Who Developed The Concept Of Integral Education?


Free Teaching Aptitude Mock Test 10 Questions 20 Marks 12 Mins Integral Education was given by Sri Aurobindo, It was based on the belief that the education of a human being should begin at birth and continue throughout his life. Also, he strongly believed that education to be complete must have five principal aspects, the physical, the vital, the mental, the psychic, and the spiritua l.

An Integral Approach to education means that we include multiple perspectives. It seeks to understand the subjective experience of others and to find value in them. It gives an effective tool to transform ourselves, serve others, and create a multidimensional curriculum. Integral education attempts to discover how the many partial truths of educational philosophies and methods inform and complement each other in a coherent way. His concept of true education is integral education, which concerns five principal ‘activities of the human being: the physical, the vital, the mental, the psychic, and the spiritual. Such a scheme of education not only helps the evolution of an individual but also helps the evolution of the nation and finally humanity. Based on his philosophy of education, he advocated three cardinal principles of education, which govern the process of education. There are:

Nothing can be taught or improved from outside. According to the Mother, “Fundamentally the only thing you must do assiduously is to teach them to know themselves, and to choose their own destiny, the way they want to follow”. The mind has to be consulted in its growth. The aim of education is to help the growing soul draw out its best. The educational process must emphasize “from near to the far, from that is to that which shall be”.

​ Additional Information Gijubhai Badhera:

Gijubhai, a great thinker from Gujarat, was a great pioneer in the field of pre-school education in India and advocated child-centered education. According to Gijubhai, a child is a complete person who has intellect, emotions, mind, and understanding, strengths and weaknesses, likes, and dislikes.’ It is very important to understand the emotions of the child and create an atmosphere where children learn from each other through play, stories, and songs without the fear of formal examinations and gradations. He preferred the word ‘Mandir’ to ‘school’ (like Bal Mandir, Kishore Mandir, Vinay Mandir instead of the primary, middle, and high school) just to indicate that it is a place where the child would not be beaten, insulted, or jeered at. Gijubhai was emphatic in saying that instead of imposing adult ideas on children they must be given an opportunity to learn something by doing playing according to their age and interest. He rejected the artificial, harsh, unsympathetic methods of education, which repressed all-natural inclinations. Education, according to him, should be a process of development into a rational, harmoniously balanced, useful, natural life.

Swami Vivekananda:

Vivekananda considers education as part of human life. The main aim of education according to him is the development of a strong moral character and not merely the feeding of information to the brain. Education should enable one to realize one’s self. Before that, it should create self-confidence.

Mahatma Gandhi:

According to Gandhiji, education means ‘an all-round drawing out of the best in the child and man-body, mind and spirit’. Hence, he believed in the total development of the human personality through education. Education does not mean literacy alone, it is a quest for truth and non-violence; training of body and mind and leading to an awakening of one’s soul. By introducing craft, he tried to remove the gap between manual and intellectual labor, the educated and uneducated mass, and promote the dignity of labor, social solidarity, and national integration. He also desired that ideals of democratic citizenship be inculcated in the children and regarded the school as a democratic society where they would learn citizenship, knowledge, skills, and values like co-operation, love, sympathy, fellow-feeling, equality. Gandhiji’s vision of the democratic society is “Sarvodaya Samaj” characteristics of which are social justice, peace, non-violence, and modem humanism.

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What is the concept of Integral Education?

Integral Education uses dynamic strategies, stays flexible to current best practices, and requires thinking in the context of “both/and” rather than “either/or.” We teach to the whole child: we teach mental skills and emotional intelligence; we teach through collaboration and independence; we encourage exploration of spirituality, aesthetics, physicality; we teach self-awareness and how to use compassionate communication with others. Who Developed The Concept Of Integral Education Our philosophy asks teachers to guide students to consider themselves and their inner world, just as they introduce them to concepts and content about the outer world in which they live. We teach strong academic skills, and we are always looking for balance between reflecting inwards and outwards, critically and compassionately.

  1. Students are at the center of what we do.
  2. We create time for students to follow their individual curiosity and passion.
  3. Just as with reflection, we are looking to balance this with ensuring they receive a culturally competent curriculum and meet (and exceed) national skill standards.
  4. In other words, each student and his/her relationship to the learning environment are foundational to what is being taught.

Historically public, and to a great extent private education in our country has completely ignored self -knowledge and has emphasized an ‘objective,’ hence objectifying approach to the learning experience and to the student’s relationship to life in general.

  1. As modern education was fashioned by the industrial-scientific revolutions of the West, it is natural that it would be driven by standardized approaches to content heavy disciplines (such as math, science, history, statistics) that seek to gain ever more predictable control over a material world.
  2. Odyssey continues to celebrate all that is gained from a scientifically explored world, and we also add in the importance of creating a sacred relationship to all of life: to our ecology, each other, and ourselves.

As inclusive and expansive as all of this theory is, we use many different tools and strategies to achieve these goals. Teachers incorporate multiple intelligences, six strands of learning, essential learning skills, Compassionate Communication, Positive Discipline, Responsive Classroom, Orton Gillingham ; and our school days include time for centering, councils, class meetings, independent research projects, diversity of life studies, physical education, art education, internships, peer mediation, mentorship, goal setting, reflection and student led assessment.

  • Classes in math, science, social studies, and language arts are essential cornerstones of our curriculum.
  • These classes are largely taught within thematic, interdisciplinary units by our homeroom elementary teachers and as more in-depth studies taught by specialists in 5th-12th grade.
  • Even as students specialize, our homeroom teachers plan together on a weekly basis as we aim to find inspiring moments of integrated connection.

When we recognize that students are more than their mental acuity, more than their test scores, we begin to see and hear students as their whole selves: as thinkers, feelers, creators, sensors, movers, game changers; as individuals and as a powerful collective.
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Why is Aurobindo’s educational thinking called Integral Education?

He believed that chief aim of education is awakening of divinity in the individual. This can be done through yoga, meditation. He had given five secondary aims of education- physical, spiritual, moral, mental and psyche development which he later called it as Integral Education.
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Who gave the concept of integral philosophy?

Integral theory, as described by the contemporary American philosopher Ken Wilber, is essentially a philosophical map that brings together more than 100 ancient and contemporary theories in philosophy, psychology, contemplative traditions, and sociology.
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When did the concept of integrated schools emerge?

Free 15 Questions 15 Marks 15 Mins The word education comes from the Latin word “Educare” which means to mold or to train, It is more concerned with the upbringing of a child to give him knowledge, skills, morals, values, by enriching his personality and by helping him in holistic development. Key Points

Integrated education includes the education of disabled children with normal children in a natural teaching-learning environment.

Integrated Education of the Disabled Children (IEDC) scheme was launched in 1974 but in India the integrated education program was started in 1987. This programme was an outcome of the National Policy of Education 1986 to provide equal access and opportunities to all children, In this program, normal children with disabled children learn and study together in the proper natural learning environment. Integration also means “mainstreaming” or “normalization” which means bringing disabled children into mainstream education. It helps to remove the inferiority complex among disabled children and gives them a chance to enjoy their school life with normal children. It ensures the social integration of disabled children and gives them the confidence to face problems and challenges with the help of peers.

Hence, it could be concluded that in India, the integrated education program was started in 1981-1990, Last updated on Dec 2, 2022 The Board of Secondary Education Odisha has released the short notice for Odisha TET (Teachers Eligibility Test) 2022. The candidates could apply online between 10th October to 19th October 2022.
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Who is the father of Integral Yoga?

Integral yoga
Sri Aurobindo
Founder Sri Aurobindo, The Mother
Established 1926

Integral yoga, sometimes also called supramental yoga, is the yoga -based philosophy and practice of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother ( Mirra Alfassa ). Central to Integral yoga is the idea that Spirit manifests itself in a process of involution, meanwhile forgetting its origins.

The reverse process of evolution is driven toward a complete manifestation of spirit. According to Sri Aurobindo, the current status of human evolution is an intermediate stage in the evolution of being, which is on its way to the unfolding of the spirit, and the self-revelation of divinity in all things.

Yoga is a rapid and concentrated evolution of being, which can take effect in one life-time, while unassisted natural evolution would take many centuries or many births. Aurobindo suggests a grand program called sapta chatushtaya (seven quadrates) to aid this evolution.
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What is Emile Durkheim’s theory on education?

Durkheim saw education as society’s means of guaranteeing continuation of its existence by. assimilating new individuals into it. Education should help the child learn to use the resources. already developed by society and possibly help the child expand from this base.
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What is Dr Zakir Hussain’s concept of education?

So, Zakir Hussain was a staunch supporter of Basic Education. He believed in the total development of children can take place through Basic Education, which is craft centred, creative, productive and self-supporting. According to him, productive work is an instrument of education.
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What is the concept of Russell about education?

Book Description – Bertrand Russell is considered to be one of the most significant educational innovators of his time. In this influential and controversial work, Russell calls for an education that would liberate the child from unthinking obedience to parental and religious authority.
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Who gave 4 pillars of education?

How do we design meaningful learning experiences that develop the skills and competencies most needed in the present, for the futures we want to create? From the mid-1990s perspective of a world seen as awash in change and complexity, a UNESCO commission under the leadership of Jacques Delors proposed four pillars that education could rest upon.

To “simultaneously provide maps of a world in constant turmoil and a compass that will enable people to find their way in it”, the Delors commission proposed learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together, and learning to be as four fundamental types of learning. Each deserved equal attention.

And together they were to form a whole that would guide education across the human lifespan. Change, complexity – also fragility, precarity and uncertainty – are very much with us 25 years later. The COVID pandemic has held up a mirror and shown us that we remain far from making our societies more just, equitable and inclusive.

It is also clear that we still have much work to do to avert ecological catastrophe. But, COVID has also reinforced the conviction of many that mutual support, the cooperative sharing of resources, and collective action provide the right moral coordinates and give good reason for hope. The commons movement is one suggested strategy for leveraging mutuality, cooperation and collective action for a better world.

Presented by David Bollier of The Next System Project as “at once a paradigm, a discourse, an ethic, and a set of social practices,” the commons has been held up as holding great promise for transforming societies. Important here is the common as what is shared, commoning as what is done together, and the common good as what is built and cared for by individuals together.

  1. No commons simply exists on its own.
  2. A commons needs to be nurtured, at times protected.
  3. And if we accept that “commoning” skills and competencies are high among those needed in the present for the futures we want to create, we might consider reorienting the Delors “four pillars” around the commons.
  4. Reworking each of these pillars in relation to building capacity for commoning actions and strengthening the common good offers a compass and map well suited for the collective challenges of our present historical juncture.

Learning to study, inquire and co-construct together Within a commons framing, acquiring knowledge needs to be recast as not simply enabling individuals, but rather as connecting individuals to one another and interegenerationally to the common knowledge resources of humanity.

A commoning paradigm requires attention to the collective ways knowledge is accessed, used, and created. The knowledge pillar supporting education would then need to be oriented towards learning to study, inquire and co-construct together, This revision would highlight the social dimensions of learning, as well as the diverse and networked dimensions of knowledge.

Reworking the “learning to know” pillar in this way would point educators towards constructivist pedagogical approaches and towards viewing their students as learning communities. It would highlight the knowledge commons as an intergenerational resource and conversation that has been built and nurtured across millennia.

  • Learning to collectively mobilize The Delors Commission’s discussion of “learning to do” almost exclusively narrowed to the issue of putting learning into practice in the workplace.
  • A commons framing would recast this in terms of skills and competencies that enable collective action.
  • The collaboration capability thus foregrounded would be valuable in the world of work and far beyond.

The doing pillar that supports education would need to be oriented to learning to collectively mobilize, Focusing educational efforts on empowering learners to take action together surfaces the importance of deliberation, cross-cultural communication and coalition building.

Learning to live in a common world Setting “learning to live together” as a key pillar puts education on the right track. As the COVID disruptions have unfolded, humanity has been reminded just how closely we are linked to one another biologically, politically, and socially. (Though at times this last has painfully manifested through its absence and deferral.) While “together” is a robust concept, we cannot let it only mean peaceful “living with others” co-existence.

Tolerating and respecting the rights of others and the ways of being of others is a first step. But, the challenge for humans living on planet earth in 2021 is to make healthy, sustainable ways of co-living: with one another and with the planet. Orienting this pillar towards learning to live in a common world elevates the importance of education that engages with our common humanity and with the natural world of which we are a part.

This change enables us to reshape common living as intertwined and a fundamentally shared experience. Learning to attend and care When the Delors Commission presented “learning to be”, it placed great emphasis on the development of one’s personality and being able to act with independence, judgment and personal responsibility.

The role of education in supporting people in freedom of thought, critical thinking, and the realization of their own self-chosen purposes is not to be overlooked. At the same time, we have seen the insidious dangers of acquisitive individualism and diminished empathy that appear when autonomy comes entirely at the expense of an understanding of relationality.

Applying a commons framing to the pillar of education that emphasizes the development of the complete person, we would do well to think in terms of learning to attend and care, This would entail understanding ourselves as persons who are simultaneously capable and vulnerable. It would force us to reflect on how we affect and are affected by others and the world.

It would require that educators focus their work on the rights and responsibilities that come into play in our relationships and interdependencies. A commoning paradigm would take problems of caring-about, caring-for, care-giving and care-receiving as inextricably social and moral questions that call for individuals to take action together and share responsibility.

Considering this one of the fundamental pillars of education would put our relationships with one another and with a more-than-human world at the center of educational practice. This piece has suggested that core educational foundations can be usefully reworked to value and empower individuals as they also leverage mutuality, cooperation and collective action for a better world.

The Delors four pillars can be updated to better support educators who are working to design meaningful learning experiences. Using a commons framework to foreground what we share together, what we do together, and what we build together helps us reimagine the skills and competencies most needed in the present for the futures we want to create.
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What is the origin of integral?

Etymology. Borrowed from Middle French integral, from Medieval Latin integrālis, from Latin integer (‘entire’) ; see integer.
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Where did integral come from?

See here for a list of calculus and analysis entries on the Words pages. Derivative. The symbols d x dx, d y dy, and d x d y \large\frac \normalsize were introduced by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646 – 1716) in a manuscript of November 11, 1675 ( Cajori vol.2, page 204),

f’ ( x ) for the first derivative, f” ( x ) for the second derivative, etc., were introduced by Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736 – 1813), In 1797 in Théorie des fonctions analytiques the symbols f’x and f”x are found; in the Oeuvres, Vol. X, “which purports to be a reprint of the 1806 edition, on p.15, 17, one finds the corresponding parts given as f ( x ), f’ ( x ), f” ( x ), f”’ ( x ) ” ( Cajori vol.2, page 207),

In 1770 Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736 – 1813) wrote ψ ′ \psi ‘ for d ψ d x \large\frac in his memoir Nouvelle méthode pour résoudre les équations littérales par le moyen des séries ( Oeuvres, Vol. III, pp.5 – 76), The notation also occurs in a memoir by François Daviet de Foncenex in 1759 believed actually to have been written by Lagrange ( Cajori 1919, page 256),

In 1772 Lagrange wrote u ′ = d u d x u’ = \large\frac \normalsize and d u = u ′ d x du = u’dx in “Sur une nouvelle espèce de calcul relatif à la différentiation et à l’integration des quantités variables,” Nouveaux Memoires de l’Academie royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Berlin ( Oeuvres, Vol.

III, pp.451 – 478), D x y D_ y was introduced by Louis François Antoine Arbogast (1759 – 1803) in “De Calcul des dérivations et ses usages dans la théorie des suites et dans le calcul différentiel,” Strasbourg, xxii, pp.404, Impr. de Levrault, fréres, an VIII (1800),

( This information comes from Julio González Cabillón; Cajori indicates in his History of Mathematics that Arbogast introduced this symbol, but it seems he does not show this symbol in A History of Mathematical Notations.) D was used by Arbogast in the same work, although this symbol had previously been used by Johann Bernoulli ( Cajori vol.2, page 209),

Bernoulli used the symbol in a non-operational sense ( Maor, page 97), Partial derivative. The “curly d” was used in 1770 by Antoine-Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet (1743 – 1794) in “Memoire sur les Equations aux différence partielles,” which was published in Histoire de L’Academie Royale des Sciences, pp.151 – 178, Annee M.

  1. DCCLXXIII (1773),
  2. On page 152, Condorcet says: Dans toute la suite de ce Memoire, dz et ∂ \partial z désigneront ou deux differences partielles de z,, dont une par rapport a x, l’autre par rapport a y, ou bien dz sera une différentielle totale, & ∂ \partial z une difference partielle.
  3. However, the “curly d” was first used in the form ∂ u ∂ x \large\frac by Adrien Marie Legendre in 1786 in his “Memoire sur la manière de distinguer les maxima des minima dans le Calcul des Variations,” Histoire de l’Academie Royale des Sciences, Annee M.

DCCLXXXVI (1786), pp.7 – 37, Paris, M. DCCXXXVIII (1788), On page 8, it reads: Pour éviter toute ambiguité, je répresentarie par ∂ u ∂ x \large\frac le coefficient de x dans la différence de u, et par d u d x \large\frac la différence complète de u divisée par dx.

  • Legendre abandoned the symbol and it was re-introduced by Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi in 1841,
  • Jacobi used it extensively in his remarkable paper “De determinantibus Functionalibus” Crelle’s Journal, Band 22, pp.319 – 352, 1841 ( pp.393 – 438 of vol.1 of the Collected Works ),
  • Sed quia uncorum accumulatio et legenti et scribenti molestior fieri solet, praetuli characteristica d differentialia vulgaria, differentialia autem partialia characteristica ∂ \partial denotare.

The “curly d” symbol is sometimes called the “rounded d” or “curved d” or Jacobi’s delta. It corresponds to the cursive “dey” ( equivalent to our d ) in the Cyrillic alphabet. Integral. Before introducing the integral symbol, Leibniz wrote omn. for “omnia” in front of the term to be integrated.

  1. The integral symbol was first used by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646 – 1716) on October 29, 1675, in an unpublished manuscript, Analyseos tetragonisticae pars secunda : Utile erit scribi ∫ \int pro omnia, ut ∫ \int l = omn.
  2. L, id est summa ipsorum l.
  3. Two weeks later, on Nov.11, in Methodi tangentium inversae exempla, he first placed dx after the integral symbol, replacing x d \large\frac \normalsize,

Both manuscripts were first published by Gerhardt. There is now a critical edition ( Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Sämtliche Schriften und Briefe, Reihe VII: Mathematische Schriften, vol 5 : Infinitesimalmathematik 1674 – 1676, Berlin : Akademie Verlag, 2008, pp 288 – 295 and 321 – 331), online: http://www.gwlb.de/Leibniz/Leibnizarchiv/Veroeffentlichungen/VII 5 A.pdf http://www.gwlb.de/Leibniz/Leibnizarchiv/Veroeffentlichungen/VII 5 B.pdf The first appearance of the integral symbol in print was in a paper by Leibniz in the Acta Eruditorum.

The integral symbol was actually a long letter S for “summa.” In his Quadratura curvarum of 1704, Newton wrote a small vertical bar above x to indicate the integral of x. He wrote two side-by-side vertical bars over x to indicate the integral of ( x with a single bar over it ), Another notation he used was to enclose the term in a rectangle to indicate its integral.

Cajori writes that Newton ‘s symbolism for integration was defective because the x with a bar could be misinterpreted as x-prime and the placement of a rectangle about the term was difficult for the printer, and that therefore Newton ‘s symbolism was never popular, even in England.

Limits of integration. Limits of integration were first indicated only in words. Euler was the first to use a symbol in Institutiones calculi integralis, where he wrote the limits in brackets and used the Latin words ab and ad ( Cajori vol.2, page 249), The modern definite integral symbol was originated by Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768 – 1830),

In 1822 in his famous The Analytical Theory of Heat he wrote: Nous désignons en général par le signe ∫ a b \int ^ _ l’intégrale qui commence lorsque la variable équivaut à a, et qui est complète lorsque la variable équivaut à b. The citation above is from ” Théorie analytique de la chaleur “, Firmin Didot, Paris, 1822, page 252 ( paragraph 231),

Fourier had used this notation somewhat earlier in the Mémoires of the French Academy for 1819 – 20, in an article of which the early part of his book of 1822 is a reprint ( Cajori vol.2 page 250), The bar notation to indicate evaluation of an antiderivative at the two limits of integration was first used by Pierre Frederic Sarrus (1798 – 1861) in 1823 in Gergonne ‘s Annales, Vol.

XIV. The notation was used later by Moigno and Cauchy ( Cajori vol.2, page 250), Integration around a closed path. Dan Ruttle, a reader of this page, has found a use of the integral symbol with a circle in the middle by Arnold Sommerfeld (1868 – 1951) in 1917 in Annalen der Physik, “Die Drudesche Dispersionstheorie vom Standpunkte des Bohrschen Modelles und die Konstitution von H 2, O 2 und N 2,” This use is earlier than the 1923 use shown by Cajori,

Ruttle reports that J.W. Gibbs used only the standard integral sign in his Elements of Vector Analysis (1881 – 1884), and that and E.B. Wilson used a small circle below the standard integral symbol to denote integration around a closed curve in his Vector Analysis (1901, 1909) and in Advanced Calculus (1911, 1912),

Limit. lim. ( with a period ) was used first by Simon-Antoine-Jean L’Huilier (1750 – 1840), In 1786, L’Huilier gained much popularity by winning the prize offered by l’Academie royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Berlin, His essay, “Exposition élémentaire des principes des calculs superieurs,” accepted the challenge thrown by the Academy – a clear and precise theory on the nature of infinity.

  1. On page 31 of this remarkable paper, L’Huilier states: Pour abreger et pour faciliter le calcul par une notation plus commode, on est convenu de désigner autrement que par lim ⁡,
  2. Δ P Δ x \lim,
  3. Large\frac, la limite du rapport des changements simultanes de P et de x, favoir par d P d x \large\frac \normalsize ; en sorte que lim ⁡,
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Δ P Δ x \lim, \large\frac ou d P d x \large\frac \normalsize ; designent la même chose lim ( without a period ) was written in 1841 by Karl Weierstrass (1815 – 1897) in one of his papers published in 1894 in Mathematische Werke, Band I, page 60 ( Cajori vol.2, page 255),

The arrow notation for limits. In the 1850 s, Weierstrass began to use lim ⁡ l i m i t s x = c \lim limits_, Our present day expression lim ⁡ l i m i t s x → c \lim limits_ seems to have originated with the English mathematician John Gaston Leathem in his 1905 book Volume and Surface Integrals Used in Physics.

Leathem wrote the following in his undated Preface ( p. v, paragraph 3) to Elements of the Mathematical Theory of Limits, G. Bell and Sons, 1925 : The arrow symbol for tendency to limit was introduced in my tract on Surface and Volume Integrals published by the Cambridge University Press in 1905,

  1. It has been erroneously attributed to another writer owing to its use, with inadvertent omission of acknowledgment, in an important book published three years later.
  2. It is now a well-established notation, and I have thought it desirable to supplement it in the present work by using sloped arrows to distinguish upward and downward tendencies.

The widespread use of the arrow notation can probably be attributed to its appearance in two books in 1908 : An Introduction to the Theory of Infinite Series (1 st ed.) by Thomas John I’Anson Bromwich and A Course of Pure Mathematics by Godfrey Harold Hardy, Infinity. The infinity symbol ∞ \infty was introduced by John Wallis (1616 – 1703) in 1655 in his De sectionibus conicis ( On Conic Sections ) as follows: Suppono in limine ( juxta^ Bonaventurae Cavallerii Geometriam Indivisibilium ) Planum quodlibet quasi ex infinitis lineis parallelis conflari: Vel potius ( quod ego mallem ) ex infinitis Prallelogrammis aeque altis; quorum quidem singulorum altitudo sit totius altitudinis 1 / ∞ \infty, sive alicuota pars infinite parva; ( esto enim ∞ \infty nota numeri infiniti; ) adeo/q; omnium simul altitude aequalis altitudini figurae.

  1. Wallis also used the infinity symbol in various passages of his Arithmetica infinitorum ( Arithmetic of Infinites ) (1655 or 1656),
  2. For instance, he wrote ( p.70) : Cum enim primus terminus in serie Primanorum sit 0, primus terminus in serie reciproca erit ∞ \infty vel infinitus: ( sicut, in divisione, si diviso sit 0, quotiens erit infinitus ) In Zero to Lazy Eight, Alexander Humez, Nicholas Humez, and Joseph Maguire write: ” Wallis was a classical scholar and it is possible that he derived ∞ from the old Roman sign for 1, 000, CD, also written M – though it is also possible that he got the idea from the lowercase omega, omega being the last letter of the Greek alphabet and thus a metaphor of long standing for the upper limit, the end.” Cajori ( vol.2, p 44) says the conjecture has been made that Wallis adopted this symbol from the late Roman symbol ∞ for 1, 000,

He attributes the conjecture to Wilhelm Wattenbach (1819 – 1897), Anleitung zur lateinischen Paläographie 2, Aufl., Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1872, Appendix: p.41, This conjecture is lent credence by the labels inscribed on a Roman hand abacus stored at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.

A plaster cast of this abacus is shown in a photo on page 305 of the English translation of Karl Menninger’s Number Words and Number Symbols ; at the time, the cast was held in the Cabinet des Médailles in Paris. The photo reveals that the column devoted to 1000 on this abacus is inscribed with a symbol quite close in shape to the lemniscate symbol, and which Menninger shows would easily have evolved into the symbol M, the eventual Roman symbol for 1000,

Delta to indicate a small quantity. In 1706, Johann Bernoulli used δ to denote the difference of functions. Julio González Cabillón believes this is probably one of the first if not the first use of delta in this sense. Delta and epsilon. Augustin-Louis Cauchy (1789 – 1857) used ε in 1821 in Cours d’analyse ( Oeuvres II.3 ), and sometimes used δ instead ( Cajori vol.2, page 256),

According to Finney and Thomas ( page 113), “δ meant ‘différence’ ( French for difference and ε meant ‘erreur’ ( French for error ),” The first theorem on limits that Cauchy sets out to prove in the Cours d’Analyse ( Oeuvres II.3, p.54 ) has as hypothesis that for increasing values of x, the difference f ( x + 1) – f ( x ) converges to a certain limit k,

The proof then begins by saying denote by ε a number as small as one may wish. Since the increasing values of x make the difference f ( x + 1) – f ( x ) converge to the limit k, one can assign a sufficiently substantial value to a number h so that, for x bigger than or equal to h, the difference in question is always between the bounds k – ε, k + ε.

The first delta-epsilon proof is Cauchy ‘s proof of what is essentially the mean-value theorem for derivatives. It comes from his lectures on the Calcul infinitesimal, 1823, Leçon 7, in Oeuvres, Ser.2, vol.4, pp.44 – 45, The proof translates Cauchy ‘s verbal definition of the derivative as the limit ( when it exists ) of the quotient of the differences into the language of algebraic inequalities using both delta and epsilon.

In the 1820 s Cauchy did not specify on what, given an epsilon, his delta or n depended, so one can read his proofs as holding for all values of the variable. Thus he does not make the distinction between converging to a limit pointwise and convering to it uniformly.
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Who invented integration by parts?

Mathematician Brook Taylor discovered integration by parts, first publishing the idea in 1715.
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Who was the first person to integrate schools?

Ruby Bridges | National Women’s History Museum At the tender age of six, Ruby Bridges advanced the cause of civil rights in November 1960 when she became the first African American student to integrate an elementary school in the South. Born on September 8, 1954, Bridges was the oldest of five children for Lucille and Abon Bridges, farmers in Tylertown, Mississippi.

When Ruby was two years old, her parents moved their family to New Orleans, Louisiana in search of better work opportunities. Ruby’s birth year coincided with the US Supreme Court’s landmark ruling in Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka Kansas, which ended racial segregation in public schools. Nonetheless, southern states continued to resist integration, and in 1959, Ruby attended a segregated New Orleans kindergarten.

A year later, however, a federal court ordered Louisiana to desegregate. The school district created entrance exams for African American students to see whether they could compete academically at the all-white school. Ruby and five other students passed the exam.

  1. Her parents were torn about whether to let her attend the all-white William Frantz Elementary School, a few blocks from their home.
  2. Her father resisted, fearing for his daughter’s safety; her mother, however, wanted Ruby to have the educational opportunities that her parents had been denied.
  3. Meanwhile, the school district dragged its feet, delaying her admittance until November 14.

Two of the other students decided not to leave their school at all; the other three were sent to the all-white McDonough Elementary School. Ruby and her mother were escorted by four federal marshals to the school every day that year. She walked past crowds screaming vicious slurs at her.

  • Undeterred, she later said she only became frightened when she saw a woman holding a black baby doll in a coffin.
  • She spent her first day in the principal’s office due to the chaos created as angry white parents pulled their children from school.
  • Ardent segregationists withdrew their children permanently.

Barbara Henry, a white Boston native, was the only teacher willing to accept Ruby, and all year, she was a class of one. Ruby ate lunch alone and sometimes played with her teacher at recess, but she never missed a day of school that year. While some families supported her bravery — and some northerners sent money to aid her family — others protested throughout the city.

The Bridges family suffered for their courage: Abon lost his job, and grocery stores refused to sell to Lucille. Her share-cropping grandparents were evicted from the farm where they had lived for a quarter-century. Over time, other African American students enrolled; many years later, Ruby’s four nieces would also attend.

In 1964, artist Norman Rockwell celebrated her courage with a painting of that first day entitled, “The Problem We All Live With.” Ruby graduated from a desegregated high school, became a travel agent, married and had four sons. She was reunited with her first teacher, Henry, in the mid 1990s, and for a time the pair did speaking engagements together.

  1. Ruby later wrote about her early experiences in two books and received the Carter G.
  2. Woodson Book Award,
  3. A lifelong activist for racial equality, in 1999, Ruby established The Ruby Bridges Foundation to promote tolerance and create change through education.
  4. In 2000, she was made an honorary deputy marshal in a ceremony in Washington, DC.

MLA – Michals, Debra. “Ruby Bridges.” National Women’s History Museum. National Women’s History Museum, 2015. Date accessed. Chicago – Michals, Debra. “Ruby Bridges.” National Women’s History Museum.” 2015. www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/ruby-bridges.

Abrams is now one of the most prominent African American female politicians in the United States. Abigail Adams was an early advocate for women’s rights. A progressive social reformer and activist, Jane Addams was on the frontline of the settlement house movement and was the first American woman to win a Nobel Peace Prize.

Toshiko Akiyoshi changed the face of jazz music over her sixty-year career. As one of few women and Asian musicians in the jazz world, Akiyoshi infused Japanese culture, sounds, and instruments into her music. Students will analyze the life of Hon. Yvonne B.

Miller, her accomplishments, and leadership attributes, so they can apply persuasive techniques to amplify her accomplishments, leadership attributes, as well as those in leadership roles in their community Students will analyze different perspectives of Stacey Abrams’s candidacy for Georgia’s Governor to learn about civic responsibility.

In this lesson, students will consider what life in America was like prior to Roe v. Wade. What Patsy Mink Made Possible: Title IX at 50 : Ruby Bridges | National Women’s History Museum
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What was the first school to integrate?

Early history of integrated schools – Some schools in the United States were integrated before the mid-20th century, the first ever being Lowell High School in Massachusetts, which has accepted students of all races since its founding. The earliest known African American student, Caroline Van Vronker, attended the school in 1843.
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When was integrated education developed in India?

Background Information: In ancient India the persons with disabilities were given education in the communities in which they lived. Education was given in the mainstream schools alongside the non handicapped peers in a gurukulum setting. Individualised instructions were given on based on the individual child’s needs and age (Jeyachandran, 1968).

  • A few residential institutions were established by the members of the royalty at different locations as an act of dharma, a duty (Miles, 1994).
  • During the colonial period and after, special schools were established mostly in urban areas and were expensive.
  • Their coverage was only 2% of the population in need (Rangasayee, 1995).

In the post independence years India had around 100 special schools for the persons with disabilities. The special schools were run by the government as well as non government organizations. These special schools were inadequate considering the mammoth population in need of special education.

The Kothari Commission,1964; The National Policy on Education,1968; Integrated Education for the Disabled Children -IEDC,1974; the National Policy on Education-NPE,1986.) Continuous reorientation of pre-service and in-service teacher education programmes by the ministry of education. Children with mild and moderate retardation to be placed in regular schools Children with severe and profound disabilities to be placed in special schools Residential facilities were also provided wherever needed in every district. Project for the Integration of the Disabled (PIED), 1986, on the principle of Composite Area Approach (CAA) for special schools children being placed in mainstream schools. The Programme of Action (POA), 1992, made provisions for training of general teachers, preparation of learning materials, education devices, support teacher and staff and setting of resource centres. The revised IEDC scheme in 1992 to accommodate these provisions.

The Impact Study: The impact of the IEDC scheme, in its 30 years of implementation, is now being taken up as a sponsored research study by the Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD), for further revision and strengthening of the scheme. Integrated Education: It means, ‘to form into a whole, to complete’ by providing the least restricted environment to children with disabilities so that they may grow and develop like the rest of the child population.

It is an outcome of the deinstitutionalisation process which began as a felt need after independence. Children with Disabilities: Children, because of their disabilities are restricted in performing the activities that children otherwise do. Children as a result of impairments do not perform the activities in the manner or within the range performed by the peers.

Scheme: A Study of Integrated Education for the Disabled Children (IEDC) Scheme: Assessment of Impact Assessment of Impact: Assessment in this study means –Evaluating the impact of the IEDC scheme Evaluation of the IEDC Scheme – What it means?

It is the looking back on the objectives and asking whether the impact of the scheme had brought about the desired change as stated in the objectives. Did the desired change happen within the time stipulated in the objective If it had not, why? If it had, then could it be further strengthened, sustained and enlarged for ongoing enrollment.

IEDC Scheme -Aims: The IEDC scheme had the following three main broad aims.

To facilitate admission to as many children with disabilities as in need in the integrated set up so that the infrastructure and resources already in existence would be made available to these children too; To adopt suitable and appropriate teaching methods for effective teaching learning experiences and thereby reduce the drop out rate. To establish a linkage between the special schools and the integrated schools in the area for continuing education and “functional” education in the mainstream.

Type of Scheme The IEDC Scheme is Government of India sponsored. Scope of the Scheme Provision of educational facilities to those children with disabilities who would benefit from mainstream education. It includes:

Pre-school training for the Children with Disabilities. Counseling for the parents and training them in the care and management of the children at home. an activity preparing the entry of the children into the mainstream school system -with special training for the children with hearing impairment, -mobility and orientation training for the visually handicapped, -daily living and communication skills training required by children with other disabilities. continuation of education up to the senior secondary school level including vocational courses equivalent to the senior secondary level.

Eligibility: All children with disability will be eligible for entry into this scheme provided they have not been receiving any benefit from any other scholarship/assistance schemes relating to disability from the State/ Central Government, unless they undertake to forego the benefits.

Under this scheme 100 percent assistance will be provided to the States/Union Territories in its implementation on the basis of the criteria laid down and subject to professionally qualified staff being on the rolls. While rehabilitation assistance will be made available to all children with disabilities, student benefits will be extended on the recommendation of the Assessment Team.

Implementing Agencies The scheme shall be implemented through the:

State Governments Union Territory Administrations Autonomous organisations with credibility and experience in the field of education, rehabilitation of the persons with disabilities.

As this scheme is to be implemented in schools, the Education Department would be the implementing agency. The State Governments may also take the assistance of voluntary organizations for this purpose, where ever feasible. Procedure for Implementation

An administrative cell will be set up by the implementing organisation under an officer. The officer, will be in the rank of at least the Deputy Director. The officer will implement, monitor and evaluate the programme. The officer will possess special qualifications to work in this field, otherwise he will be trained by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) or other designated organizations. This cell will also identify the areas and the institutions for implementing the scheme.

Administrative Cell: The Administrative Cell of the State Education Department will have a:

Deputy Director (in the scale of pay applicable in the State Government), Coordinator ( Psychologist) in the scale applicable to a university lecturer, Special Educator in the pay scale applicable to a university lecturer, Stenographer and Lower Division Clerk in the pay scales applicable in the State/UT.

Selected development blocks by the Administrative Cell will be provided with the required inputs for intensive and effective implementation of the Scheme. The Administrative Cell – Its Responsibilities: The Administrative machinery will process action for the assessment of the children with disabilities in all the blocks where the initial identification survey has been conducted.

Identifying the blocks/districts for all the children with disabilities, where the scheme is yet to be implemented. Selecting, providing orientation to all school teachers in the area preparing them to conduct surveys and identify the children with disabilities in the area and in the mainstream schools.

Note: An honororium of Rs 100 may be provided for conducting the survey. Assistance of up to Rs.10,000 may be provided to the IEDC cell for the provision of printed survey forms used for identification of these children.

Supplementing these efforts by arranging for publicity through mass media. Arranging equipments, learning materials, staff, needed in the education of the c with disabilities. Monitoring and evaluation of the scheme at the State level will be carried out by the cell. Ensuring that the information regarding the scheme is widely known.

The present study: Evaluating the impact of IEDC scheme on the children with disabilities in their developmental progress. Areas of Study:

Linkages of the special schools with mainstream schools. Facilities made available for Children with Disabilities Appointment of Special Teachers Training of mainstream teachers Training of staff in the scheme Resource room support Level of Integration of Children with Disabilities Adequate and appropriate instructional materials Pre-school Facilities Monitoring and evaluation

The study of such a dimension and coverage has been taken up for the first time in India. The Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI), the Evaluating Body- Why?

RCI is a statutory and autonomous Body. A large number of professionals in its Central Rehabilitation Register (CRR) available in all regions familiar with the culture and languages in each region. Infrastructure and resources available for carrying out quality research work.

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What are the main features of integrated education?

Integrated learning: Definition, Characteristics and Benefits Intellectual and practical skills are foundational to the growth of a student. A modern-day method that can be applied is integrated learning. Integrated learning means combining what students learn in the classroom, with the solution of real-world problems.

Hallmark Public School, one of the, brings to you the definition, characteristics, and benefits of integrated learning: Definition of Integrated Learning The integrated curriculum is about making significant connections between subjects or skills that are usually addressing several different subject areas.

Integrating the curriculum can also improve learning experiences. An integrated approach to learning is designed to focus on learning within the curriculum. It focuses on making connections among concepts and experiences so that information and skills can be applied to novel and complex issues or challenges.

It primarily focuses on problem-solving. It is a compilation of assessment, curriculum development, and faculty development. Integrated learning explores and uses information effectively. It enables children to integrate ideas and experiences and apply them to formulate new learning situations. Creativity, adaptability, critical reasoning, and collaboration are the key features of integrated learning. The method of learning accommodates a variety of learning styles, theories, and multiple intelligences.

Benefits of Integrated Learning

Integrated learning pays particular attention to an increase in understanding, retention, and application of general concepts. It provides a better understanding of the content. Integrated learning encourages active participation in relevant real-life experiences. It serves as a connection between various curricular disciplines. It develops higher-level thinking skills. Ensures active participation by triggering the point of interest of students.

At Hallmark Public School, frequently listed among, strongly advocate to integrate this method of learning in our curriculum. : Integrated learning: Definition, Characteristics and Benefits
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What is the objective of integrated education?

Aim of integrated education for visually impaired is- Free 10 Questions 10 Marks 10 Mins Visually impaired children suffer from the impairment and defects to their eyes to such a degree that it makes them disabled in terms of their visual ability and perception. This disability may present a continuum, ranging from poor and defective vision to no perception of light at all.

Though residential schools grew in number in India, they could not provide education to all visually impaired children. In order to provide education to more children with visual impairment, and also to enable them to live with their families, the concept of integrated education emerged. Integrated education means providing education to the child with a disability in the regular school system. However, the school must also have teachers educators who are specially trained in working with, and teaching, disabled children, including the visually impaired. They are referred to as special specialist resource teachers.

Key Points

​I ntegrated educati on aims to socially integrate and recognize the visually impaired students in the society, Social integration means how group members fit together and are accepted in the group. In each and every group there are norms, roles, and status. These are the group dynamics that promote social integration by influencing how members behave. The norm, status and roles help the groups to avoid conflict and unpredictability which may create chaos. It is true that a group can not function effectively without a fairly high level of social integration among group members. Social integration helps to build unanimity about the purposes and goals of the group. Social recognition is the process of highlighting the good work done by the members of the society, these works or acts done are selfless and are not influenced by the goodwill of a particular group, but are done for the overall upliftment of the society. Social recognition is also given to the group of communities or individuals who were deemed to be backward or unequal in orthodox cultures and were not accepted as a part of society.

Thus, it is concluded that the aim of integrated education for the visually impaired is social integration and recognition. India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students : Aim of integrated education for visually impaired is-
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