Who Demanded The Right To Compulsory And Free Education?

0 Comments

Who Demanded The Right To Compulsory And Free Education
Gokhale Gokhale, on March 18, 1912, moved that the bill be referred to a Select Committee of 15 members of the Council for detailed examination of the clauses. This time he also urged that where education was to be made compulsory, it should be free (Sen, 1941).
View complete answer

Who demanded the Right to compulsory and free education before independence in India?

Gopal Krishna Gokhale demanded the Right to Education for Indian children from the Imperial Legislative Assembly.
View complete answer

Who demanded for the first time free and compulsory primary education in India?

Published: June 10, 2011 Gopal Krishna Gokhale had introduced a bill in the Imperial legislative Assembly in 1911 to implement the principle of compulsory primary education for children of 6-10 years age. The bill got failed and was defeated in 1892, March by 38-13.
View complete answer

Who demanded Right to compulsory?

Gopal Krishna Gokhale is an Indian Freedom Fighter. He was a ‘moderate leader and a strong advocate of social reforms. He is known as the diamond of India. In the imperial assembly he demanded free and compulsory education for Indian children.
View complete answer

Who introduced free and compulsory primary education in Baroda?

In 1893, Sayajirao Gaekwad started an experiment of providing free but compulsory primary education to all the children in the age group of 6-14 in ten selected villages of Amreli Mahal. He decided to ramp it up in 1906 across the entire Baroda State. This was for the first time in India that such a step was initiated.
View complete answer

When was the free and compulsory child education Act 2009 implemented?

An Act to provide for free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years.
View complete answer

Who introduce free education in 1955?

The Development Of Free Primary Education Scheme In Western Nigeria, 1952-1966: An Analysis

/ / / Articles

DOI: In 1955, the government of Western Region of Nigeria introduced a free primary education programme. That scheme, which featured prominently up till 1966, suffered a major blow, following the military take-over of government in that year. Despite this, the scheme has left an indelible imprint in the annals of education in Western Nigeria and the whole country.
View complete answer

Who came up with compulsory education?

Prussia implemented a modern compulsory education system in 1763. It was introduced by the Generallandschulreglement (General School Regulation), a decree of Frederick the Great in 1763–5.
View complete answer

Which year Right to Education was made as free and compulsory in India?

When was the Right to Education Act (RTE) enacted by the Par Free 100 Questions 200 Marks 120 Mins The Correct Answer is 4 August 2009, Key Points

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE), is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted on 4 August 2009. This law describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21a of the Indian Constitution. India became one of the 135 countries to make education a fundamental right of every child when the Act came into force on 1 April 2010. This Act also provides that no child shall be held back, expelled, or required to pass a board examination until the completion of elementary education. There is also a provision for special training of school drop-outs to bring them up to par with students of the same age. This RTE Act is the first legislation in the world that puts the responsibility of ensuring enrolment, attendance, and completion on the Government. This Act lays down specific responsibilities for the centre, state and local bodies for its implementation. The Ministry of HRD set up a high-level, 14-member National Advisory Council (NAC) for implementation of the Act. The members included Kiran Karnik, former president of NASSCOM; Krishna Kumar, former director of the NCERT, Mrinal Miri, former vice-chancellor of North-East Hill University, Yogendra Yadav – social scientist. India.

India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students : When was the Right to Education Act (RTE) enacted by the Par
View complete answer

When was compulsory education first introduced?

So, what is compulsory education? – It’s basically a legal requirement for children aged between 5 (4 in Northern Ireland) and 16 years (18 in England) to receive an education. If they don’t regularly receive an education, or attend a place that regularly provides it, then the local authority in which they live could take legal action against their parent or guardian. Who Demanded The Right To Compulsory And Free Education Compulsory education is divided into sections, each with a distinct key stage. In each key stage, students are placed into years, beginning with Year R for reception year children, which are aged between 4-5 years. The third section doesn’t have key stages and only concerns students aged 16 – 18 years in England, who aren’t on a training scheme.

Key Stage 1 covers children between 5 and 7 (Years 1 and 2). This is often referred to as primary school. In Year 2, children sit their first SAT tests. Key Stage 2 covers children between the ages of 7 and 11 years (Years 3 to 6). It’s typically called junior school. In Year 6, students sit their second SAT tests.

Who Demanded The Right To Compulsory And Free Education Secondary education teaches children from 11 to 16 years of age. In some independent schools, Years 7 and 8 are included as part of junior school.

Key Stage 3 covers those aged 11 to 14 (Years 7 – 9). Key Stage 4 covers children aged 14 – 16 (Years 10 – 11). This last key stage covers the 2-year General Certificate of Secondary Education courses (GCSE), which end in exams for each subject studied during this time.

In England, if children don’t decide to go on a training scheme after Key Stage 4, they have to go onto further education, either at a sixth form or college from 16 to 18 years. Who Demanded The Right To Compulsory And Free Education
View complete answer

What do you mean by free and compulsory education?

Departmen of School Education & Literacy The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘Free education’ means that no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.

  • Compulsory education’ casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group.
  • With this, India has moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation on the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child right as enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act.

The RTE Act provides for the:

Right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood school. It clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. ‘Free’ means that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class. It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments. It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working hours. It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief. It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications. It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d) private tuition by teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition, It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centered learning.

You might be interested:  What Is Post Graduate Diploma In Higher Education?

: Departmen of School Education & Literacy
View complete answer

Why did India make primary education free and compulsory?

Why is Primary Education compulsory in India? – Primary education is compulsory in India as it is considered a fundamental right. It has been recognized by the Indian constitution as an important part of the educational system. Primary Education in India is catered by both the private sector and the Government.

  • As per the Right To Education Act,2009, the Government operates and funds schools providing free and compulsory education both at the State and Central levels.
  • The goal is to enroll as many students as possible to allow them access to basic education.
  • Primary education is compulsory in India because it provides children with a broad and balanced education.

The Indian Government believes that need of primary education is to provide quality education to the students to develop their skills & knowledge. It also gives them a chance to develop their social and emotional skills, which will help them later on in life.
View complete answer

Where the first free and compulsory education was introduced?

It is the first law on compulsory education was introduced by the State of Baroda in 1906. This law provided for compulsory education for boys and girls in the age groups of 7–12 years and 7–10 years respectively.
View complete answer

Which period established a system of free and compulsory elementary education?

Historical Perspective of the Philippine Educational System – Education in the Philippines has undergone several stages of development from the pre-Spanish times to the present. In meeting the needs of the society, education serves as focus of emphases/priorities of the leadership at certain periods/epochs in our national struggle as a race.

As early as in pre-Magellanic times, education was informal, unstructured, and devoid of methods. Children were provided more vocational training and less academics (3 Rs) by their parents and in the houses of tribal tutors. The pre-Spanish system of education underwent major changes during the Spanish colonization.

The tribal tutors were replaced by the Spanish Missionaries. Education was religion-oriented. It was for the elite, especially in the early years of Spanish colonization. Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits.

Primary instruction was free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. Education during that period was inadequate, suppressed, and controlled. The defeat of Spain by American forces paved the way for Aguinaldo’s Republic under a Revolutionary Government. The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed for the time being but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of Interior.

The Burgos Institute in Malolos, the Military Academy of Malolos, and the Literary University of the Philippines were established. A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established by the Malolos Constitution. An adequate secularized and free public school system during the first decade of American rule was established upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission.

  • Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship and avocation was enforced by the Taft Commission per instructions of President McKinley.
  • Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction.
  • A highly centralized public school system was installed in 1901 by the Philippine Commission by virtue of Act No.74.

The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so the Philippine Commission authorized the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring to the Philippines 600 teachers from the U.S.A. They were the Thomasites.

Year Official Name of Department Official Titular Head Legal Bases
1863 Superior Commission of Primary Instruction Chairman Educational Decree of 1863
1901-1916 Department of Public Instruction General Superintendent Act. No.74 of the Philippine Commission, Jan.21, 1901
1916-1942 Department of Public Instruction Secretary Organic Act Law of 1916 (Jones Law)
1942-1944 Department of Education, Health and Public Welfare Commissioner Renamed by the Japanese Executive Commission, June 11, 1942
1944 Department of Education, Health and Public Welfare Minister Renamed by Japanese Sponsored Philippine Republic
1944 Department of Public Instruction Secretary Renamed by Japanese Sponsored Philippine Republic
1945-1946 Department of Public Instruction and Information Secretary Renamed by the Commonwealth Government
1946-1947 Department of Instruction Secretary Renamed by the Commonwealth Government
1947-1975 Department of Education Secretary E.O. No.94 October 1947 (Reorganization Act of 1947)
1975-1978 Department of Education and Culture Secretary Proc. No.1081, September 24, 1972
1978-1984 Ministry of Education and Culture Minister P.D. No.1397, June 2, 1978
1984-1986 Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports Minister Education Act of 1982
1987-1994 Department of Education, Culture and Sports Secretary E.O. No.117. January 30, 1987
1994-2001 Department of Education, Culture and Sports Secretary RA 7722 and RA 7796, 1994 Trifocalization of Education Management
2001 – present Department of Education Secretary RA 9155, August 2001 (Governance of Basic Education Act)

The high school system supported by provincial governments, special educational institutions, school of arts and trades, an agricultural school, and commerce and marine institutes were established in 1902 by the Philippine Commission. In 1908, the Philippine Legislature approved Act No.1870 which created the University of the Philippines.

  • The Reorganization Act of 1916 provided the Filipinization of all department secretaries except the Secretary of Public Instruction.
  • Japanese educational policies were embodied in Military Order No.2 in 1942.
  • The Philippine Executive Commission established the Commission of Education, Health and Public Welfare and schools were reopened in June 1942.

On October 14, 1943, the Japanese – sponsored Republic created the Ministry of Education. Under the Japanese regime, the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History, and Character Education was reserved for Filipinos. Love for work and dignity of labor was emphasized.

  1. On February 27, 1945, the Department of Instruction was made part of the Department of Public Instruction.
  2. In 1947, by virtue of Executive Order No.94, the Department of Instruction was changed to Department of Education.
  3. During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.

In 1972, it became the Department of Education and Culture by virtue of Proclamation 1081 and the Ministry of Education and Culture in 1978 y virtue of P.D. No.1397. Thirteen regional offices were created and major organizational changes were implemented in the educational system.

The Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports which later became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports in 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No.117. The structure of DECS as embodied in EO No.117 has practically remained unchanged until 1994 when the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), and 1995 when the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) were established to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs, respectively.

The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report provided the impetus for Congress to pass RA 7722 and RA 7796 in 1994 creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), respectively.

  • The trifocal education system refocused DECS’ mandate to basic education which covers elementary, secondary and nonformal education, including culture and sports.
  • TESDA now administers the post-secondary, middle-level manpower training and development while CHED is responsible for higher education.
  • In August 2001, Republic Act 9155, otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act, was passed transforming the name of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices (regional offices, division offices, district offices and schools).

RA 9155 provides the overall framework for (i) school head empowerment by strengthening their leadership roles and (ii) school-based management within the context of transparency and local accountability. The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge, and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens.
View complete answer

When was free education first introduced?

While some Northeastern communities had already established publicly funded or free schools by the late 1780s, the concept of free public education did not begin to take hold on a wider scale until the 1830s. The new federal government provided encouragement and support for establishing public schools.
View complete answer

Who started free education in India?

The Right to Education Act 2009, also known as the RTE Act 2009, was enacted by the Parliament of India on 4 August 2009. It describes modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children aged between 6-14 years in India under Article 21 (A) of the Constitution of India.
View complete answer

Who believed in free education?

Thomas Jefferson believed only educated citizens could make the American experiment in self-government succeed. He proposed a system of broad, free, public education for men and women alike that was radical in his day and his founding of the University of Virginia partially achieved his larger goals.
View complete answer

Who demanded free education before independence?

Struggle Intensifies (1882 A.D. – 1910 A.D.) : – The Indian National Congress was established in 1885 and was rapidly becoming a forum for articulating the seething discontent that has been brewing for sometimes in the heart of the freedom fighters. They, therefore, realized that their demand for Democracy and Home Rule was not likely to be effective unless the masses were educated.

Though granted, it would not work successfully unless and until the average men and women were sufficiently educated to discharge their duty and responsibility. Therefore, they agitated for universal education of the masses in order to make it possible for India to become a Free Democratic republic. Credit goes to Indian ruler Sir Sahaji Rao, Gaeak ward of Baroda, who experimented the scheme of compulsory education in his Amreli Tuluk in 1893.

Being successful in his experimentation he extended the area of compulsion, to his whole state by 1896. He was firm believer in universal compulsory education and by experimenting the scheme voluntarily he proved that compulsory education in British India was possible though British Government thought it difficult if not impossible.

For his greatest and remarkable contribution for the cause of compulsory education he was often regarded as the ‘Prince among the Educators and an Educator among the princes’. The first organised attempt in British India for the compulsory education was started in Bombay. The lead was taken by Sir Ibrahim Rahematulla and Sir Chimanlal Seatalwad.

The movement gained some strength and found a source of inspiration in the experiment of compulsory education launched by the State of Baroda. As a rest It of their agitation the Government appointed a committee in 1906 to examine the feasibility and practicability of the introduction of Compulsory Primary Education in the city of Bombay.

Unfortunately it gave a negative report that the time was not ripe for the introduction of compulsory Primary Education. (1910 A.D. – 1917 A.D.) : Gopal Krishna Gokhle, the veteran nationalist leader of India realized the inherent utility of compulsory education and submitted a private bill before the Imperial Legislative Council on the 18th march, 1910, to provide for the compulsory education.

It was a brief and simple document, ingeniously devised to meet the important objections then leveled by the government against the proposal.

  • The bill of Gokhle suggested that:
  • (i) An Act should be passed authorizing the local bodies to take initiative in the matter and with the sanction of government to introduce free and compulsory education as soon as a suitable background is prepared.
  • (ii) Compulsion should be introduced in the case of boys only in the first instance, and it should be extended to girls at a later date as public opinion become sufficiently educated to absorb the idea.
  • (iii) Compulsory education should be restricted to a period of four years only in the first instance, 6 to 10 years as in Japan.
  • (iv) Compulsion should be introduced in an area where 33% of the boys of school going age are already in school.
  • (v) The provincial governments should bear two thirds of the total expenditure involved in the scheme of compulsion.’

When the bill came for discussion in the council, Gokhle knew quite well that he had to deal with skeptical officials on the one hand and a band of conservative opposition among the people in the other. That was why; he was proceeding very cautiously with a hope that at least the general principles of compulsory education would be accepted by the authority.

But his hopes and inspirations were doomed when the bill was opposed by all the official members and some of the unsympathetic, hostile non- official members and was finally rejected by 38 votes to 13. Though the bill gained the support of the eminent persons like Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Md. Ali Jinnah, Bhupendranath Basu, yet it could not evade the clutches of the official members.

Not being disheartened, not wounding the feeling of his adversaries and with invincible faith in his cause, Gokhle justly remarked before winding up the debate. “My lord, I know that my bill will be thrown out before the day closes. I make no complaint; I shall not feel even depressed.

  • I have always felt and have often said that we of the present generation in India can only hope to serve our country by our failures”.
  • It is true that Gokhle failed in his endeavour, but he earned the right to be considered as the father of the movement for compulsory education in India.
  • The seeds sown by him came up quickly for harvest.

During 1910 to 1917 there was unprecedented growth of primary education on a voluntary basis. Whatever might be the fate of the bill, his attempts created and molded the public opinion and drew their attention to the cause of the education in general and compulsory education in particular.
View complete answer

Who demanded free education before independence?

Struggle Intensifies (1882 A.D. – 1910 A.D.) : – The Indian National Congress was established in 1885 and was rapidly becoming a forum for articulating the seething discontent that has been brewing for sometimes in the heart of the freedom fighters. They, therefore, realized that their demand for Democracy and Home Rule was not likely to be effective unless the masses were educated.

  1. Though granted, it would not work successfully unless and until the average men and women were sufficiently educated to discharge their duty and responsibility.
  2. Therefore, they agitated for universal education of the masses in order to make it possible for India to become a Free Democratic republic.
  3. Credit goes to Indian ruler Sir Sahaji Rao, Gaeak ward of Baroda, who experimented the scheme of compulsory education in his Amreli Tuluk in 1893.

Being successful in his experimentation he extended the area of compulsion, to his whole state by 1896. He was firm believer in universal compulsory education and by experimenting the scheme voluntarily he proved that compulsory education in British India was possible though British Government thought it difficult if not impossible.

For his greatest and remarkable contribution for the cause of compulsory education he was often regarded as the ‘Prince among the Educators and an Educator among the princes’. The first organised attempt in British India for the compulsory education was started in Bombay. The lead was taken by Sir Ibrahim Rahematulla and Sir Chimanlal Seatalwad.

The movement gained some strength and found a source of inspiration in the experiment of compulsory education launched by the State of Baroda. As a rest It of their agitation the Government appointed a committee in 1906 to examine the feasibility and practicability of the introduction of Compulsory Primary Education in the city of Bombay.

  1. Unfortunately it gave a negative report that the time was not ripe for the introduction of compulsory Primary Education.
  2. 1910 A.D.
  3. 1917 A.D.) : Gopal Krishna Gokhle, the veteran nationalist leader of India realized the inherent utility of compulsory education and submitted a private bill before the Imperial Legislative Council on the 18th march, 1910, to provide for the compulsory education.

It was a brief and simple document, ingeniously devised to meet the important objections then leveled by the government against the proposal.

  • The bill of Gokhle suggested that:
  • (i) An Act should be passed authorizing the local bodies to take initiative in the matter and with the sanction of government to introduce free and compulsory education as soon as a suitable background is prepared.
  • (ii) Compulsion should be introduced in the case of boys only in the first instance, and it should be extended to girls at a later date as public opinion become sufficiently educated to absorb the idea.
  • (iii) Compulsory education should be restricted to a period of four years only in the first instance, 6 to 10 years as in Japan.
  • (iv) Compulsion should be introduced in an area where 33% of the boys of school going age are already in school.
  • (v) The provincial governments should bear two thirds of the total expenditure involved in the scheme of compulsion.’

When the bill came for discussion in the council, Gokhle knew quite well that he had to deal with skeptical officials on the one hand and a band of conservative opposition among the people in the other. That was why; he was proceeding very cautiously with a hope that at least the general principles of compulsory education would be accepted by the authority.

  1. But his hopes and inspirations were doomed when the bill was opposed by all the official members and some of the unsympathetic, hostile non- official members and was finally rejected by 38 votes to 13.
  2. Though the bill gained the support of the eminent persons like Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Md.
  3. Ali Jinnah, Bhupendranath Basu, yet it could not evade the clutches of the official members.

Not being disheartened, not wounding the feeling of his adversaries and with invincible faith in his cause, Gokhle justly remarked before winding up the debate. “My lord, I know that my bill will be thrown out before the day closes. I make no complaint; I shall not feel even depressed.

I have always felt and have often said that we of the present generation in India can only hope to serve our country by our failures”. It is true that Gokhle failed in his endeavour, but he earned the right to be considered as the father of the movement for compulsory education in India. The seeds sown by him came up quickly for harvest.

During 1910 to 1917 there was unprecedented growth of primary education on a voluntary basis. Whatever might be the fate of the bill, his attempts created and molded the public opinion and drew their attention to the cause of the education in general and compulsory education in particular.
View complete answer

Who introduced free education in India?

Departmen of School Education & Literacy The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘Free education’ means that no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.

  1. Compulsory education’ casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group.
  2. With this, India has moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation on the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child right as enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act.

The RTE Act provides for the:

Right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood school. It clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. ‘Free’ means that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class. It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments. It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working hours. It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief. It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications. It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d) private tuition by teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition, It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centered learning.

: Departmen of School Education & Literacy
View complete answer

Who started Right to Education in India?

Right to Education Act – The Act is completely titled “the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act”, It was passed by the Parliament in August 2009. When the Act came into force in 2010, India became one among 135 countries where education is a fundamental right of every child.

The 86th Constitutional Amendment (2002) inserted Article 21A in the which states:

“The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of 6 to 14 years in such manner as the State, may by law determine.”

As per this, the right to education was made a and removed from the list of Directive Principles of State Policy. The RTE is the consequential legislation envisaged under the 86th Amendment. The article incorporates the word “free” in its title. What it means is that no child (other than those admitted by his/her parents in a school not supported by the government) is liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. This Act makes it obligatory on the part of the government to ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children falling in the age bracket six to fourteen years. Essentially, this Act ensures free elementary education to all children in the economically weaker sections of society.

A few important articles that a candidate must read to cover the notes on the topic, ‘Education,’ comprehensively are linked below:
View complete answer

Who brought Right to Education in India?

On August 4, 2009, the Indian Parliament passed the Right to Education Act 2009, popularly known as the RTE Act 2009. It explains the importance of free and compulsory education for children aged 6 to 14 years in India, as defined by Article 21 (A) of the Indian Constitution.
View complete answer