Who Developed Vernacular Education In India?

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Who Developed Vernacular Education In India
Efforts of Thomson : – James Thomson, lieutenant-governor of NW Provinces (1843- 53), developed a comprehensive scheme of village education through the medium of vernacular languages. In these village schools, useful subjects such as mensuration and agriculture sciences were taught. The purpose was to train personnel for the newly set up Revenue and Public Works Department.
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Who introduced vernacular education in India?

In 1911 Gopal Krishna Gokhale tried to make primary vernacular education free and compulsory. Education in the Government of India saw many changes in 1913 but could not be implemented because of the First World War. Calcutta University Commission was appointed at the end of the First World War.
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Who wrote the first vernacular?

Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular —the speech of the “common people”. In the European tradition, this effectively means literature not written in Latin nor Koine Greek, In this context, vernacular literature appeared during the Middle Ages at different periods in the various countries; the earliest European vernacular literatures are Irish literature (the earliest being Tochmarc Emire (10th century), transcribed from a lost manuscript of the 8th century), Welsh literature, English literature and Gothic literature,

The Italian poet Dante Alighieri, in his De vulgari eloquentia, was possibly the first European writer to argue cogently for the promotion of literature in the vernacular. Important early vernacular works include Dante’s Divine Comedy, Giovanni Boccaccio ‘s Decameron (both in Italian ), John Barbour ‘s The Brus (in Scots ), Geoffrey Chaucer ‘s Canterbury Tales (in Middle English ) and Jacob van Maerlant ‘s Spieghel Historiael (in Middle Dutch ).

Indeed, Dante’s work actually contributed towards the creation of the Italian language. Leonardo Da Vinci used vernacular in his work. The term is also applied to works not written in the standard and/or prestige language of their time and place. For example, many authors in Scotland, such as James Kelman and Edwin Morgan have used Scots, even though English is now the more common language of publishing in Scotland,
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When did William Adam came to India?

William Adam, a Scottish Christian priest, arrived in India in 1818 and stayed for 27 years. He met Raja Ram Mohan Roy, and the two of them had an influence on each other.
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What is Adam’s report?

Adam’s Report: In this article, we will discuss Adam’s Report from the subject Contemporary India And Education. Adam’s full name was William Adam. He presented three reports between 1835 and 1838, and we know them as Adam’s Reports. William Bentick, the governor general of India, appointed Adam to survey the educational conditions of Bengal in India during the colonial rule.

  • On the basis of his survey, he submitted three reports.
  • He submitted his first report in 1835 and submitted the second and third reports in 1838.
  • Adam’s first report contains educational data.
  • Some scholars like Sir Philip termed the report as a ‘myth’, and other scholars like R.V.
  • Parulekar considered this report as a ‘reality.

Adam had described indigenous elementary schools in this report as “By this description are meant those schools in which instruction in the elements of knowledge is communicated, and which have been originated and are supported by the natives themselves, in contradiction from those that are supported by religious or philanthropic societies.” According to the other’s point of view, a school was a place where instructions were given to one student or more students either by the teacher or even by the father himself or any other member of the family.

In this report, Adam says that there were at least one lakh schools in operation in Bengal itself, which means that there was a school for every 400 students. Some education experts have described this report as a myth and false while some others believe that it is substantially correct. The two sides differ chiefly in relation to their interpretation of the world ‘school’.

One group defines school in its modern sense, viz. an institution of permanent nature conducted by a person or persons who teach a certain number of children of the locality in return for fees. If we define schools like this at that time, definitely, there were not one lakh schools functioning then.

  • But, according to other definitions, a family where a teacher was employed to give education to its children or where the father taught his own children with or without children of the locality, was also considered a school.
  • If this definition of the school had been accepted, then there would have been certainly one lakh schools functioning in Bengal.

Adam’s second report is about the findings of the study conducted from the data collected from Rajshahi district Nattore Thana. According to this report, the total population of Naltore Thana was 1,95,296 out of which 1,29,640 were Muslims and 65,656 were Hindus.

There were 485 villages in Naltore Thana. There were 27 elementary schools where only 262 students studied. Out of these schools, 10 were Bengali schools where 167 students were studying, 4 were Persian schools with 23 students, 11 were Arabic schools with 42 students. Also, there were 1588 families which provided education to 2342 students in 238 villages.

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The average age of admission to these schools was 8 years while that of leaving the school was 14 years. The average pay of the teacher was Rs.5-8 per month. According to Adam’s report, there were no indigenous colleges among Muslims, but there were 38 Sanskrit colleges with 397 students.

The average age of admission to such colleges was 11 years and the average age of completing the course was 27 years. Although it was thought that female education was non-existent, according to Adam’s Report total number of education adults in Naltore was 6121. And as per the report, the male literacy rate was 6.1 percent while the overall literacy rate was 3.1 percent.

Adam’s divided his third report into two parts. The first part covers educational data collected by him for 5 districts, i.e., Murshidabad, Birbhum, Burdwan, south Bihar, and Tirhut. The second part provides proposals put forward by Adam for the reform of education.

  1. In this report, Adam admits that his data was underestimated.
  2. He wrote, “Although I believe that the returns I receive are in general worthy of confidence so far as they go, yet I have no security that they are not defective.
  3. In traversing a district, many agents could not visit all the villages it contained, amounting to several thousand.

This was physically impossible without protracting the inquiry beyond all reasonable limits. They were, therefore, compelled to depend wither upon their personal knowledge, or upon the information that could be gathered from others as to the places possessing schools, every one of which was invariably visited and examined; but that in no instance a village-institution has been overlooked is more than I dare affirm, and in point of fact I have some time discovered instances in which such institution had at first escaped attention.” In his third report, Adam summarized all his statistics.

  1. This report contains two parts.
  2. The first part of the report deals with the statistics of Murshidabad.
  3. Birbhum, Burdwan, South Bihar, and Tirhut.
  4. In the second part, Adam has proposed to reform indigenous schools.
  5. We can say that Adam’s reports presented a clear view of the educational condition of Bengal.

These reports throw light on the different types of indigenous institutions in the educational field in India. The main features of Adam’s Reports are as follow:- On studying Adam’s Report or Reports, we see that Adam’s Report throws light on the popular indigenous education system in India during the colonial period.

  • Through this report, the British became familiar with the Indian educational scenario and took appropriate steps for its development and improvement.
  • This article has been contributed by Shivani Sharma, Haryana.
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When was vernacular first used?

Etymology – First usage of the word “vernacular” is not recent. In 1688, James Howell wrote: Concerning Italy, doubtless there were divers before the Latin did spread all over that Country; the Calabrian, and Apulian spoke Greek, whereof some Relicks are to be found to this day ; but it was an adventitious, no Mother-Language to them: ’tis confess’d that Latium it self, and all the Territories about Rome, had the Latin for its maternal and common first vernacular Tongue; but Tuscany and Liguria had others quite discrepant, viz.

  • The Hetruscane and Mesapian, whereof though there be some Records yet extant; yet there are none alive that can understand them: The Oscan, the Sabin and Tusculan, are thought to be but Dialects to these.
  • Here, vernacular, mother language and dialect are already in use in a modern sense.
  • According to Merriam-Webster, “vernacular” was brought into the English language as early as 1601 from the Latin vernaculus (“native”) which had been in figurative use in Classical Latin as “national” and “domestic”, having originally been derived from vernus and verna, a male or female slave born in the house rather than abroad.

The figurative meaning was broadened from the diminutive extended words vernaculus, vernacula, Varro, the classical Latin grammarian, used the term vocabula vernacula, “termes de la langue nationale” or “vocabulary of the national language” as opposed to foreign words.
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What is the vernacular called?

Ver·​nac·​u·​lar vər-ˈna-kyə-lər. və- : using a language or dialect native to a region or country rather than a literary, cultured, or foreign language. : of, relating to, or being a nonstandard language or dialect of a place, region, or country.
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Who was vernacular Act passed?

Why was the Vernacular Press Act of 1878 passed by Britishers? Answer Verified Hint: The vernacular Press Act was Proposed by Lord Lytton then viceroy of India, the act was intended to prevent the vernacular press from expressing criticism of British policies.

  1. This act brought huge criticism of British policies and power in India.
  2. Complete answer: The Vernacular Act of 1878 was proposed by Lord Lytton, then Viceroy of India, and was passed on 14 March 1878.
  3. This act excluded English-language publications as it was meant to control seditious writing of Indians which were against the British policies in India.
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Thus the British tried to control the publication of India by putting various charges against the freedom of the press. This act brought huge criticism by the Indian intelligentsia. The act empowered the government to regularly track Vernacular newspapers and control the sections which were writing mainly against the Britishers that way Britishers can control the opposition against their policies in India.

When a report published in the newspaper was judged as seditious, the newspaper was warned and later had to face serious actions against it. When this act was passed, there were more than 35 Vernacular presses in Bengal only which shows the huge market for the newspapers and reports. The main press during this time includes the Amrita Bazar Patrika, Naval Kishore press which was considered highly revolutionary.

The Vernacular Press Act stated that any magistrate or Commissioner of Police had the authority to call upon any printer or publisher of a newspaper to enter into a bond, undertaking not to print a certain kind of material, and could confiscate any printed material it deemed objectionable.

  1. What was seditious news was to be decided by the police, and not by the judiciary was the main feature of this act.
  2. Because of this act, many newspapers were banned and many editors were jailed for their criticism of British rule in India.This was also the year when the Arms act was passed which banned the Indians to keep arms with them without prior permission from the Britishers.

These two acts were largely criticized by the Indian nationalists. Note: The Vernacular press act was passed in the same year in which the Arms act was introduced so people tend to get confused between these acts. These acts also received huge criticism from the Indian nationalists.
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Why is Lord Lytton famous?

Lord Lytton : Vernacular Press Act

Edward Robert Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton, known commonly as Lord Lytton was an English politician who served as Viceroy of India from 1876 to1880. He is commonly regarded as a ruthless viceroy due to his approach to the Great Indian Famine of 1876-1878 and the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The article will give details about Lord Lytton within the context of the

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Who were three people that wrote in the vernacular?

Key Points –

  • In the 13th century, Italian authors began writing in their native vernacular language rather than in Latin, French, or Provençal. The earliest Renaissance literature appeared in 14th century Italy; Dante, Petrarch, and Machiavelli are notable examples of Italian Renaissance writers.
  • From Italy the influence of the Renaissance spread across Europe; the scholarly writings of Erasmus and the plays of Shakespeare can be considered Renaissance in character.
  • Renaissance literature is characterized by the adoption of a Humanist philosophy and the recovery of the classical literature of Antiquity, and benefited from the spread of printing in the latter part of the 15th century.

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How did vernacular develop?

There were different factors behind the rise of vernacular language. The dream to spread Christianity, the desire of women to take part in cultural debates and the technological advances are only three of the many factors that made it possible for vernacular language to overtake the Latin language.
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Who made vernacular literature popular?

Key Points –

In the 13th century, Italian authors began writing in their native vernacular language rather than in Latin, French, or Provençal. The earliest Renaissance literature appeared in 14th century Italy; Dante, Petrarch, and Machiavelli are notable examples of Italian Renaissance writers. From Italy the influence of the Renaissance spread across Europe; the scholarly writings of Erasmus and the plays of Shakespeare can be considered Renaissance in character. Renaissance literature is characterized by the adoption of a Humanist philosophy and the recovery of the classical literature of Antiquity, and benefited from the spread of printing in the latter part of the 15th century.

The 13th century Italian literary revolution helped set the stage for the Renaissance. Prior to the Renaissance, the Italian language was not the literary language in Italy. It was only in the 13th century that Italian authors began writing in their native vernacular language rather than in Latin, French, or Provençal. The 1250s saw a major change in Italian poetry as the Dolce Stil Novo (Sweet New Style, which emphasized Platonic rather than courtly love) came into its own, pioneered by poets like Guittone d’Arezzo and Guido Guinizelli. Especially in poetry, major changes in Italian literature had been taking place decades before the Renaissance truly began. With the printing of books initiated in Venice by Aldus Manutius, an increasing number of works began to be published in the Italian language, in addition to the flood of Latin and Greek texts that constituted the mainstream of the Italian Renaissance. The source for these works expanded beyond works of theology and towards the pre-Christian eras of Imperial Rome and Ancient Greece. This is not to say that no religious works were published in this period; Dante Alighieri’s The Divine Comedy reflects a distinctly medieval world view. Christianity remained a major influence for artists and authors, with the classics coming into their own as a second primary influence. At Florence the most celebrated Humanists wrote also in the vulgar tongue, and commented on Dante and Petrarch and defended them from their enemies. Leone Battista Alberti, the learned Greek and Latin scholar, wrote in the vernacular, and Vespasiano da Bisticci, while he was constantly absorbed in Greek and Latin manuscripts, wrote the Vite di uomini illustri, valuable for their historical contents and rivaling the best works of the 14th century in their candor and simplicity. The earliest Renaissance literature appeared in 14th century Italy; Dante, Petrarch, and Machiavelli are notable examples of Italian Renaissance writers. From Italy the influence of the Renaissance spread at different rates to other countries, and continued to spread throughout Europe through the 17th century. The English Renaissance and the Renaissance in Scotland date from the late 15th century to the early 17th century. In northern Europe the scholarly writings of Erasmus, the plays of Shakespeare, the poems of Edmund Spenser, and the writings of Sir Philip Sidney may be considered Renaissance in character. The literature of the Renaissance was written within the general movement of the Renaissance that arose in 13th century Italy and continued until the 16th century while being diffused into the western world. It is characterized by the adoption of a Humanist philosophy and the recovery of the classical literature of Antiquity and benefited from the spread of printing in the latter part of the 15th century. For the writers of the Renaissance, Greco-Roman inspiration was shown both in the themes of their writing and in the literary forms they used. The world was considered from an anthropocentric perspective. Platonic ideas were revived and put to the service of Christianity. The search for pleasures of the senses and a critical and rational spirit completed the ideological panorama of the period. New literary genres such as the essay and new metrical forms such as the sonnet and Spenserian stanza made their appearance. The creation of the printing press (using movable type) by Johannes Gutenberg in the 1450s encouraged authors to write in their local vernacular rather than in Greek or Latin classical languages, widening the reading audience and promoting the spread of Renaissance ideas. The impact of the Renaissance varied across the continent; countries that were predominantly Catholic or predominantly Protestant experienced the Renaissance differently. Areas where the Orthodox Church was culturally dominant, as well as those areas of Europe under Islamic rule, were more or less outside its influence. The period focused on self-actualization and one’s ability to accept what is going on in one’s life. Renaissance Man (“Blister in the Sun” by the Violent Femmes) Quick overview of some of the prominent men of the Renaissance.

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: The Rise of the Vernacular
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Who was vernacular Act passed?

Why was the Vernacular Press Act of 1878 passed by Britishers? Answer Verified Hint: The vernacular Press Act was Proposed by Lord Lytton then viceroy of India, the act was intended to prevent the vernacular press from expressing criticism of British policies.

This act brought huge criticism of British policies and power in India. Complete answer: The Vernacular Act of 1878 was proposed by Lord Lytton, then Viceroy of India, and was passed on 14 March 1878. This act excluded English-language publications as it was meant to control seditious writing of Indians which were against the British policies in India.

Thus the British tried to control the publication of India by putting various charges against the freedom of the press. This act brought huge criticism by the Indian intelligentsia. The act empowered the government to regularly track Vernacular newspapers and control the sections which were writing mainly against the Britishers that way Britishers can control the opposition against their policies in India.

When a report published in the newspaper was judged as seditious, the newspaper was warned and later had to face serious actions against it. When this act was passed, there were more than 35 Vernacular presses in Bengal only which shows the huge market for the newspapers and reports. The main press during this time includes the Amrita Bazar Patrika, Naval Kishore press which was considered highly revolutionary.

The Vernacular Press Act stated that any magistrate or Commissioner of Police had the authority to call upon any printer or publisher of a newspaper to enter into a bond, undertaking not to print a certain kind of material, and could confiscate any printed material it deemed objectionable.

What was seditious news was to be decided by the police, and not by the judiciary was the main feature of this act. Because of this act, many newspapers were banned and many editors were jailed for their criticism of British rule in India.This was also the year when the Arms act was passed which banned the Indians to keep arms with them without prior permission from the Britishers.

These two acts were largely criticized by the Indian nationalists. Note: The Vernacular press act was passed in the same year in which the Arms act was introduced so people tend to get confused between these acts. These acts also received huge criticism from the Indian nationalists.
View complete answer