Who Brought English Education In India?
On this day in 1835, Lord Macaulay successfully westernised education in India; English was made the official language for the government and courts, and was adopted as the official medium of instruction. – Macaulay v/s traditional languages : Ever wondered why we use UK English in India? Thomas Babington, better known as Lord Macaulay, is the man who brought the English language and British education to India. His highly debatable introduction of the English language and the approach to minimalise the use of traditional languages makes an interesting read.
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- 1 Who promoted English education in India during British rule?
- 2 Who introduced the new education policy in 1835?
Who promoted English education in India during British rule?
Development of Modern Education –
- The company wanted some educated Indians who could assist them in the administration of the land.
- Also, they wanted to understand the local customs and laws well.
- For this purpose, Warren Hastings established the Calcutta Madrassa in 1781 for the teaching of Muslim law.
- In 1791, a Sanskrit College was started in Varanasi by Jonathan Duncan for the study of Hindu philosophy and laws.
- The missionaries supported the spread of Western education in India primarily for their proselytising activities. They established many schools with education only being a means to an end which was Christianising and ‘civilising’ the natives.
- The Baptist missionary William Carey had come to India in 1793 and by 1800 there was a Baptist Mission in Serampore, Bengal, and also a number of primary schools there and in nearby areas.
- The Indian reformers believed that to keep up with times, a modern educational system was needed to spread rational thinking and scientific principles.
- The Charter Act of 1813 was the first step towards education being made an objective of the government.
- The act sanctioned a sum of Rs.1 lakh towards the education of Indians in British ruled India. This act also gave an impetus to the missionaries who were given official permission to come to India.
- But there was a split in the government over what kind of education was to be offered to the Indians.
- The orientalists preferred Indians to be given traditional Indian education. Some others, however, wanted Indians to be educated in the western style of education and be taught western subjects.
- There was also another difficulty regarding the language of instruction. Some wanted the use of Indian languages (called vernaculars) while others preferred English.
- Due to these issues, the sum of money allotted was not given until 1823 when the General Committee of Public Instruction decided to impart oriental education.
- In 1835, it was decided that western sciences and literature would be imparted to Indians through the medium of English by Lord William Bentinck’s government.
- Bentinck had appointed Thomas Babington Macaulay as the Chairman of the General Committee of Public Instruction.
- Macaulay was an ardent anglicist who had absolute contempt for Indian learning of any kind. He was supported by Reverend Alexander Duff, JR Colvin, etc.
- On the side of the orientalists were James Prinsep, Henry Thomas Colebrooke, etc.
- Macaulay minutes refer to his proposal of education for the Indians.
- According to him:
- English education should be imparted in place of traditional Indian learning because the oriental culture was ‘defective’ and ‘unholy’.
- He believed in education a few upper and middle-class students.
- In the course of time, education would trickle down to the masses. This was called the infiltration theory.
- He wished to create a class of Indians who were Indian in colour and appearance but English in taste and affiliation.
- In 1835, the Elphinstone College (Bombay) and the Calcutta Medical College were established.
Wood’s Despatch (1854)
- Sir Charles Wood was the President of the Board of Control of the company in 1854 when he sent a despatch to the then Governor-General of India, Lord Dalhousie.
- This is called the ‘Magna Carta of English education in India.’
- Recommendations of the Wood’s Despatch:
- Regularise education system from the primary to the university levels.
- Indians were to be educated in English and their native language.
- The education system was to be set up in every province.
- Every district should have at least one government school.
- Affiliated private schools could be granted aids.
- Education of women should be emphasised.
- Universities of Madras, Calcutta and Bombay were set up by 1857.
- University of Punjab – 1882; University of Allahabad – 1887
- This despatch asked the government to take up the responsibility of education of the people.
Assessment of the British efforts on education
- Although there were a few Englishmen who wanted to spread education for its own sake, the government was chiefly concerned only with its own concerns.
- There was a huge demand for clerks and other administrative roles in the company’s functioning.
- It was cheaper to get Indians rather than Englishmen from England for these jobs. This was the prime motive.
- No doubt it spread western education among Indians, but the rate of literacy was abysmally low during British rule.
- The state of women education was pathetic. This was because the government did not want to displease the orthodox nature of Indians and also because women could not generally be employed as clerks.
- In 1911, the illiteracy rate in British India was 94%. In 1921, it was 92%.
- Scientific and technical education was ignored by the British government.
The English Education Act 1835 was a legislative Act of the Council of India, gave effect to a decision in 1835 by Lord William Bentinck, then Governor-General of the British East India Company, to reallocate funds it was required by the British Parliament to spend on education and literature in India.
- Education System In India During British Rule (UPSC Notes):-
- Also Read:
- UPSC Related Articles
: NCERT Notes: Indian Education System During British Rule
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Who is the founder of English?
Timeline showing the history of the English language English is a West Germanic language that originated from Ingvaeonic languages brought to Britain in the mid-5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon migrants from what is now northwest Germany, southern Denmark and the Netherlands,
- The Anglo-Saxons settled in the British Isles from the mid-5th century and came to dominate the bulk of southern Great Britain.
- Their language originated as a group of Ingvaeonic languages which were spoken by the settlers in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages, displacing the Celtic languages (and, possibly, British Latin ) that had previously been dominant.
Old English reflected the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms established in different parts of Britain. The Late West Saxon dialect eventually became dominant. A significant subsequent influence on the shaping of Old English came from contact with the North Germanic languages spoken by the Scandinavian Vikings who conquered and colonized parts of Britain during the 8th and 9th centuries, which led to much lexical borrowing and grammatical simplification.
The Anglian dialects had a greater influence on Middle English. After the Norman conquest in 1066, Old English was replaced, for a time, by Anglo-Norman (also known as Anglo-Norman French) as the language of the upper classes. This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English or Anglo-Saxon era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English,
The conquering Normans spoke a Romance langue d’oïl called Old Norman, which in Britain developed into Anglo-Norman. Many Norman and French loanwords entered the local language in this period, especially in vocabulary related to the church, the court system and the government.
As Normans are descendants of Vikings who invaded France, Norman French was influenced by Old Norse, and many Norse loanwords in English came directly from French. Middle English was spoken to the late 15th century. The system of orthography that was established during the Middle English period is largely still in use today.
Later changes in pronunciation, however, combined with the adoption of various foreign spellings, mean that the spelling of modern English words appears highly irregular. Early Modern English – the language used by William Shakespeare – is dated from around 1500.
- It incorporated many Renaissance -era loans from Latin and Ancient Greek, as well as borrowings from other European languages, including French, German and Dutch,
- Significant pronunciation changes in this period included the ongoing Great Vowel Shift, which affected the qualities of most long vowels,
Modern English proper, similar in most respects to that spoken today, was in place by the late 17th century. English as we know it today came to be exported to other parts of the world through British colonisation, and is now the dominant language in Britain and Ireland, the United States and Canada, Australia, New Zealand and many smaller former colonies, as well as being widely spoken in India, parts of Africa, and elsewhere.
Partially due to influence of the United States and its globalized efforts of commerce and technology, English took on the status of a global lingua franca in the second half of the 20th century. This is especially true in Europe, where English has largely taken over the former roles of French and (much earlier) Latin as a common language used to conduct business and diplomacy, share scientific and technological information, and otherwise communicate across national boundaries.
The efforts of English-speaking Christian missionaries have resulted in English becoming a second language for many other groups. Global variation among different English dialects and accents remains significant today.
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Who founded first English school?
The English School – A Second Century of Excellence The English School was founded in 1900 by Canon Frank Darvall Newham, a young man of 36 who had just arrived on the island, which was to become his home for the rest of his life, as an Instructor of English to government clerks.
He subsequently became Director of Education under the colonial administration but was also Headmaster of the English School until his retirement in 1936. The School began with 13 pupils but rapidly grew to become the premier English medium school in Cyprus, drawing its students from a range of cultural communities both locally and abroad.
The School changed its status in 1936 when Canon Newham gave it in trust to the colonial Governor, however, the School continued to be an English-medium, inter-communal school of Christian character with facilities for all pupils to practise their own form of religion as defined in the English School Management and Control Law of 1935 and its amendments. The School was based at various locations around Nicosia, including what is now the District Courts, until 1938 when it moved into the present purpose-built accommodation in Strovolos on grounds purchased personally by Canon. The Lloyds Building and the Alks Building were constructed as boarding houses in 1940 and 1947 respectively.
- During World War II the School was evacuated to the Dome Hotel in Kyrenia for a short period of time, but was safely settled back into its home by the time of Canon Newham’s death in 1946.
- The English School for Girls (founded in 1957) was incorporated in 1962 and The English School became the first co-educational school in Cyprus.
In 1960 Cyprus gained its independence and a special law was enacted which passed control of The English School to the Republic of Cyprus, which oversees the operations of the School through a Board of Management appointed by the Council of Ministers.
- The Board of Management comprises nine members and a Chairman who are appointed by the Council of Ministers, and the Director of the British Council as an ex officio member.
- The current Chairperson is Dr George Theocharides.
- The School served all the communities of Cyprus, with several Boarding Houses which allowed pupils from all over the island to attend.
The School roll peaked at over 1,000 shortly before the events of 1974. The tragic events of 1974 changed the School in many ways. Turkish Cypriot pupils and teachers were forced to withdraw. An influx of refugees from the occupied areas coming into the free area of Cyprus led to the Alks Boarding House being loaned to the Government, initially for one year, to set up a refugee school. In 2003 the English School readmitted Turkish Cypriot students for the first time in 29 years and their numbers have grown steadily since then. The current student population of the school is 1043 and there are 106 teachers and 20 support staff. The academic programme lies at the core of the School’s activities and is based on the model of British independent secondary schools.
For the first three years, all students follow a broad curriculum designed to lay foundations for public examinations and to give them a taste of all the subjects on offer. At the end of Year 3 students choose their programme of International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) subjects with a compulsory core of English Language and Literature, Mathematics and Modern Greek.
From Year 6 students construct an individual academic programme with five Advanced Supplementary (AS) level courses being followed during this year. In Year 7 the students choose to continue with four of their subjects to Advanced Level (AL), with the supporting programme continuing.
- One of the School’s unique strengths is its vast range of extracurricular activities and clubs which students are encouraged to join.
- These continue the Canon’s vision of broadening a student’s overall education and developing team-spirit and self-confidence.
- The School has over 40 clubs and societies.
The range of clubs and societies to choose from includes Maths, Economics, Literature and Drama, Languages, The Duke of Edinburgh’s International Award, Under the Same Sky, Chess, Music, First Aid, Talent Nights, Voluntary and Charity Work, Sports and Athletics, and numerous others.
Many of these involve representing the School abroad at various international events with excellent results. An example is our School’s Debating and Public Speaking Society which always attains one of the top places in overseas competitions. The English School has twice hosted the World International Public Speaking and Debating Competition in which over 60 students from schools from all over the world compete.
Our Greek Play has twice won First Prize in the Pancyprian Competition for Secondary Schools and has competed in the Panhellenic Competitions held in Greece with other finalist schools. The Comenius I Language Project has brought together our students and staff with those of the Radnotti School in Hungary with all reaping the benefits of a better understanding and appreciation of each other’s culture and heritage.
- Our students also have the opportunity to be selected to attend the London International Youth Science Forum in the U.K.
- And the Global Young Leaders’ Conference in the U.S.A.
- Sports have always been highly emphasized at the English School since its founding in 1900 in order to develop team ethic as well as a competitive spirit in the student population.
There is a House system which organizes both competitive and non-competitive sporting activities. The more able are encouraged to play in House and School competitions in football, basketball, volleyball, hockey, softball, athletics and cross country; less able pupils participate in the same sports for enjoyment and fitness.
All the major sports are coached by an experienced team of Physical Education teachers. This has led to excellent achievements in Pancyprian sporting competitions as well as the Dubai Football Tournament, to name but two. The Choir and Orchestra have both been active and highly successful aspects of School life since they were first established by Canon Newham in 1911.
Students are encouraged to take up instruments by the School which provides tuition by experienced music teachers, free of charge for certain pupils who reveal special aptitudes. These are but a few examples of the spectrum of extra-curricular activities available.
The Library Resource Centre encourages students to use its facilities for both reference, fiction and studying. Computers are provided for students’ use in addition to books, magazines and multimedia. Securing a University place at a highly competitive University is the ultimate ambition of our students and acceptance at a top University requires much more than just A-Level grades.
The School’s Career & University Entry Department ensures that our students have access to sound advice and support throughout their academic career. In addition to the traditional stone-built ‘Main Building’ which was constructed in 1938, a Sports Centre was added in 1990.
The Science Building, which was funded by the Government and houses the Science and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Laboratories, Library Resource Centre and a Lecture Theatre, was inaugurated by H.E. the President of the Republic Mr Tassos Papadopoulos and the Chairman of the Board Dr Andreas Panayiotou in November 2004.
The Board of Management strives to provide up-to-date facilities and equipment to assist students to reach their maximum potential. There are plans for further improvements in the infrastructure of the School which include the replacing of the old ‘Newham Building’ with new premises which will again be funded by the Government.
- The English School is fortunate in having a very active and supportive Parents’ Association (ESPA) and Graduates’ Association (ESOBGA).
- They offer their support and financial assistance willingly when requested to do so and their contribution to the English School is invaluable.
- Graduates of the English School have made an outstanding contribution to all walks of Cypriot society – these include the sciences, medicine, education, politics, the arts, the business world, Government service, and the clergy.
Many English School graduates have also made successful careers abroad. On looking back, all the graduates of the School agree that a unique bond is created between members of The English School family which is never broken. Our Founder, Canon Frank Darvall Newham, while founding this premier School in 1900, also introduced football, hockey and cricket to Cyprus.
The English School’s ‘firsts’ are many and varied. The first football match ever played in Cyprus took place at the English School in 1900, and the F.A. Football Challenge Cup was introduced through Canon Newham to Cyprus in 1912 after he observed the spreading interest in football throughout the island.
Another ‘first’ for our School is the fact that the first-ever appendix operation to take place in Cyprus was on an English School teacher in 1906, Mr Douglas Hamilton, who survived! In 1952 the School’s science laboratories became the first in Cyprus to be recognized by Universities for exams up to B.Sc.
Intermediate) standard. In 1962 the English School was the first school in Cyprus to become co-educational. When Canon Newham passed away on 6th March 1946 a local newspaper, Phoni tis Kyprou, wrote. “The late Canon Newham won the love and respect of all the people of Cyprus to a degree that could not ever be approached by any other Englishman who has visited and lived in Cyprus during the British occupation.
The English School is a milestone in the Island’s history of education and speaks volumes for the good work of its Founder.” There can be no doubt that The English School stands apart, and belonging to the English School family not only provides one with the resources and skills to reach one’s full potential but creates friendships and memories which last for a life-time.
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Who is the real founder of education?
Lord Macaulay was the father and founder of the present education system, as is referred to in the fourth line of the first paragraph.
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Who invented education first in India?
How does the Indian education system work in modern times? – It’s an undeniable fact that education in modern India is different from that of the “Gurukula.” The curriculum is mostly taught in English or Hindi, computer technology and skills have been integrated into learning systems, and emphasis is more on the competitive examination and grades rather than moral, ethical and spiritual education.
The modern school system was brought to India, originally by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay, in the 1830s. “Modern” subjects like science and mathematics took precedence, and metaphysics and philosophy were deemed unnecessary. Up until July 2020, the schooling system in India was based on the 10+2 system, which rewarded Secondary School Certificate (SSC) once completing class 10 th and Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) by completing class 12 th,
As a result of the new National Education Policy (NEP), this has been replaced with the 5+3+3+4 system. The division of stages has been made to fall in line with the cognitive development stages that a child naturally goes through. India’s four-level compulsory education 1.
Foundation stage (ages 3 to 8) The five-year foundational stage of education, as per the NEP, comprises three years of preschool followed by two years of primary classes. This stage will involve age-appropriate play or activity-based methods and the development of language skills. For those working in early education, we have a course, English in Early Childhood: Learning Language Through Play, which can help you understand the role of play in language development and how to use play to teach language skills in a fun way to children.
You can also learn how to Prevent Manage Infections in Childcare and Pre-School with our free online course.
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Who introduced the English Education Act of 1830 5 00?
Which one of the following statements about the English Educ Option 4 : To the existing Oriental Institutions fresh awards of stipends to students and the publication of classical texts were to continue Free 100 Questions 200 Marks 120 Mins The Correct Answer is Option 4,
English Education Act of 1835 :
It made English a medium of instruction in higher educational institutions and with the formal institutionalization of English as the language of instruction, the stage was set for a new direction to Indian education. Hence, Options 2 and 3 are correct. It no longer promoted oriental institutions such as the Calcutta Madrasa and Benaras Sanskrit College. Hence, Option 4 is NOT correct. It was passed under Lord William Bentinck, Hence, Option 1 is correct. It allocated funds for education and literature in India.
India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students : Which one of the following statements about the English Educ
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Who introduced the new education policy in 1835?
Thomas Babington Macaulay Presented his Minute on Indian Education on February 2, 1835 – This Day in History
- 2 February 1835
- Macaulay’s Minute on Indian Education
- What happened?
Thomas Babington Macaulay On 2 February 1835, British historian and politician Thomas Babington Macaulay presented his ‘Minute on Indian Education’ that sought to establish the need to impart English education to Indian ‘natives’. This minute is a very important document for history.
- British education policy in colonial India was initially almost non-existent as their sole purpose was to make profit through trade and other means. Gradually, the importance of education was appreciated and the company started building a few institutes of higher learning. These learning centres taught Indian subjects in languages like Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian. Persian was the court language too.
- The Charter Act of 1813 was the first concrete step towards modern education in the country. This act set aside an annual sum of Rs.1 lakh to be used in educating the ‘subjects’.
- One must note that missionaries were already present in the country and they were involved in this field as well. However, they chiefly imparted religious education and their primary motive was Christianizing the ‘heathen’ natives.
- After the Charter Act, there was a split among the British regarding the mode of education to be imparted to Indians. While the orientalists believed that Indians should be educated in their own languages and taught their own scriptures and texts, the other group decided that English education was the best kind to be imparted.
- It was in the midst of this that Macaulay landed in India in June 1834, as the President of the General Committee of Public Instruction (GCPI).
- Macaulay was a proud Englishman convinced of his own nation’s greatness and achievements, which he considered the best whether it was in the sciences or the arts. Nothing wrong with that, except that he was perhaps too prejudiced to see things from a different perspective. His famous minute will reveal his scant regard for anything Indian.
- In his minute on education, he justified the use of English as the medium of instruction, and also the teaching of western education to Indians.
- He lampooned Indian knowledge and languages and thought them completely worthless. For instance, he said of Indian literature:
“a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia.”
- He also believed that western science was far superior to Indian knowledge. “It is, I believe, no exaggeration to say that all the historical information which has been collected from all the books written in the Sanskrit language is less valuable than what may be found in the most paltry abridgments used at preparatory schools in England.”
- Of course, one must remember that these were not just his own ideas or opinions. He was merely reiterating what many in the west thought then.
- Macaulay wanted the government to spend money only on imparting western education and not on oriental education. He advocated the shutting down of all colleges where only eastern philosophy and subjects were taught.
- He also advocated that the government try to educate only a few Indians, who would in turn teach the rest of the masses. This is called the ‘downward filtration’ policy.
- He wanted to create a pool of Indians who would be able to serve British interests and be loyal to them. This class would be “Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellect.”
- Macaulay’s proposals were promptly accepted by Lord William Bentinck, but he cleverly deferred its implementation until he was to relinquish his post as governor-general. Bentinck perhaps wanted to avoid a backlash from some quarters. He nevertheless, did not shut down oriental learning completely as proposed by Macaulay.
- Macaulay’s proposals were officially sanctioned in March 1835. In 1837, English was made the court language. In 1844, high government posts were open to Indians.
- Later the Wood’s Despatch in 1854 regularised British efforts for education in India.
- Macaulay obviously won the debate against the orientalists. It would not be an exaggeration to say that he set the tone of education in India for good.
- In his minute, he had said that a day could come when the vernacular languages would die a natural death. Today, he has been proved wrong. The number of people who use these languages is increasing by the day. The literature in these languages is also expanding and evolving.
- He has of course been successful in creating a class of Indians who have taken to the English language enthusiastically. Many in the country use it as a first language although this number is small.
- It could be argued that moral victory is with the Indians in this English versus native debate. Whether Macaulay was able to make Englishmen out of Indians is debatable, but the English language has been conveniently Indianised and altered to such an extent that sometimes it is hardly discerned by the native English!
Also on this day 1889 : Birth of Amrit Kaur, freedom fighter and Gandhian.1915 : Birth of writer and journalist Khushwant Singh.
- See previous,
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- This Day in History:-
: Thomas Babington Macaulay Presented his Minute on Indian Education on February 2, 1835 – This Day in History
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Who made English the medium of instruction in its schools and colleges in 1835?
The English Education Act was a legislative Act of the Council of India in 1835 giving effect to a decision in 1835 by Lord William Bentinck, the then Governor-General of British India, to reallocate funds the East India Company was required by the British Parliament to spend on education and literature in India.
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