes in ‘Life of Lord Macaulay'(vol 1 pg164) ‘A new India was born in 1835’.
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Which is first school in India?
St. George’s School, Chennai Public school in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India St. George’s Anglo Indian Higher Secondary School St Georges School Chennai Address 738 EVR Salai Shenoy Nagar,,, 600 030 India : InformationTypeMottoTrust in god and do the rightFounded1715 ; 307 years ago ( 1715 ) DirectorDr.G.K.FrancisHeadmasterMr.N.
GeorgeTeaching staff38Average class size40Classes offeredK-12LanguageEnglishColour(s)Red, White and Navy BlueSongPraise my soulSt. George’sAffiliationAnglo Indian Board for Secondary Education St George’s Anglo- Indian Higher Secondary School was founded in 1715 as the Military (later Madras) Male Orphan Asylum and is one of the oldest schools in the world and the oldest in,
It is affiliated to the, It is situated in the heart of the city in, a bustling area in,,, The school has red brick buildings on a land area of 21 acres (85,000 m 2 ), with a boarding house, dormitory, kitchen and play grounds. The school provides education to over 1500 children from nursery up to the +2 level.
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Where was the first education system?
By Chelsea Shieh It may sound incredible, but China’s formal education system—the oldest in the world—was established nearly two millennia ago. The imperial education and examination system in China is estimated to have been founded as early as the Han dynasty (206 BCE to 220 CE), and is strongly based on meritocratic ideals that persist in Chinese education to this day.
- Because of China’s expansion over the centuries, its education system reflects the country’s need to find the most efficient and fair way to measure students’ academic capabilities.
- One of the longest legacies of the imperial education tradition is the (in)famous Gaokao, or the National College Entrance Examination, which is the sole determining factor of a student’s eligibility to enroll in universities.
Every year on June 7 and 8, nine million students take the Gaokao. In the U.S., there are multiple elements in a student’s college application, including a transcript, personal essays, SAT/ACT scores, and recommendation letters; in China, a student’s score on the Gaokao is the only factor that determines their eligibility to enroll in university.
- The higher their score, the more prestigious the university they can attend.
- This might sound extremely stressful and intimidating—indeed, for most Chinese secondary school students, the Gaokao is the culmination of their past twelve years of schooling.
- Prior to taking the exam, students must choose between the humanities track and science track.
This decision is usually made in a student’s first year of high school, and it determines which subject they will be tested on in the Gaokao, in addition to the three mandatory subjects of Chinese, math, and a foreign language. The Gaokao is administered only once a year, making it one of the highest pressure examinations in the entire world.
- Those who don’t perform well on this high-stakes exam end up with few options—many will spend the following year studying in preparation to re-take the exam, while others choose to find low-level jobs and opt out of higher education altogether.
- Nevertheless, in a country that prizes education, success or failure on the Gaokao is viewed as the greatest determining factor of how a person will live out the rest of his or her life.
But what happens to Chinese students after they get into college? As you may expect, Chinese students tend to become more laid-back after they enter college, given that they’ve overcome the humongous obstacle of the Gaokao. They now have more time to join extracurricular activities, hang out with friends, or even pursue romantic relationships.
- For students in China, high school is definitely the roughest part of their education experience; after working so hard, perhaps they deserve to have a little more freedom and fun in their college years! China’s higher education statistics have exploded in the past twenty-five years.
- In 1990, only four percent of 18 to 22 year olds were pursuing higher education; by 2014, that number had increased almost tenfold, to 37.5 percent.
This education boom has to do with a number of factors, including a rapidly growing middle class, economic expansion, and government policies. As of 2016, there are approximately seven million Chinese graduates of higher education that are seeking jobs in the labor market.
However, there are drawbacks to this education boom as well. The government has been criticized for focusing too much on the top-tier universities, and creating an imbalance in the quality of education available across the country. Let’s take a closer look at China’s university education system, which is currently the largest higher education system in the world.
Despite its long history, China’s present-day university system has been strongly influenced by Western education traditions. Academic departments, requirements, and student living are all based on the Western style of university education. Nevertheless, the Chinese university system still contains qualities unique to China’s history and economic development.
For example, the majority of the best universities in China are all public universities that are government-funded. Private universities are beginning to increase in number, but they have a mixed reputation and variable quality. Another unique aspect of Chinese university education lies in the teaching and learning experience.
Professors in China have historically been highly venerated, and to this day students are still expected to respect their teachers to a great degree. This, as you may imagine, creates a very different learning experience for students at Chinese universities.
- In fact, there has been growing criticism and concern, from both foreigners and Chinese citizens alike, about the quality and methods of teaching and learning at Chinese higher education institutions.
- The desire for China’s economy to leave the manufacturing stage and establish itself as the most important and powerful economy in the world has created a strong desire to see China put out innovators and entrepreneurs to establish the Apple or Google of China.
Yet many young Chinese people lament China’s relative lack of equivalent figures. They criticize Chinese-style education as suppressing creativity and individuality. Rote memorization, a core teaching method in Chinese schools, is the main culprit in their eyes.
In a study on the teaching quality of higher education in China, published in the journal Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, scholars found that many students complained of teachers failing to train independent thinking in their students, and prioritizing a “surface” approach to learning as opposed to striving for a “deep” understanding of the material.
So why can’t these Chinese professors change their teaching methods? The answer could lie in the Confucian concept mentioned earlier—teachers have the ability to lead others toward knowledge and a better life. This idea, while it has morphed and been distilled throughout the centuries, still exists in the minds of many Chinese teachers.
Thus, many Chinese teachers and professors teach in a lecture style, not allowing much room or time for questions or discussion with the students. Students are still mainly expected to be deferential toward their teachers by listening to them. Chinese students are increasingly seeking options to customize their education to their best needs and interests.
In fact, many Chinese students are increasingly opting to study abroad at foreign universities; the U.S. in particular is the top destination for these students. Not only are these students turned off by the fierce competition for admission to top-tier Chinese universities, but also they may be drawn to the prestige and reputation of American universities, as well as the more holistic teaching style of American education that privileges class participation and seminar discussions.
- Also, China’s rapid economic growth has also resulted in many Chinese citizens able to afford the tuition of studying abroad.
- Hence, there are currently more than 300,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S., enrolled in both undergraduate and graduate studies.
- Nonetheless, the Chinese education system is still one of the most rigorous and esteemed education systems in the world.
Millions of young students work hard and study every day with the belief that education is the golden ticket to a better life. With increasing Western globalization and culture clash, the Chinese education system is facing some existential quandaries as to how it can be revised to fit the needs of its country’s students.
- Chelsea Shieh is a senior at Columbia University, majoring in Anthropology with a concentration in East Asian Languages and Cultures.
- She studied abroad at Tsinghua University in Beijing during the fall of 2015.
- Sources ” Education in China,” World Education News & Reviews, March 7, 2016.
- Accessed 5 January 2017.
David Matthews, ” Assessing China’s Academic Orbit,” China Household Finance Survey, March 20, 2015. Accessed 5 January 2017. Keith Bradsher, ” Next Made-In-China Boom: College Graduates,” The New York Times, January 16, 2013. Accessed 5 January 2017.
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Who is the father of education reform?
Henry Adams Catharine Beecher John Dewey Elaine Goodale Eastman Charlotte Forten Margeret Haley Horace Mann Julia Richman Laura Towne Horace Mann (1796-1859) Horace Mann, often called the Father of the Common School, began his career as a lawyer and legislator.
- When he was elected to act as Secretary of the newly-created Massachusetts Board of Education in 1837, he used his position to enact major educational reform.
- He spearheaded the Common School Movement, ensuring that every child could receive a basic education funded by local taxes.
- His influence soon spread beyond Massachusetts as more states took up the idea of universal schooling.
Mann’s commitment to the Common School sprang from his belief that political stability and social harmony depended on education: a basic level of literacy and the inculcation of common public ideals. He declared, “Without undervaluing any other human agency, it may be safely affirmed that the Common School.may become the most effective and benignant of all forces of civilization.” Mann believed that public schooling was central to good citizenship, democratic participation and societal well-being.
He observed, “A republican form of government, without intelligence in the people, must be, on a vast scale, what a mad-house, without superintendent or keepers, would be on a small one.” The democratic and republican principals that propelled Mann’s vision of the Common School have colored our assumptions about public schooling ever since.
Mann was influential in the development of teacher training schools and the earliest attempts to professionalize teaching. He was not the first to propose state-sponsored teacher training institutes (James Carter had recommended them in the 1820s), but, in 1838, he was crucial to the actual establishment of the first Normal Schools in Massachusetts.
- Mann knew that the quality of rural schools had to be raised, and that teaching was the key to that improvement.
- He also recognized that the corps of teachers for the new Common Schools were most likely to be women, and he argued forcefully (if, by contemporary standards, sometimes insultingly) for the recruitment of women into the ranks of teachers, often through the Normal Schools.
These developments were all part of Mann’s driving determination to create a system of effective, secular, universal education in the United States. Further Reading Mann, Horace. Annual Reports on Education, 1872 Massachusetts System of Common Schools, 1849 Messerli, Jonathan.
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Who is the education of India name?
Notes. Latest News : Mr Dharmendra Pradhan, Honorable Minister of Education of India will receive th 14th February 2022 Mr Schönenberger Claudius, Professor in France who revolutionize the learning process of Indian History by the launching of Evnseries.com on last Diwali.
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