Which Western School Of Philosophy Gives Emphasis On Sensory Training?


Which Western School Of Philosophy Gives Emphasis On Sensory Training
Angel Falls in Venezuela : According to naturalism, the causes of all phenomena are to be found within the universe and not transcendental factors beyond it. In philosophy, naturalism is the idea or belief that only natural laws and forces (as opposed to supernatural ones) operate in the universe,

  1. According to philosopher Steven Lockwood, naturalism can be separated into an ontological sense and a methodological sense.
  2. Ontological” refers to ontology, the philosophical study of what exists.
  3. On an ontological level, philosophers often treat naturalism as equivalent to materialism,
  4. For example, philosopher Paul Kurtz argues that nature is best accounted for by reference to material principles.

These principles include mass, energy, and other physical and chemical properties accepted by the scientific community, Further, this sense of naturalism holds that spirits, deities, and ghosts are not real and that there is no ” purpose ” in nature.

This stronger formulation of naturalism is commonly referred to as metaphysical naturalism, On the other hand, the more moderate view that naturalism should be assumed in one’s working methods as the current paradigm, without any further consideration of whether naturalism is true in the robust metaphysical sense, is called methodological naturalism,

With the exception of pantheists – who believe that Nature is identical with divinity while not recognizing a distinct personal anthropomorphic god – theists challenge the idea that nature contains all of reality. According to some theists, natural laws may be viewed as secondary causes of God(s).

In the 20th century, Willard Van Orman Quine, George Santayana, and other philosophers argued that the success of naturalism in science meant that scientific methods should also be used in philosophy. According to this view, science and philosophy are not always distinct from one another, but instead form a continuum,

“Naturalism is not so much a special system as a point of view or tendency common to a number of philosophical and religious systems; not so much a well-defined set of positive and negative doctrines as an attitude or spirit pervading and influencing many doctrines.

  • As the name implies, this tendency consists essentially in looking upon nature as the one original and fundamental source of all that exists, and in attempting to explain everything in terms of nature.
  • Either the limits of nature are also the limits of existing reality, or at least the first cause, if its existence is found necessary, has nothing to do with the working of natural agencies.

All events, therefore, find their adequate explanation within nature itself. But, as the terms nature and natural are themselves used in more than one sense, the term naturalism is also far from having one fixed meaning”.
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Which Western school of philosophy gives emphasis on sensory training a idealism b naturalism c pragmatism and existentialism?

Answer (Detailed Solution Below) – Option 4 : Realism Crack UGC NET Crash Course with India’s Super Teachers FREE Demo Classes Available* Explore Supercoaching For FREE Free OCT 1: Teaching Aptitude (Concepts of Teaching) – Beginner Level 10 Questions 20 Marks 12 Mins

Schools of philosophy Aims

Idealism is a diverse group of metaphysical views that all assert that reality is in some way indistinguishable or inseparable from human perception and/or understanding, that it is in some sense mentally constituted, or that it is otherwise closely connected to ideas. Idealism is the metaphysical view that associates reality to ideas in the mind rather than to material objects. It lays emphasis on the mental or spiritual components of experience and renounces the notion of material existence. The main focus of idealism is on conscious reasoning in the mind. The father of idealism, Plato, believed that people should concern themselves in searching for the truth.


Realism is the doctrine that is associated with the study of the world we live in. It is a philosophy away from the world of ideas or spiritual things. In Realism the word ‘real’ denotes actual or existing. It indicates those things or events which exist in the world in their own right. It opposes the thing or event which is imaginary or fictitious. It holds the view that knowledge acquired through senses is true and what we observe and perceives through our own senses is real and the true entity of the world. It believes, reality exists independent of the human mind. The ultimate reality is the physical world. Realism believes that teachers should have full knowledge of the subject matter, the psychology of learners, and the scientific way of delivering education.


Existentialism is a form of philosophical inquiry that explores the problem of human existence and centers on the lived experience of the thinking, feeling, acting individual. In the view of the existentialist, the individual’s starting point has been called “the existential angst” (or, variably, existential attitude, dread, etc.), or a sense of disorientation, confusion, or anxiety in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world. A primary virtue in existentialist thought is authenticity Søren Kierkegaard is generally considered to have been the first existentialist philosopher. Existentialism in education is a teaching and learning philosophy that focuses on the student’s freedom and agency to choose their future. Existentialist educators believe there is no god or higher power guiding their students. The teacher must facilitate for the students. Let the students take the first step and the teacher guide them in taking the next. Believe in free individuality.


It holds that the first activity and experiment are done and then on the basis of the result, principles and ideas are derived. Pragmatism is an educational philosophy that says that education should be about life and growth. That is, teachers should be teaching students things that are practical for life and encourage them to grow into better people. Many famous educators, including John Dewey, were pragmatists. It offers us the theory of knowledge, the theory of meaning, and a theory of reality. Believes in the principle of utility. Reality is still in the making. It is never complete. Pragmatism means action, from which the words practical and practice have come. Pragmatism is based on the psychology of individual differences. Pragmatists want education according to the aptitudes and abilities of the individual. According to pragmatism, all education is “learning by doing”. So it must be based on the child’s experiences as well as occupations and activities.


pragmatism is not only a practical philosophy but also a progressive one. It conceives education as a dynamic and life-long process. Realism is the notion that the world exists in terms of matter, separate from the world of ideas and independent of it. Realism has probably had the greatest impact on educational philosophy because it is the foundation of scientific reasoning. Idealistic philosophy is mostly based on the concept of spirituality, knowledge, and ideas. Its main aim is self-realization. According to existentialism “there are no universal standards for a human life: we are what we do, the sum of our actions.” Since realism states that the universe exists beyond the human mind, so option (4) is correct.

Last updated on Apr 12, 2023 UGC NET Result Out on 13th April 2023. The exam was held from 21 February 2023 to 16 March 2023. The UGC NET CBT exam pattern consists of two papers – Paper I and Paper II. Paper I consists of 50 questions and Paper II consists of 100 questions.

The UGC NET June Notification to be Out Soon. The candidates who are preparing for the exam can check the UGC NET Previous Year Papers which helps you to check the difficulty level of the exam. Applicants can also attempt the UGC NET Test Series which helps you to find your strengths and weakness. Ace your Education and Educational Studies preparations for Western schools of thoughts with us and master Realism for your exams.

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Which school of philosophy believes that all knowledge comes through the senses?

What is empiricism? – Empiricism is a philosophical theory applicable in many disciplines, including science and software development, that human knowledge comes predominantly from experiences gathered through the five senses. In empiricism, knowledge is spoken of as a posteriori, or “from the latter,” meaning gained from experience.

Simply put, empiricism is the idea that all learning comes from only experience and observations. The term empiricism comes from the Greek word for experience: empeiria, The theory of empiricism attempts to explain how human beings acquire knowledge and improve their conceptual understanding of the world.

In science, empiricism heavily emphasizes the use of experiments and observation to collect evidence and draw conclusions. The goal of such experimentation is to apply theories to real-world observations, record the findings in the form of empirical data and present them to the relevant audience.

  • measurement
  • sensors
  • hypothesis formed with rational thought
  • correlation causation
  • data dredging

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What are the Western philosophies of education?

These educational philosophical approaches are currently used in classrooms the world over. They are Perennialism, Essentialism, Progressivism, and Reconstructionism. These educational philosophies focus heavily on WHAT we should teach, the curriculum aspect.
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Who are the 3 philosophers in Western philosophies of education?

Rousseau, John Dewey and Immanuel Kant. The thoughts and ideas of these philosophers are universal in nature and applicable to the field of education for all the stakeholders i.e. students, teachers and society.
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What is realism vs pragmatism?

For Realism, science serves our purposes by giving true accounts; for Pragmatism, the truth of science is indicated by the fact it serves our purposes (on a Peircean account) or simply serves our purposes and as such is no better or worse than any other type of inquiry (on Rorty’s post-modern and Jamesian account).
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What is pragmatism in Western philosophy?

Pragmatism is a philosophical movement that includes those who claim that an ideology or proposition is true if it works satisfactorily, that the meaning of a proposition is to be found in the practical consequences of accepting it, and that unpractical ideas are to be rejected.

  1. Pragmatism originated in the United States during the latter quarter of the nineteenth century.
  2. Although it has significantly influenced non-philosophers—notably in the fields of law, education, politics, sociology, psychology, and literary criticism—this article deals with it only as a movement within philosophy.

The term “pragmatism” was first used in print to designate a philosophical outlook about a century ago when William James (1842-1910) pressed the word into service during an 1898 address entitled “Philosophical Conceptions and Practical Results,” delivered at the University of California (Berkeley).

  1. James scrupulously swore, however, that the term had been coined almost three decades earlier by his compatriot and friend C.S.
  2. Peirce (1839-1914).
  3. Peirce, eager to distinguish his doctrines from the views promulgated by James, later relabeled his own position “pragmaticism”—a name, he said, “ugly enough to be safe from kidnappers.”) The third major figure in the classical pragmatist pantheon is John Dewey (1859-1952), whose wide-ranging writings had considerable impact on American intellectual life for a half-century.

After Dewey, however, pragmatism lost much of its momentum. There has been a recent resurgence of interest in pragmatism, with several high-profile philosophers exploring and selectively appropriating themes and ideas embedded in the rich tradition of Peirce, James, and Dewey.
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Which philosopher believed in senses?

Hobbes, Aristotle, and the Senses I wanted to highlight to particularly helpful comments from of Leviathan, In the first chapter, Hobbes attempts to define “the senses,” or the method by which humans perceive things. He seems to be in conflict with some other thinkers in his time, particularly those who still follow Aristotle.

  1. If you are look me, and have never read Aristotle, you can’t really understand the beef.
  2. Fortunately Jonathan : Aristotle, like Hobbes, did think that knowledge came from the senses, but he had a very different view of how senses worked.
  3. Aristotle believed that every physical object has a form or essence, and a substance.

So a clay model of a tree and real tree share commonalities of form, although their substances are totally different. Aristotle also thought that the psyche is an instrument whereby we can receive the form of objects without the substance. He compares sensation to a signet ring making an impression of wax.

  1. Hobbes, however, does not really believe that the concept of “essence” is useful in explaining the world.
  2. He is basically a materialist.
  3. He believes that the only things worth talking about are matter and its interactions.
  4. Therefore, his account of how we obtain knowledge through the senses has to rely on interaction between matter.

This might sound like an obscure difference, but it has a lot of consequences for how one studies the world. If you agree with Aristotle, the implication is that by observing the world, you can get an idea of the real essence of things. Acquiring theoretical knowledge is then a matter of thinking rationally about the implications of this knowledge.

Thus physical science is a matter of everyday observation followed by rigorous thinking. However, if the information you get from the senses is just a bunch of particles bouncing off of your sensory organs, as Hobbes believes, then there’s good reason to be worried that the senses are unreliable, and you need to spend time carefully tweaking the information you get from the senses to make sure you have it right.

This gives rise to an experimental model (which Hobbes’ contemporary, Francis Bacon, focused on far more than Hobbes did). As for how commonplace it was – Aristotelianism was basically the dominant philosophy from the time of Thomas Aquinas (1200s) up until the 1600s.

  1. Hobbes is writing around the time of transition away from Aristotle’s position as the preeminent thinker on matters such as this.
  2. I actually am not sure how dominant the view still was among academics by the time of the Leviathan.
  3. As an aside, the reason Hobbes talks about mediate and immediate interaction is that, at the time, people who subscribed to this materialst view did not believe that matter could interact with other matter at a distance.

The only interactions allowed into the theory were direct ones. The view of no interaction at a distance was thrown out after Newton’s theory of gravity became the consensus view – since gravity is interaction at a distance. Hilzoy also stepped in to help us : A few notes: first, when Hobbes talks about the scholastic view of knowledge, (“they say the thing understood sendeth forth an intelligible species”, etc.), this is not similar to the way we now understand smell.

  • Scholastics, following Aristotle, thought that objects were composed of matter and form.I.e., a computer is a bunch of metal and plastic and silicon and stuff (the matter), arranged in a particular way (the form).
  • If you had exactly the same matter, but it was a bunch of molten metal and a pile of sand, it would not be the same object; likewise, if you had an identical computer made of different bits of metal and silicon and whatever.

‘Species’ is scholastic-speak for ‘form’; the objects are (according to the scholastics) giving off forms of themselves, whereas (as I understand it) we now think that objects we smell give off matter. Second: I don’t recall how significant this is in the rest of Hobbes’ work, but the claim that ALL thoughts concern “a representation or appearance of some quality, or other accident of a body without us, which is commonly called an object” is significant, and probably false.

  • Can we think about abstract objects, nonexistent objects, logical arguments, etc.? Are all these “objects without us”? You could argue, as Hume did, that all our thoughts are either about objects of internal or external sense, but can be cut and pasted to create e.g.
  • Nonexistent objects.
  • But is it obvious at all that thinking about (for instance) logical validity is in any sense thinking about an object outside us, or is the product of cutting and pasting concepts originally derived from such thoughts? Not to me.

I started this project trying to understand “social contract.” I guess we’ll get to that eventually, but all the knowledge I’m picking up on the way is awesome. In education we tend to be goal-oriented, and goals are important. But at the same time we forget that part of the beauty of learning lay in all the bits you acquire, almost accidentally, along the way.

I think those bits are the stuff of wisdom, as opposed to just “facts.” If I can write you an essay on the history of “social contract” at the end of all this, that’s cool. But it would be much better if I could-in some deep way-tell you something about the world of Hobbes, the world of Locke, the world of Rosseau, and what each of those particular worlds means for our own world today.

It’s one of the reasons why I push us to do something more than study history as a way of refuting our racist uncle at Thanksgiving, or serving the homophobe from high school who keeps popping up on our Facebook feed. If you spend your day debating whether the earth is flat or not, how do you ever get to the truly profound questions of cosmology? It’s not within your power to banish ignorance from the world, or even from Facebook.
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What philosophy is based on senses?

This article is about the field of philosophy. For the album by Borknagar, see Empiricism (album), In philosophy, empiricism is an epistemological theory that holds that knowledge or justification comes only or primarily from sensory experience, It is one of several views within epistemology, along with rationalism and skepticism,

  • Empiricism emphasizes the central role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, rather than innate ideas or traditions,
  • However, empiricists may argue that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sensory experiences.
  • Historically, empiricism was associated with the ” blank slate ” concept ( tabula rasa ), according to which the human mind is “blank” at birth and develops its thoughts only through experience.

Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments, It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation,
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Which philosopher believed that we can only know things through our senses?

The problem of how we can know the existence and nature of the world external to our mind is one of the oldest and most difficult in philosophy. The discussion by John Locke (1632-1704) of knowledge of the external world have proved to be some of the most confusing and difficult passages of his entire body of philosophical work.

  • Difficulties develop on several fronts.
  • First, in his main work in epistemology, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke seems to adopt a representative theory of perception.
  • According to Locke, the only things we perceive (at least immediately) are ideas.
  • Many of Locke’s readers have wondered, how can we know the world beyond our ideas if we only ever perceive such ideas? Second, Locke’s epistemology is built around a strict distinction between knowledge and mere probable opinion or belief.

Locke appears to define knowledge, however, so as to rule out the possibility of knowledge of the external world. His definition of knowledge as the perception of agreement between ideas has seemed to many of his readers to restrict knowledge to our own thoughts and ideas.

  • Locke himself, however, emphasizes that knowledge of the external world is neither based on inference or reasoning nor is it based on reflecting on ideas somehow already in the mind.
  • Instead, it is achieved through sensory experience.
  • Thus, knowledge of the external world, even as Locke himself describes it, is clearly not a matter of merely knowing facts about our own minds.

Third, many of the special difficulties of understanding how knowledge of the external world is possible stem from what seem to be devastating skeptical arguments against the possibility of such knowledge. Locke’s approach to skepticism, however, has seemed unfocused and possibly in tension with itself.

  • Locke alternately suggests that skepticism cannot be refuted even if we have at least some good reasons to believe it is mistaken, that genuine skepticism is not psychologically possible for human beings, and that skepticism is incoherent.
  • Ultimately, examining Locke’s discussions around knowledge of the external world can prove one of the most rewarding points of entry into Locke’s theoretical philosophy.

Understanding what Locke thinks knowledge of the external world is and how it fits within his broader epistemology and theoretical philosophy requires probing beyond his epistemology and into the depths of his accounts of perception, representation, and the contents of thought.
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What are the 5 Western philosophy?

The ensuing article on the history of Western philosophy is divided into five sections— ancient, medieval, Renaissance, modern, and contemporary. A threefold distinction between ancient, medieval, and modern philosophy was prevalent until recent times and is only as old as the end of the 17th century.
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What is the Western school of philosophy of naturalism?

NATURALISM PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION Naturalism is a philosophy with the belief that nature alone represents the entire reality. There is nothing beyond behind, or other than nature. According to this philosophy, human life is the part of the scheme of nature.

Physical naturalism: It is believed that reality exists in the natural universe not within the individual. Tagore has called nature as a ‘manuscript of God’. Mechanical naturalism: It regards man as a mere machine. There is no spirit or soul. Only matter is everything. Mind is also a matter made up atoms, empty space, and motion. Biological naturalism: It tries to explain man in terms of lower form of life from which he has evolved.

The chief exponent of naturalism are Bacon, Comenius, Herbert Spencer, Huxley, Bernard Shaw, and Rousseau. Naturalism and Education Naturalism is a revolt against traditional system of education, which gives very little freedom to the child. In naturalism, maximum freedom and central position is given to the child.

  • This philosophy believes that education should be according to the nature of child.
  • It advocates creation of natural conditions in which natural development of child can take place.
  • Whenever a system of education becomes stereotype, there is reaction against it in the form of revival of naturalism.
  • According to Rousseau, there are three sources of education namely, nature, men, and things.

Education from nature is to prepare a natural man. Aim of Education self-realization, self-expression and self-preservation. Curriculum There is no fixed curriculum. Every child is given the right to determine his own curriculum. He is expected to learn directly from nature through personal experiences.

  • Subjects like agriculture, nature study, gardening, art, craft, geology, and astronomy are taught.
  • The subjects are correlated with the physical activities of the child and with the life around him.
  • Methods of Teaching Learning by doing, playway method, observation and experimentation are used, so as to govern self.

According to Rousseau, ‘Students should not be given any verbal lessons rather they should be taught experience alone. Teacher tries to give lots of hand-on training and practical experiences’. Discipline Naturalist gives utmost freedom to the child to do and learn the behavior.

  1. There is no punishment of any kind.
  2. External discipline is not desirable, as it stands in the ways of child development.
  3. Naturalism also believes that formal education is the invention of society, which is created and can be called artificial,
  4. Therefore, rigid man-made discipline must be avoided in the teaching-learning process.

Role of Teacher Teacher is always behind the screen. He is a spectator or an observer. Teacher plays his role behind the scene. He does not interfere in students’ activities. Teacher acts as a facilitator, a setter of the stage, and as a supplier of materials and opportunities.
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What is idealism Western school of philosophy?

Existentialism – Existentialism is a school of philosophy 
 that “focuses on the 
importance of the individual rather than on external standards” (Johnson et. al., 2011, p.93). Existentialists believe that our reality is made up of nothing more than our lived experiences, therefore our final realities reside within each of us as individuals.
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Who is the greatest Western philosopher?

Socrates. Socrates (c.470–399 BCE) is a founding figure in the history of Western philosophy, revered for his single-minded dedication to truth and virtue, for his great argumentative skill, and for his death, which came to be viewed as a martyrdom.
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Who is the most influential philosopher in Western philosophy?

Aristotle (384–322 BCE) Aristotle is among the most important and influential thinkers and teachers in human history, often considered — alongside his mentor, Plato — to be a father of Western Philosophy.’
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Why do we teach essentialism?

Essentialism tries to instill all students with the most essential or basic academic knowledge and skills and character development. Essentialists believe that teachers should try to embed traditional moral values and virtues such as respect for authority, perseverance, fidelity to duty, consideration for others, and practicality and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizens.

  • The foundation of essentialist curriculum is based on traditional disciplines such as math, natural science, history, foreign language, and literature.
  • Essentialists frown upon vocational courses.
  • In the essentialist system, students are required to master a set body of information and basic techniques for their grade level before they are promoted to the next higher grade.

The content gradually moves towards more complex skills and detailed knowledge. Essentialists argue that classrooms should be teacher-oriented. The teacher should serve as an intellectual and moral role model for the students. The teachers or administrators decide what is most important for the students to learn with little regard to the student interests.

  1. The teachers also focus on achievement test scores as a means of evaluating progress.
  2. The essentialist classroom is centered on students being taught about the people, events, ideas, and institutions that have shaped American society.
  3. Essentialists hope that when students leave school, they will not only possess basic knowledge and skills, but they will also have disciplined, practical minds, capable of applying lessons learned in school in the real world.

Essentialism is different from what Dewey would like to see in the schools. Students in this system would sit in rows and be taught in masses. The students would learn passively by sitting in their desks and listening to the teacher. An example of essentialism would be lecture based introduction classes taught at universities.

Students sit and take notes in a classroom which holds over one hundred students. They take introductory level courses in order to introduce them to the content. After they have completed this course, they will take the next level course and apply what they have learned previously. English 101 and English 102 are a specific example of essentialism.

Back to the Foundations of Education Web home page
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What is empiricism vs pragmatism?

Empiricism is the idea that knowledge is acquired through observation and perception. Rationalism is the idea that using logic and reason is knowledge in and of itself. Pragmatism is a logical and practical way of getting things accomplished.
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How is realism different from Platonism?

4. Between object realism and mathematical platonism – Object realism says there exist abstract mathematical objects, whereas platonism adds Independence, which says that mathematical objects are independent of intelligent agents and their language, thought, and practices.
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Is Existentialism the same as realism?

Realism accepts objects as they are and refrains from interpreting the outside world according to personal experience. Existentialism is also a school that relies on existence and is a philosopher Existentialist does not accept jewelry, possibilities, abstract and absolute ideas, and opposes the abstract spirit.
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What is the opposite of a pragmatist?

pragmatic vs. dogmatic on Vocabulary.com If you’re pragmatic, you’re practical. You’re living in the real world, wearing comfortable shoes. If you’re dogmatic, you follow the rules. You’re living in the world you want, and acting a little stuck up about it.

“The academic and political atmosphere in the 1990s was decidedly pragmatic, rather than optimistic.” ( The Guardian )”Clinton, meanwhile, focuses on the pragmatic instead of the aspirational, using her experience as a guide to what can get done.” ( Salon )”Shoes were thick-soled, while bags were pragmatic large backpacks.” ( US News )

Dogmatic people are very firm their convictions, which usually come from some authority. The authority is often religious, but it doesn’t have to be. Anything dogmatic is by the book. If you’re dogmatic, you’re 100% sure of your system despite evidence to the contrary.

  1. Dogmatic can also mean close-minded.
  2. Check it out: “That is, if they can get past the dogmatic denial of man-made climate change.” ( Washington Times ) “We need more such balanced analyses, and fewer dogmatic opinions, on both sides.” ( Nature ) “When I became a cardiologist 30 years ago, I was pretty dogmatic about the low-fat, low-cholesterol diet to prevent heart disease.” ( Washington Post ) Pragmatic people know what time it is.

Dogmatic people tell you what time it should be. To be dogmatic is to follow a set of rules no matter what. The rules might be religious, philosophical, or made-up, but dogmatic people would never waver in their beliefs so don’t even think of trying to change their minds.
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What is the oldest Western philosophy?

Answer and Explanation: Metaphysics is indeed the oldest branch of philosophy, not only Western philosophy but the disciplines of philosophy found in various cultures throughout the world. It is logical that this is the case, as metaphysics deals with such fundamental concerns as time, space, and the nature of reality.
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What is the difference between naturalism and pragmatism?

INTRODUCTION It is a scientific, systemic inquiry about the ultimate reality in the universe; it is the basis for understanding man. Etymologically, the term, ‘Philosophy’ has been derived from two Greek words: Philos means love, Sophia means wisdom. It is the loving and searching for wisdom and truth.

  • Philosophy is the science of knowledge. — Fitche
  • Philosophy is the science of all sciences. — Coleridge
  • Philosophy is the mother of all arts. — Cicero,


  1. Philosophy is a search for a comprehensive view of nature, an attempt at a universal explanation of nature of things. — Henderson,
  2. Philosophy is an unceasing effort to discern the general truth that lies behind the particular facts (i.e., the reality that lies behind the appearances).

Meaning of Philosophy

  • It is a search for a comprehensive view of nature, an attempt at a universal explanation of nature of things.
  • It is a living force, a way of life, an attitude towards life and a search for truth and reality. It is a speculation about the nature and value of things. It is a search for deeper and finer values of life.
  • Philosophy refers to a certain way of thinking. It arises out of an attempt:
    1. To arrive at the solution of a problem through the use of human reasoning and experience.
    2. To find the deeper meanings of the problems.
  • Each individual should have a philosophy of life i.e., a set of standards, ideals which are based on the principles that he has chosen as being acceptable to him.
  • Philosophy is the study of the general principles and understanding all i.e., God, the world, and man himself, of origin, nature and the activities that come in the range of human experience. It is a comprehensive view of nature. Through philosophy man tries to understand himself and the world in which he lives. It answers the inevitable questions. It is an inquiry into the wholesome of things.
  • It is what we believe and the principle which governs our life.
  • It is acting like a guide to have a concrete outlook on the world, life, human conduct, and actions.
  • Philosophy is the earliest and the most original intellectual discipline.
  • Plato said, ‘he who has a taste for every sort of knowledge and who is curious to learn and never satisfied’ may be just termed as philosopher.
  • Questions of philosophical enquiry:
    • What is life?
    • What is man?
    • What is man’s origin?
    • What is man’s destiny or goal?
  • Philosophers try to answer these questions according to their own mature reflection and thinking.

These different answers lead to different philosophies, lives of great men prove that 2 philosophy results in a certain way of life, beliefs, values and ideals formulated in terms of experiences and background of the person, who expresses them. It is mostly an idea of what is possible and not a record of accomplished facts.

  • Hence, it is hypothetical (it may or may not be proved true).
  • There is no finality, it defines the difficulties and suggesting ways and means of dealing with them.
  • Thus philosophy is described as ‘generalised thinking’.
  • Philosophy influences the daily life of every individual, it is particular way of looking at things, e.g.

everybody will have their own philosophy of life i.e., some are pessimists, some are optimists, some are idealists, some are realists, some are materialists, some believe in destiny, some are atheists (don’t believe in God) and so on. Major Branches of Philosophy

  • Metaphysics or discussion about the reality and the cosmos.
  • Epistemology or the theory of knowledge.
  • Ethics or the theory of morality.
  • Aesthetics or the discussion of beauty.
  • Logic or the study of ideal method of thought and reasoning.

A well-marked attitude takes the shape of a particular school of philosophy or an ‘ism’. There are different philosophical approaches, e.g. idealism, pragmatism, naturalism, realism, humanism etc. Philosophy, life and education are intimately linked with one another.

  1. Infact philosophy and education are like the two sides of the coin.
  2. While philosophy is the contemplative side, education represents the dynamic side.
  3. All philosophers were also great educators.
  4. Thus philosophy is a major concern of education and there is, infact, an intimate relationship between philosophy and education.

The truths and principles established by philosophy are applied in education. The arch of education will never attain complete clearness without philosophy. All the aspects of education are influenced by philosophy and there is a direct bearing between education and philosophy.

Philosophy Points out the Way to be Followed by Education Education is the modification of child’s behaviour, whereas philosophy shows the way to be followed by educators in the modification of child’s behaviour. Education is a laboratory in which the philosophic theories and speculations are tested, thus education will be said as, ‘applied philosophy’.

Philosophy is wisdom, education transmits wisdom from one generation to the another. Education is the Best Mean for the Propagation of Philosophy A philosopher arrives at the truth after a great deal of contemplation on the real nature of the universe, man, his destiny and lays down aims, ideals and values and then he tries to live in accordance with them.

Philosophy Education
1. It sets the ideals, principles, goals, standards, values thus it is in reality and truth. 1. Education works out those values.
2. It is the theory and speculative. 2. It explains how to achieve the goals through man’s educational efforts.
3. It is the contemplative side. 3. It is the practice.
4. It deals with abstract ideas and ends the situations process. 4. It is the active side (dynamic) It is the applied philosophy. It deals with concrete and means.
5. It is the art. 5. It is the science.
6. Philosophy formulates the method. 6. It deals with the process of method.

3 He wants others to be converted his beliefs and live according to them, thus it can be achieved through education, which is the best mean for the propagation of his philosophy. Education becomes more prominent than philosophy as action speaks louder than words or beliefs.

  1. Beliefs (philosophy) are vital, thus it results in a prominent educational efforts.
  2. All Great Philosophers are Great Educators Philosophers reflected their views in their educational schemes.
  3. Most of the educational movements of the world own their origin to the philosophical schools of different philosophers.

When a philosopher wishes to spread his ideals, beliefs, he formulates a scheme of education based on his philosophy, e.g. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, etc., European philosophers like Locke, Rousseau, Spencer etc., were great educators. The great thinkers and philosophers of India are Buddha, Tagore and Gandhi.

Philosophy Determines the Broad Aspects of Education Philosophy provides aims of education, it determines the curriculum (course of study), methods of teaching, school discipline, role of teacher, school problems etc., philosophy will continuously influences and determines both the matter and the method of education.

Thus philosophy contributes to the development of the educational theory and practice. INFLUENCE OF PHILOSOPHY ON DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF EDUCATION Philosophy and Aims of Education Philosophy is the determining force in laying down the aims of education.

  • Aims of education (moral, vocational, intellectual and spiritual) are based on views and ideals, beliefs, values, standards of philosopher.
  • The philosopher struggles hard with the mysteries of life and arrives at his solution after mature reflection and thinking.
  • He will suggest the ways and means of dealing with them through educational efforts.

The educator selects the material for instruction, determines the methods of procedures for the attainment of goals. Thus the entire educational system proceeds with its foundation on sound philosophy, e.g.

  • Idealism believes in self-enhancement.
  • Naturalism prefers self-preservation.

Philosophy and Curriculum Curriculum is the sum total of all the activities and experiences provided by the school to its pupil to achieve the aims of education. The philosophy determines the content and discipline that subject will promote curriculum.

It is not fixed at all times, it changes in accordance with philosophy. Thus, curriculum differs with different schools of philosophy according to their own beliefs. Thus education needs leaders, who hold a sound comprehensive philosophy through which they can convince others and who can direct its consistent application to the formation to the function of appropriate curriculum.

The content of curriculum varies according to the philosophy it follows, e.g.: Idealists emphasise higher values of life and prescribe the study of religion, ethics, logic, literature, arts and humanities. Pragmatists advocate the study of functional subjects and social sciences, practical arithmetic, arts and crafts in their curriculum.

  • Naturalists are mainly concerned with physical sciences and direct experiences.
  • The subjects are selected according to the aptitude and ability of the child.
  • Philosophy and Textbooks The textbooks must reflect the prevailing values of life fixed by philosophy, an appropriate textbook must be in accordance with norms of knowledge which the children are expected to know and accepted ideals of the society and the prevailing philosophy of education and the nation 4 as a whole.

Then only it will serve the desired purpose. The persons who select the textbooks must have standard of judgment, which should enable them to select the right type of books based on standard, supplied by philosophy. Through textbooks the aims of education are realised.

  • It will meet needs of ideals and principles.
  • Philosophy and Method of Teaching Philosophy is a way of thinking and a way of working.
  • Method is the process of establishing and maintaining contact between the pupil and the subject matter.
  • Every system of education has its own method of teaching based on its own philosophical background.
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Method is the procedure through which aims of education are realised. Thus different schools of philosophy have laid down their own methods of teaching, e.g.

  • Idealism: advocates question, answer, lecture and discussion methods.
  • Naturalism: emphasises child-centred methods of learning by doing and direct experience.
  • Pragmatism: recommends project methods, problem-solving method and socialized techniques.

Philosophy and Discipline Philosophy determines the nature and forms of discipline. Discipline is nothing but the conduct of the pupil. Internal discipline concerned with inner code of conduct of the individuals sustain a nation. Philosophy and education are inseparably linked, they exist together, philosophy leads and education follows the path shown by philosophy.

  1. Discipline is mainly governed by the aim of education.
  2. Spare the rod and spoil the child’ was the maxim for the guidance of teachers.
  3. In the past, perfect order and silence prevailed in the educational institutions, now we insist on self-government of students and free discipline.
  4. Philosophy and the Teacher Teacher is the backbone of the entire process of education.

Philosophy of life should be in perfect consonance with the philosophy; the educational system is based on successful teachers. A teacher needs the study of philosophy as a person and as a teacher. A teacher is also having his/her own ideas and beliefs.

  • Idealistic teacher is a person of high ideals, ethics and morals, he is role-model for the pupil.
  • Naturalism sees the teacher as the stage-setter and works behind the screen.
  • In pragmatism teacher is a friend and guide of the pupil, facilitating the process of the growth of individual.

Philosophy and Evaluation Evaluation is the pivot of education system. It determines the extent to which aims and objectives are being attained, but also helps to bring about an improvement in the techniques and procedures of education. There is a close relationship between objectives, learning experiences and evaluation.

  1. It is therefore legitimate to ascertain how far our evaluation programme is in conformity with the philosophy that has determined the aims and objectives of education, its curriculum and its methodology.
  2. Evaluation takes into account the growth of the child as a whole individual and in his total environment.

Philosophical analysis, which is responsible for the movement of objectivity in the field of relationship between philosophy and environment. General Impact of Modern Philosophies on Education Common elements in all modern philosophies:

  • Education has been psychologised, instructions are based on child centred, individual differences have been recognized.
  • The principle of activity i.e., learning by doing is the common watchword.
  • Social discipline is a patent factor of educational development, the child is to be trained for community life.5
  • Democracy has been developed and it is the guiding factor of educational practices.
  • There is a scientific outlook on all matters of life.
  • The concept of discipline in education has undergone a radical change.

Importance of Educational Philosophy to a Teacher

  • To understand and accept the prevailing values of the society.
  • It results in intellectual development of the teacher.
  • It helps to improve the standard of his life.
  • It guides and improves the state properly.
  • It helps to bring about changes in various aspects of education.
  • It reforms the society.

NURSING EDUCATION Philosophy of Nursing Education A philosophy of nursing education includes beliefs and values with regard to man in general and specifically man as the learner, teacher, nurse and the client and the beliefs about health, illness, society, nursing, and learning etc.

Traditionally nursing education had adopted ‘children philosophy’ which was based on ‘super-naturalism’. According to it, God is creator, redeemer and provider of man and the universe. The maxims of Christian philosophy are ‘love of god’ and ‘love thy neighbour’. Every phase of nursing education will be influenced by the philosophy upon which it is based.

Christian philosophy considers man to be dualistic in nature i.e., man was created by God as a unit, (a composite made up of a body and a soul, possessing intellect and the likeness of god) and he was created for the purpose of serving him in heaven.

Education based on this philosophy takes in all aspects of human life with the view in regulating and perfecting life in accordance with life of Christ, by which man may attain the eternal end for which he was created. It affects all aspects of the nursing student’s life i.e., spiritual, moral, intellectual, emotional, physical and social as they relate to the preparation of a Christian nurse motivated by supernatural motives.

According to Christian philosophy, nursing is considered as, ‘profession of charity’. Spiritual Religion should serve as the primary integrating factor in the development of the curriculum in a school of nursing. The principles of religion and morality are unchanging.

By this stable truth, the nurse will be able to meet intelligently the changing conditions of modern social living. Religion provides the motives for the nurse influenced by religious principles. Moral Through understanding of moral principles governing man’s conduct and action leading to the nurses to study ‘ethics’ (it is the philosophic science of human acts) from the point of the view of the order they should have regarding one another and man’s ultimate destiny which they ought to help him achieve and it also teaches the individual how to judge accurately the moral goodness or badness of any action.

Nurse has to apply right conduct, in various situations of her daily life based on a sound moral character, adequate understanding and habitual application of proper moral standards. Nurse has to develop right conscience. Intellectual To provide a systematic development and training of the intellect, so that it may be enlightened, disciplined and disposed to function in accordance with the purpose for which it was created.

  • Memory.
  • Direction of imagination.
  • Strengthening and expansion of the capacity for association.
  • Cultivation and training of the intellect.6
  • Judge wisely.
  • Reason soundly.
  • Acquire prudence, wisdom and intellectual virtues.
  • Imparts knowledge.
  • Provide opportunity for the student to analyse nursing care situations and problems, to apply various theoretical knowledge and skills in the field of clinical situation.
  • Development of communication skills to express their thoughts.

Emotional Needs Nurse must be able to function as a mature, self-dependent and responsible individual and must be able to relate well to other people. It shows emotional maturity where by all her emotional needs were met. The primary emotional needs are:

  • Affection and love.
  • A feeling of belongingness.
  • Achievement or status i.e., prestige or self-esteem.
  • Approval from the group and from the authority figures.

These needs must be met, if the student is to mature into a well integrated personality and who can use mature judgment and make the decisions in professional life. Physical To promote the harmonious development physi-cal needs also has to be met, to preserve her body and the essentials of her health.

Nurse should have knowledge of how to guide the others, who need assistance in learning, how to keep well or how to improve health. Social Nurse is a social being, who must pass her life in society in relation to which, she has both privileges and obligations. Nursing is linked with social culture, in which nursing activities are carried out.

The nursing student should be taught, to use her will power in gaining control of her own impulses. To acquire self-mastery and to be a virtuous member of a social group nurse practices democratic principles. Nursing is a service to individual, families and to the society.

  • An organised group of people working together toward a common goal directly concerned with the welfare of the people.
  • A way of acting, specific to the group for the accomplishment of a common goal. The responsibility of nursing includes:
    • Prevention of illness.
    • Promotion of health.
    • Direct supportive and therapeutic care.
    • Rehabilitation.
    • Body-mind-spirit unity.

During the course of time, changes have taken place in the field of education, health care, sociocultural aspects, science and technology. There was need for change in the existing value systems and beliefs; changes had taken place in the field of nursing and nursing education also.

It is not advisable to adhere to only one type of philosophy so, the nursing also is following the path of electism i.e., to draw the best and useful aspects from various educational philosophies and make one’s own philosophy. Nursing is concerned with human welfare, it acknowledges the uniqueness of each individual.

It considers health as a fundamental human right. Nursing is a service to individual, people or community without any distinction between caste, creed, sex or color, rich/poor, age or religion. Hence nursing is concerned with a philosophical outlook i.e., ‘the individual has intrinsic value and there is worth inherent in human life’.

Nursing requires critical thinking, logic and judgment; it is a problem-solving and decision-making process, nurse has to use a rational 7 activity. Nurse is legally and morally accountable person. The learning experiences should equip the learner with skills in problem-solving, decision-making and critical thinking.

Nursing actions are based on scientific principles, which are drawn from bio-psycho-social sciences. Nursing curriculum should include physical sciences, biological sciences, anatomy, physiology, microbiology and other relevant subjects. Nurse will have active voice as a democratic citizen has some control over and responsibility for the political, legal, and social milieu related to health care matters, in which she lives.

  1. Inherent purpose: The optimum level of wellness of health of the individual.
  2. Internal organisation: The series of actions to attain the aim of optimum level of wellness of health of the individual.
  3. Infinite creativity: The dynamics of evolving unique, effective, efficient nursing activities for the achievement of the goal of optimum health.

Nursing is a crucial component of multidisciplinary healthcare system, it reflects the independent, dependent and collaborative positions of the nurse involving respective functions. Nursing evolves as a holistic process with central and common philosophy, purposes, knowledge and functions.

Nursing is a profession and nursing practice must reflect professionalism, professional adjustment and research. Nursing roles in the order of priority are: Educative, Preventive, Promotive, Rehabilitative, Therapeutic, Supportive. Democratic processes include in nursing role are: Authority by mutual consent, individual accountability, group activities, leadership and organizational set-up.

The requirements for professional nursing care includes: Clinical knowledge, judgment, technical competency, health knowledge, teaching skills, realisation of professional responsibilities. Philosophy will determine the selection of students, preparation of faculty, development of curriculum, attitudes towards client and community, personal life and professional growth of students and faculty.

It must be specific about the specialised functional roles and responsibilities within a profession and society. The purpose of nursing education is to prepare a person who can fulfill the role, functions and responsibilities of professional nurse within the society. The philosophy is developed by each faculty of individual school of nursing together with nurse leaders and nurse administrators.

It should be clearly stated and directly related to the aims. Concept and Meaning of Nursing Education “The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its reco-very or to peaceful death thus he would perform unaided, if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge and to do this in such a way as to help him to gain independence as rapidly as possible”.

  1. The concept of nursing, according to Virginia Henderson(1958).
  2. The essential components of professional nursing practice (according to American Nurses Association) include; care, cure and coordination.
  3. Nursing is based on scientific principles (systematized knowledge) and an art i.e., composed of skills that require expertisedness and proficiency for their execution.

Nursing is a dynamic, therapeutic and educative process in meeting the health needs of the society. Assisting the individual or family to achieve their potential for self-direction. Education brings change in behaviour of the individual in a desirable manner.

It aims at all-round development of an individual to become mature, self-sufficient, intellectually, culturally refined, socially efficient and spiritually advanced.8 Nursing education brings changes in the behaviour of student nurse so as to prepare her to play her roles effectively as an individual and as a good responsible citizen.

Strategies Three phases are included in nursing education. Pre-nursing Education Spread information of nursing to the prospective candidates, publicity and guidance about nursing education, nursing services, working conditions of nurses, career development, job avenues, opportunities and responsibilities of nurses has to be given.

Booklets or brouchers can be developed like ‘nursing as a career’ ‘profile of a nurse’. The prospective students can introspect, think and make a right decision. Careful intelligent planning is required to develop personal and professional satisfaction. Nurse Education Nurse educators have to take care to produce skilled and efficient nurses in order to provide qualitative care, select the candidate who is having interest for admission into nursing is the first step.

Nurse educators monitor continuously; implement the curriculum which consists of theoretical and practical hours of training in a critical manner, give equal weightage to develop the right attitudes, social and moral values, human relations, skills, ethics, civic sense, professional etiquette to have perfect background in nursing.

Along with the technical skills, the personal qualities of the students also have to be promoted. Evaluation of students’ performance is essential. Post-nursing Education After completion of the nursing training, nurse has to register their names in professional organization. The nurse still needs to be educated either in the form of in-service or continuing education.

The teacher has to develop teaching material and conduct of research to improve the standards of nursing. Post-nursing education consists of orientation, supervision, in-service education, evaluation and re-registration. New graduates need to have a well-planned and organised orientation to the area of their posting.

  1. They must be oriented to the staff, equipment, working conditions and clients with whom they have to work.
  2. They need guidance and supervision in achieving professional standards.
  3. Nurses on the job must be evaluated periodically in-terms of knowledge and performance and in-service education needs to be planned on the basis of their needs.

Steps for improving nursing education are:

  • Development of educational material.
  • Conduct of research.

Historical Development of Nursing Education in India

  • In 1871, training for midwives were given for a period of six months with supervised nursing practice.
  • In 1918, first Lady Health Visitors course was started in Lady Reading Health School, Mumbai.
  • Later diploma in General Nursing and Midwifery course was started with 3 years 9 months and later it was condensed to 3 years duration.
  • In 1946, 4 years basic nursing training programme started at RAK College, New Delhi and CMC Vellore.
  • In 1953, post basic degree programme was started in Thiruvananthapuram.
  • In 1959, the first master’s programme in nursing was started at RAK College of Nursing, New Delhi.
  • In 1986, M Phil at RAK College of nursing, New Delhi was started.
  • In 1991, the first doctoral programme in nursing was established in Institute of Nursing sciences, MV Shetty Memorial College, Mangalore.

Pattern of nursing training programmes in India are:

  • Vocational nursing (at 10+2 level) 9
  • Multi-purpose health assistants (after 10+2; 18 months duration)
  • Diploma in General Nursing and Midwifery course (after 12 years of schooling, for 3 years)
  • Basic BSc, Nursing (10+2 with sciences, 4 years duration)
  • Post basic BSc Nursing (after diploma nursing with 2 years experience and 2 years duration)
  • MSc (N) with any speciality (after BSc nursing with 2 years of experience and 2 years duration)
  • M Phil in nursing (after MSc nursing 1 ½ years–regular; 2 years–part-time)
  • PhD. in nursing (after MSc nursing 3 years duration–regular; after M Phil nursing-2 years duration)

Objectives of Nursing Education

  • To prepare nurses who will give expert bedside nursing care in the hospital and home.
  • To provide integration of health and social aspects; theory and practice in generalized public health nursing.
  • To provide an adequate, sound scientific foundation, intelligent nursing to understand the functioning of body and mind in health and disease.
  • To prepare nurses who will be able to work cooperatively with team members who are engaged in health and welfare work.
  • To provide opportunities through curricular and extra-curricular activities for the full development of the personality of each individual student.
  • To ensure opportunities for initiative and resourcefulness, sense of responsibility for oneself and others and broad professional and cultural interest.

Purpose of Nursing Education The basic purpose of nursing education is to prepare the nurse who, after completion of the educational programme, is able to plan for and give comprehensive nursing care and health guidance to individuals and families according to their needs.

  • The nurse must be prepared intellectually and morally enlightened and technically proficient.
  • Nurse should be competent in teaching, oriented to community health and research-minded.
  • Nurse must have the necessary knowledge, principles, skills and attitudes which are essential to professional nursing practices.

Nursing students must develop competent health team members with sound judgment, intellectual and moral enlightenment, professional competence and expertise. The nurse educators should guide the learning activities of students by acting as facilitators.

The nursing education and training programme is to give a broad based preparation with capacity building in students for doing the required nursing jobs with appropriate nursing interventions. The teachers should concentrate on the essential facts, skills and attitudes. The teachers should base their teaching on the nursing needs out of the real health problems of the community and in accordance with the job responsibility.

Trends in Nursing Education Records of civilization in ancient India exist from 2500 BC when the Indus valley civilization flourished. The sacred ‘books of learning’ the Veda were produced in the Vedic period from 1500 BC. The history of nursing in India goes back through the centuries to about 1500 BC.

The beginnings are shrouded in the mist of ancient myths (Wilkinson A.1965). The advent of Christianity and the teachings of Christ, which included the statements such as ‘love thy neighbour as thy self’, ‘I was sick and ye visited me’ enjoined the care of the sick and the helpless. Charaka and Susruta leading authorities on the ancient Hindus system of Ayurveda (the science of life) though lived in the Christian era, they were not influenced by the Christianity.

The following reference is found regarding the nurse in Charaka-Samhita: Nurse: Knowledge of the manner in which drugs should be prepared and compounded for administration, cleverness, devotedness to the patient waited upon, and purity (both of mind and body) are the four qualifications of the attending nurse.10 Subsequently, monastic orders further emphasized knowledge based health and nursing care.

Nuns, monks had to acquire special knowledge and skills before being assigned to take care of the sick. The renounced Roman Matrons, Fabiola, Marceba and Paula stand out as early intellectuals associated with organisation of hospitals and nursing. Later, the many Christian religious orders emphasized the special knowledge needed by caregivers.

Modern Scientific Nursing: Nightingale’s Model of Nursing Education Florence Nightingale emphasized on cognitive knowledge and skills (1909). Preparation of nurses in Florence Nightingale’s school of nursing at St. Thomas hospital included a years training with instruction by the Matron, the ward sister and the physician before assignment for 2-year hospital apprenticeship experience, during which students were granted stipends.

These students were called ‘ordinary probationers’. Those who did not receive stipend, but paid tuition for the first year were educated for higher positions and were called ‘lady nurses’. Nightingale model of nursing education, the hospital based diploma school appears to have been the first model in almost all countries.

The most conspicuous and widespread modification of the Nightingale system had occurred in the United States and Canada and this is referred to as ‘American system’ or professional model in contrast to the British or Nightingale’s apprenticeship model.

A span of 60 odd years since nursing schools were first established in US divides itself into three periods of about 20 years each.1. A pioneering period: 1873–1898 The immediate problem was not to build a finished educational structure but to clear the ground, to provide decent conditions for both patients and nurses, and to lay the foundations of an adequate nursing service.2.

Boom period in nursing education: 1893–1913 Every hospital wanted to have a school of its own. The number of schools of nursing increased tremendously. The young nursing profession organised its forces and tried its level best to control over expansion with the resulting slump in standards.

  1. Though laws were passed, variations existed in admission standards, in programs of instruction and also in the product of these schools.
  2. Collaboration of nurse leaders in England and the US resulted in the funding of the International Council of Nurses in 1899, under the leadership of Ethal Fon Wick and Isabel Hampton.

From its inception, the council worked toward professionalization of nursing in many countries and promoted national licensing, accreditation laws, and improvement in nursing education.3. Period of standard setting and stock taking: 1913–1933 National League of Nursing Education under the leadership of Miss A Adelaide Nutting published standard curriculum for nursing schools in 1917.

Nursing students’ preparation was service oriented rather than education oriented, as nurse educators did not hold advanced educational preparation. Gold Mark report identified many inadequacies in the education and concluded that advanced educational preparation was essential for teachers, administrators and public health nurses.1940s–1960s: This period is considered as basic science era.

Brown (1948) a social anthropologist, reassessed nursing education at the request of national nursing council for war service, supported Winslow–Gold Mark report stressing on inadequacies in nursing education and stated that within 50 years, the education of nurses should occur in collegiate settings.

  1. Disease or injury–etiology and nature.
  2. Medical therapy and
  3. Nursing care.

Nursing care is deduced from knowledge of the disease and its medical treatment. In the traditional formulation of this curriculum model. Nursing trends to be highly programmed and prescriptive. For example, turn the patient Q2II, blood pressure Q4II etc.

  • Nursing is dependent on the medical plan and medicine depended on the existence of the disease or injury.
  • Disease or injury → Medical plan →Nursing care.
  • Both medicine and nursing are derived through logical analysis of the preceding phenomena.
  • The method of the classic nursing curriculum is logistic with invariant relations among disease, medical therapy and nursing care.

The curriculum focuses on the parts and is additive. Once the student learns all pieces (every disease) she is ready to graduate. Another variant of the classic curriculum makes body systems than the disease entities. This alteration has the advantage of providing larger functional units: The body systems instead of the diseases.

  1. The components of the whole are how body systems rather than diseases and the curriculum is presented in logistic fashion.
  2. In the 1940s, nurses concern for the whole person resulted in adding the psychosocial studies to the curriculum.
  3. This has supplanted the knowledge of the biologic systems which had previously dominated nursing education.

With this change an emphasis on the interpersonal process in nursing intervention soon emerged. The focus in the 1940s led to the holistic approach in the 1950s in which the patient emerged as a logical focal point of the content presented in nursing schools and colleges.

The person-centered approach conceptualized the patient as having common human needs and the goal of nursing was to meet these needs. Though systematic training in hospital schools had taken place, still traditional task oriented care was provided in hospital settings.1960s–1980s: Clinical Science Era Impact of Abdellah on curriculum development: Abdellah’s work was the stimulus to 2 quiet different approaches to nursing–a problematic approach and an operational approach.

The problematic approach led to 2 modes of care – Those based on patient problems and Those based on nursing problems. The operational approach led to a typology of nursing acts and eventually to today’s common focus on the nursing process–patient-centred approaches to nursing.

The Problem-based Curriculum Model The selected problems may be patient problems or nursing problems. Often curriculum fail to differentiate between patient needs and patient problems. Such curricula often combine problematic and operational approaches, seeking solutions to patient problems and achievement of predetermined goals for patient needs.

The principle of the curriculum is reflexive and rests on the interaction between man and his environment. A problematic mode allows for variance from patient to patient and from nursing act to nursing act. In the problematic method, each problem is considered to be unique and to have its own unique environment.

During the period nursing practice focused attention on individual / patient centred and family centered care. Social and behavioural sciences have occupied prominent role in curriculum research. Nursing Education Programmes Diploma, College, Masters and Doctoral pro-grammes concentrated on clinical specialization and on clinical nurse specialists.

Many nursing models emerge during this period forges: Nurses role to promote behavioral stability of the patient (Johnson), Smith, Germaine and Gibbs (1971) identified specific nursing goals; prevention intervention model (Hodgman 1973) etc.12 1980s–2000 AD: Political health-scientific approach era The model course around nursing acts.

  • The curriculum is operational when focus is placed on selection among nursing acts.
  • The curriculum is logistic when the acts are seen as an invariant sequence of steps to be followed with every patient for, e.g.
  • Nursing process.
  • In either case the focus is on what the nurse does, cognitive, psychomotor or affective behaviour, basing on action principle steaming from the motivation to the act by the nurse agent.

Nurse patient relationship (or lando’s) promotes the sharing between nurse and the patient. The movement of health for all and primary health care initiated people oriented, value based, holistic and humanistic approach to care. Holistic Curriculum Refers to the curriculum that takes a single subject matter in its entirely as the care of the educational programme.

  1. Holistic curriculum asserts, the nursing is the profession that deals with the whole man in relation to his health.
  2. Nursing is the profession, which deals with the ‘whole of health’ as it relates to man.

The curriculum focuses attention to the health and its relatedness to socioeconomic, cultural and political development, advancement in bio-medical technology, nuclear medicine etc. Health can be perceived on a wellness-illness continuum. Birth to death life phase motion.

  • Each course in such a curriculum is one reflection on the birth to death continuum, giving the student increased knowledge of the whole.
  • Such a curriculum might organize its courses around life phases–infancy, childhood, adolescence, adult-hood and old age.
  • People oriented/community oriented curriculum is geared to prepare nurse practitioners–community nurse practitioner, family nurse practitioner, and in institutions-special units.

Primary nursing is the answer to primary health care and primex nurse coming out of holistic curriculum would be able to participate in achieving health for all through primary health care organisation. AIMS OF EDUCATION Aim is a predetermined goal, which inspires the individual to attain it through appropriate activities.

  1. Philosophy of life: Education is the best means for propagation of philosophy. Philosophy and education are the two sides of a coin.
  2. Elements of human nature, e.g. unfolding of the divine in man (Idealists)
  3. Religious factors, e.g. Buddha preached ahimsa and truth are the two weapons which have to be prevailed in educational system.
  4. Political Ideologies.
  5. Socioeconomic factors and problems of the country.
  6. Cultural factors–education has to preserve and transmit the cultural heritage and traditions from one generation to another.
  7. Exploration of knowledge.

General Aims of Education

  • Vocational efficiency–education should prepare the child to earn his livelihood and make him self-sufficient and efficient economically and socially.
  • Knowledge–it is essential for intellectual growth, good interpersonal relationship, healthy adjustment in life, modification of behaviour, self-awareness and for social growth. Knowledge is power, attainment of knowledge is an important aim of education.
  • Complete living — education acquaints the person with activities of complete living, e.g. self-preservation, performance of social, political responsibilities, and beneficial utilization of leisure time.13
  • Harmonious personality development–harmonious cultivation of the physical intellectual, emotional, mental, moral character, spiritual aspects of human development thus a well balanced personality development will take place with education.
  • Self-realization–education should help a person based on his potentialities what he is going to become.
  • Cultural development–every individual has to become cultured and civilized through education. Cultural development, if attained it gives refinement, aesthetic sense, concern and respect for others and their culture.
  • Citizenship–the child has to be educated to become a good citizen of his country. He should be beneficial to the society.
  • Leisure–leisure is a part of human life, where enjoyment and recreation occurs. It is needed to keep up rest and regain energy. Artistic, moral and aesthetic developments can be inspired through the beneficial use of leisure time. Educate the child to utilize his leisure in creative and useful manner.
  • Development of leadership—education should train the youth to assume leadership responsibilities in various fields like social, political, industrial and cultural fields.
  • Initiating the students to the art of living— education should enable a person to acquire the necessary interpersonal skills and adjustment abilities for successful and happy living together in society.
  • Education for increased productivity— education should help to satisfy this need through the production of manpower, i.e., people who are equipped with advanced scientific knowledge; complex, technical ability and efficient work experience.
  • Social and national integration–education should inculcate the feeling of oneness and belongingness.
  • Education for modernization–education should produce the people who are able to think and judge independently and effectively, intellectually efficient and technically competent persons must be prepared.
  • Education for social, moral and spiritual values.
  • For scientific temper.
  • For national cohesion, socialism, secularism and democracy.
  • Fostering research in all areas of development.
  • Education for equality.

INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL AIMS OF EDUCATION (ULTIMATE AIM OF EDUCATION) Educational aims are correlative to the ideals of life. There are two ultimate aim of education–individual and social; of all other aims, these two are the most important because the remaining aims of education stress either the one or the other of these two.

An individual is born with certain potentialities or natural endowments. It is the task of the education to develop them into a distinct individual personality. But personality development does not take place in a vacuum. It takes place in associating with others in co-operative living and in working together for the welfare of the group or society.

We have to decide whether the individual and social aspects are totally contradictory to each other or is it possible to strike a balance between the two. In other words, it is to be decided whether the individual owes the existence to society or the society exists for the individual.

Educators who Emphasise Individual Aim of the Education Rig Veda: Education is something which makes a man self-reliant and selfless. M Gandhi: By education, mean, an all round drawing out of the best in child and men–body, mind and spirit. Aristotle: Education is, the creation of a sound mind in a sound body.

Pestalozzi: Education is, the natural harmonious and progressive development of man’s innate powers.14 Froebel: Education is the process through which the child makes internal and external. Importance of Individual Aim The Biologists Support to Individual Aim of Education Every individual is new and unique and different from others.

  • He is a new experiment with life.
  • We cannot change his nature just as we cannot change the color of his eyes.
  • According to Prof.
  • Thompson –”education is for the individual, its function is to enable the individual to survive and live out its complete life”.
  • Education is imparted to perceive the individual life.

Community exists for the individual. Community being the means and individual being the end. Education should not set the means over the ends. Education is given for the sake of individual with a view to save him from destruction. Therefore, individual or not society should be the virtue of all educational efforts and activities.

  1. The Naturalists’ Support to the Aim The naturalists like Rousseau and TP Nunn told that “the central aim of education is the autonomous (self) development of the individual”.
  2. It is therefore that education should be according to nature which would make an individual what he ought to be.
  3. According to Rousseau, “everything is good as it comes from the hands of God, but everything degenerates in the hand of men”.

God makes all things good. Man meddles with them and they became evil. The Psychologists Support to the Aim The psychologists are of opinion that education is an individual process. No two children are identical in intellectual capacity and emotional disposition.

It is therefore that a rigid and uniform curriculum for a large number of children is not justified. It should be replaced by a broad based and flexible curriculum. The work of education should be to find out the individual child’s innate powers and possibilities and to provide the means by which he may enable to realize the highest of them.

The teachers and books are the signboards to the road within. The Spiritualists Support to Education The spiritualists are of the view that every individual is a separate entity and responsible for his own actions. Since the spiritual development of man is individual the main function of education should lead the individual to self-realization and the realization of higher values in life.

Swamy Vivekananda says, “Man is potentially divine. The goal is to manifest this potentiality within by controlling nature external and internal through education”. Lroothee always said, “No one can be like another, but every one can be like the highest, how is that to be? Let every one be perfect in himself”.

The Progressinists Support According to this opinion, the progress and advancement of mankind is due to great individuals born in different periods of history. They include great scientists, inventors, explorers, religious leaders, social reformers and philosophers and the like.

  1. But for such individuals, the world would not have moved beyond what it was a few thousand years ago.
  2. It is only through the activities of such individuals that the world has become better and a happier place to live in.
  3. Perry Nunn says, “Nothing good enters the human.
  4. World expect in end through the free activities of the individual men and women and that educational practices must be shaped to accord with the truth”.

According to him, the purpose of educational efforts is to create conditions for the promotion of complete development of individuality. Limitation of Individual Aims

  • It makes an individual self-centred and indiscipline. He can be vain and only interested in his personal development and achievements. He is not interested in his fellow beings or society. The undisciplined person can be an undesirable individual in society. He will do anything perhaps, to gain his ends.15
  • It ignores rich heritage: Great individuals have no doubt contributed much to the advancement and progress of mankind. But they could do so only after assimilating the rich heritage of thought and wisdom provided by society in the form of religion, tradition, arts and science.

Social Aims of Education As against the individual aim, there is the social aim of education. The individual is endowed with a social nature, he is social by instinct. An individual seems everywhere and always to be caught up in an intricate web of social relations.

Without them the newborn baby would almost perish (The social process and the educational process are essentially one and the same). The individual cannot live and develop in isolation from society. The individual being a social animal will develop through special contact. The social aim in its extreme form regards the state as idealized super-human entity, over and above the individual.

The state or society alone is the reality and the individual is only a throb in the social pulse. The state is the embodiment of reason, justice and morality. The individual is inferior to it in all respects. The supporters of the social aim of education do not conceive of an individual living and developing in isolation from society, in the words of T Raymont,

  • The isolated individual is a fragment of the imagination.
  • According to Ross — individuality is of no value and personality a meaningless term apart from the social environment in which they are developed and made manifest.
  • According to John Dewey, social aim in education is stressed as education should make such individual to understand and appreciate the environment which he lives.

He is ready to sacrifice his own desires if their satisfaction is harmful to others or if their gratification does not consist socially efficient and this social efficiency must be achieved by the positive use of individual powers and capacities in social occupations.

  1. A socially efficient individual is able to earn his livelihood.
  2. He also conforms to moral and social standards of conduct.
  3. Gandhiji formulated the basic scheme with the objective of making people realize that education was not merely for the benefit of the individual, but for the needs of a predominantly rural and agrarian population.

State Socialism The social aim of education in its extreme stage, neglects all the claims of an individual. Man is not born human, he becomes so. The state or society is superior to the individual in all respects. The individual citizen is totally subservent to the state, which is all-powerful.

  1. The state has the right to mould and shape the individual so as to suit its own purposes or progress.
  2. The individual does not have the freedom to express his own views.
  3. The needs of society dictate the needs of education.
  4. The state uses the most convenient weapon for preparing individual to play different roles in society.

He is to obey what the authorities dictate. His needs, usages and nature are completely ignored. The exponents of this school of thought believe in imparting education through social control and their watchwords in the educational process are discipline and obedience.

  1. The individual is to be given education not because he must develop his own individuality, but because he is required to serve the specific purpose, which the state has already determined.
  2. The state is supreme to dictate what shall be taught and how shall be taught.
  3. Discipline is its watchword, willing acceptance of authority is the method and obedience is the rule.

The social aim of education has been stressed upon by the following:

  1. Education means the culture which every generation purposely gives to its successor in order to qualify, to keep and to improve the level attained — Brown FJ,
  2. The teacher’s aim is not to educate his pupils in the abstract, but for life in any existing society — Bruebaker JS,
  3. Education is the process of reconstruction of experience, gives more socialized value 16 through the medium of increased social efficiency– Dewey,
  4. Education is an attempt in the part of the adult members of the human society to shape the development of the coming generation in accordance with its own ideals of life– James Welton,
  5. True education involves three things:
    1. A sincere appreciation of one’s country.
    2. A readiness to recognize its weakness frankly and to wish for their tradition and
    3. An earnest resolve to serve it to the best of one’s ability, harmonizing and sub-ordinating individual interests to broader national interests.

The school has to build up this three-fold concept of patriotism. Thus the social aim of education finds expression in such concepts as education for social service, education for citizenship, education for social efficiency, e.g. ancient Sparta, ancient Greece, Italy (Fascist), and modern Germany.

Social Aim of Education in Democratic Countries The social aim finds expression in such concepts as education for social efficiency. A society is considered to be efficient only, when it is physically strong, intellectually enlightened, economically self-sufficient and morally well disciplined. Such a society requires individuals who are physically fit, intellectually well-off, economically self-sufficient and morally high.

It is only such individuals who can contribute really towards welfare of that society. In democratic countries the education aims at developing socially efficient individuals. Social efficiency implies social awareness, economic productivity and cultural and moral refinement.

Social awareness will produce in the mind of the child, a sense of fairness in dealing with others, open mindedness to the ability to follow and lead as the situation warrants. Economic independence will help him to pull his own weight and he will not be a parasite or a drag on society, culture and moral refinement means that he will have a spirit of social service and self-sacrifice.

He also conforms to a certain standard of conduct known as the ‘moral conduct’. John Dewey says ‘In the democratic and technological environment, the aim of education should be to enable the individual to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities’.

He further adds, ‘all education proceeds by the participation of the individual in the social consciousness of the race’. This process begins unconsciously almost at birth and is continually shaping the individual’s powers, saturating his consciousness, forming his habits training his ideas and arousing his feelings and emotions.

The individual is trained to be unselfish to part the needs and desires of others before his own. The experiences of the individual are communicated to others, so that they may benefit from them. There is no social satisfaction. The mind of the individual so socialized that he has an intelligent sympathy and good will for the whole social group.

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Accordingly school must teach the duties and responsibilities of individual citizens, they ought to train their pupils as a spirit of cheerful, willing or effective. Synthesis between the Individual Aim and Social Aim Apparently the two aims seem to contradictory and opposed to each other. The individual aim, if stressed greatly, will produce one, who are selfish, boastful and egoists.

While extreme emphasis on social aim will create suppressed personalities and turn them into automation. The two aims of education are complemen-tary and not conflicting. We find neither the individual nor the society can exist without each other. The individual is the product of society; while the society in its own turn, finds its advancement in the development of the individual members.

John Adam says, ‘individuality requires a social medium to grow. Without social contacts we are not human. Individual development is not conceivable without being social. Human being has no meaning apart from society. Education 17 has two-fold objects, ‘the perfection of the individual and the good of the community.

Education is making good men as well as good citizen’. In the words Humayun Kabir, ‘ if one is to be creative member of the society, one must not only sustain one’s own growth, but contribute something to the growth of the society’. According to Ross, “individuality is of no value and personality is a meaningless term apart from the social environment in which they are developed and manifested.

Self-realization can be achieved only through social service and the social ideal of real value can come into being only through, free individuals who have developed valuable society and the individual. An individual can only develop in a progressive society and society can only make progress with developed individuals.

The circle cannot be broken. National Aims of Education India has become a secular and democratic country, when India becomes free, there was need for reorientation and restructuring of all our existing social, political and educational needs of the country.

  • Aims of independent India were; preparation for democratic citizenship, increased productivity, national integration and achievement of goals.
  • The total education system had to be reoriented and restructured to facilitate the achievement.
  • The Secondary Education Commission of 1952 (Mudaliar Commission) suggested the following aims of education in free India.

Democratic Citizenship Democratic citizenship is one of the important aims of education. Education should prepare people for democratic citizenship. It means to train persons with capacity for clear thinking, receptivity to new ideas, clarity in speech as well as in writing and true patriotism.

Development of Personality All round development of personality is an important aim of education. Education should develop the literary, artistic, aesthetic and cultural interests of students. For this purpose, subjects like art, music, dance, craft etc., should be included in the curriculum. Development of Leadership If democracy is to function successfully, there should be people to assume leadership in the social, political, industrial and cultural fields.

Education should train the youth to assume such responsibilities. Vocational Efficiency For improving the poor economic situation of the country, the Commission emphasized the need for increasing productivity through vocational and technical efficiency.

One of the aims of education is to develop vocational efficiency of the youth. Education help to create a new attitude toward work and dignity of labour. Initiating Students to the Art of Living Through education, the child should learn the art of harmonious living. Education should enable a person to acquire the necessary interpersonal skills and adjustment abilities for successful and happy living together in society.

The Kothari Education Commission of 1964–66 proposed aims of education in India are: Education for Increased Productivity Increased productivity is an essential need of our country. Education should help to satisfy this need through the production of man power i.e.

People who are equipped with advanced scientific knowledge, complex technical ability and efficient work experience. Social and National Integration Education should include the feeling of oneness and belongingness. This is a very important aim of education of our country which has the tendency to divide on the basis of language, culture, caste, religion and so on.

This aim should be accomplished through some kind of public 18 educational system and some form of obligatory national service. Education for Modernization The world is moving very fast with all kinds of scientific and technological advancements. India also should keep pace with the advancements of the modern world.

  • Our education should aim at producing people who are able to think and judge independently and effectively.
  • Intellectually efficient and technically competent persons must be prepared.
  • Education for Social, Moral and Spiritual Values Another important aim of education is to integrate social, moral and spiritual values in the minds of children and young people.

The curriculum should include instruction in these subjects. There should be set times for moral and spiritual instruction in all educational programmes. All religions should be given equal importance. These are the educational aims for independent India suggested by the two commissions.

Though we have come a long way in achieving these aims, still there is much more to be accomplished. Various commissions and committees appointed by the Government did periodic comprehensive appraisal of the existing educational scene in our country. Based on their reports, Government has drawn National Education Policies which specify the renewed aims and objectives of our education.

The National Education Policy of 1986 have set the following educational aims of our country which are still in force. They are:

  • All round material and spiritual development of all people.
  • Cultural orientation and development of interest in Indian culture.
  • Scientific temper.
  • National cohesion.
  • Independence of mind and spirit. Which Western School Of Philosophy Gives Emphasis On Sensory Training Aims of Education 19
  • Furthering the goals of socialism, secularism and democracy.
  • Man power development for different levels of economy.
  • Fostering research in all areas of develop-ment.
  • Education for equality.

Aims of Nursing Education Nursing education is the professional education for the preparation of nurses, to enable them to render professional nursing care to people of all ages, in all phases of health and illness, in a variety of settings. Factors Influencing Nursing Education

  • Health needs of the people in the society.
  • Needs of the student and time.
  • Philosophy of nursing.
  • Current trends in general and professional education.
  • Advances in science and technology.


  • Nursing man power development: Well-qualified, competent nurses are needed to meet the needs of people in the society. Nursing care is an important and integral aspect of health care. Nurse has to implement advanced scientific knowledge and professional skills in meeting the needs of people by adopting nursing process and its steps.
  • Nursing education should impart scientific and up-to-date knowledge in the area of medical, social, behavioural and biological sciences.
  • Inculcate the appropriate nursing skills and the right attitude to the students. Theoretical and practical knowledge is essential for rendering intelligent and efficient nursing care.
  • Nursing education should have sufficient theory content and practical experience.
  • Nursing education should prepare nurses as good leaders to provide qualitative care. Nurses have to participate in decision-making and policy making in health care matters and allocation of resources for health development.
  • Nurses have to implement health care programmes and health care services in community. They have to collaborate and coordinate health care functions. The nurse leaders are responsible for effective Nursing education. Nursing education should aim to identify potential nursing leaders and facilitating for their development.
  • To improve professional development of each nurse and their profession.
  • For all round personality development of individual with nursing education, nurse will develop and grow as a person of self-awareness, self-direction and self-motivation.
  • Nursing should prepare nurses in participating scientific nursing research investigations, its results will be added up to the body of nursing knowledge.
  • Nursing education should inculcate democratic values, e.g. respect to individuality, equality, toleration, cooperative living, faith in change.

TRADITIONAL PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION NATURALISM Introduction It is a philosophical position adopted by naturalists, who approach philosophy from purely scientific point of view. They believe that nature alone represents the entire reality. There is nothing beyond/behind and other than nature. Definition

  • It is a system, whose salient characteristic is the exclusion of whatever is spiritual or indeed, whatever is transcendental (supernatural) of experiences from our philosophy of nature and man— George Hayward Joyce,20
  • It is the doctrine that separates nature from God, subordinates spirit to matter and sets up unchangeable laws as supreme– James Ward.
  • It is a philosophical generalisation of science; the application of the theories of science to the problems of philosophy — Ralph Barton Perry,

Chief Exponents of Naturalism Bacon, Comenius, Herbert Spencer, Huxely, Bernard Shaw, Rousseau JJ, George Hayward Jayce, James Ward, Ralph Barton Perry, Darwin MC Dougall, Lamarck, Thomas Hobbs, Tagore. Meaning Naturalism is a doctrine that separates nature from god, subordinates spirit to matter and setup unchangeable laws as supreme.

  • According to naturalists, human life is a part of nature, it is a self-sufficient entity having its own natural matter natural force and natural laws.
  • It emphasises, on ‘matter and the physical world’.
  • It does not believe in spirituality and supernaturalism.
  • Forms of Naturalism Naturalism, as a philosophical doctrine has three distinct forms: Physical Naturalism Nature is the reality, human life is wholly controlled and influenced by the eternal laws of nature, and it governs the human life, since it is moulded by natural laws.

Reality does not exist within the individual. It is rather outside him, in the natural universe. Tagore calls, ‘nature’ as the ‘manuscript of god’ since human life is moulded and controlled by external nature, it should be in accordance with the natural laws.

  • Mechanical Naturalism There is no spirit or soul, only matter is everything.
  • Man is also matter, which is made up of atoms, empty space and motion.
  • It regards man is merely a machine, governed by mechanical laws, he has no creative capacity, purpose or direction.
  • This philosophy aims at training man as a good machine and keeping it in good working condition.

Thomas Hobbs, an Englishman described nature as an aggregate of things outside our mind which is moving in space. Biological Naturalism Based on Darwin, Herbert Spencer’s view, by the process of growth and development man was energist identifying reality as a force of energy.

  1. Man’s natural endowments (emotional and temperament) are the real springs of his behaviour.
  2. If our behaviour is according to our instincts, we feel happy, if not we feel unhappy and disappointed.
  3. Education should try to sublimate these natural impulses for socially desirable ends.
  4. Development of Naturalism Natural surroundings and freedom are the important factors for the growth and development of the child.

Thomas Hobbs, in 17th century described nature as an aggregate of things moving from one place to another. JJ Rousseau in his Emile describes the education of a child is close to nature. Nature yields all kinds of good things, but the society of man grasps them and perverts them to evil ends.

Herbert Spencer (19th century) used the word ‘force’ to describe ‘reality’. Naturalism and Education Human nature develops according to the laws obeyed by heavenly bodies, as they move in their orbits. The duty of education is to learn, what these laws are and how to use those laws. Educational materials should be the facts and phenomenon of nature.

Education makes the individual, a natural man. Herbert Spencer’s views, the educational objectives are: Self preservation, securing the necessities of life, raising children, citizenship and education for leisure.21 Naturalism gives maximum freedom and central position to the child.

Watch words in naturalism are: ‘Follow nature’, ‘Back to nature’, ‘Maximum happiness’ and ‘Utmost freedom to children’, ‘Instincts are basis of education’, ‘Senses are the gate ways of knowledge’. Naturalism believes that education should be according to the nature of the child, it advocates creation of conditions in which the natural development of the child can take place in a natural way.

Textbooks, timetable, syllabus, and even teachers are not so important as the child, who is to be taught. According to Rousseau, there are three sources of education i.e., nature, men, and things. The nature consists of natural development of organs and faculties, education from nature is to prepare a natural man.

  • Education must confirm to the natural process of growth and mental development. Pupil will be given freedom to determine the form of the learning process, e.g. inductive methods of learning.
  • Education should be a pleasurable activity for children and it engages the spontaneous self-activity of the child.
  • Acquisition of knowledge is an important aspect of education related to body and mind. Punishment should be based on the consequences of wrong deeds, but with sympathy its frequency will be reduced.

Naturalism and Aims of Education

  • Self-realization.
  • Self expression.
  • Self preservation.
  • Habits formation related to action and thought which are appropriate to the age.
  • Cultivation of self-restraint and sense of value ( Herbert Spencer–biological school of naturalism ).
  • Pleasure and pain are instincts of man are real guiding forces which are basis of the conduct of the child ( MC Daugall’s view ).
  • To make the child to adjust himself both physically and mentally to his environment and to the changing circumstances in life. ( Lamarck’s view ).
  • Equip the individual to struggle for existence and ensure his survival ( Darwin’s view ).
  • Evolution of a better humanity through the transmission of not only physical traits, but also for the cultural ones.
  • Education of the man as the ‘back of God’s creation’. Education should aim at the evolution of a better humanity through the transmission of not only physical traits, but also the cultural ones. ( Bernard Shaw’s view ).
  • Education is universal spirit, according to the nature of the child. ( Rousseau’s view ).
  • Development of individuality ( Sir Percy Nussy’s view ).
  • Struggle for existence and survival of the fittest. ( Herbert Spencer’s view ).
  • Education should be according to the nature of the child’s tenderness, capacities, instincts, likes and dislikes. It should aim at providing full opportunity for the development of natural endowments of the child.
  • Perfect development of individuality, develop the child into a joyous, rational, balanced, useful and mature person.

Thus naturalism ignores the spiritual side of the child’s personality by omitting the development of his will, conscience and morality. Naturalism and Curriculum

  • No fixed curriculum.
  • Every child is given the right to determine his own curriculum.
  • The child is expected to learn directly from nature through personal experiences.
  • Naturalists give prominence to subjects like gardening, agriculture, nature study, art, crafts, botany, geology, geography and astronomy etc, as they are directly related to the nature of the child.22
  • The subjects should be correlated with the play activity of the child and with the life around him.

Naturalism and Methods of Teaching

  • Naturalists are not in favour of direct training through teacher or textbooks.
  • In the place of textbooks, they emphasise the value of ‘concrete objects’.
  • They advocate the direct experience of things and believe in the principle of ‘learning by doing’, e.g. observation and experimental methods.
  • Direct methods are advised as to ensure the vocabulary of a student.
  • In the training of science and mathematics “Heuristic method” is emphasised in the place of ‘chalk and talk procedure’.
  • Geography is through practical exercises, actual excursion and observation.
  • Play-way method is used to develop spirit of joyful, spontaneous and creative activity.
  • Dalton plan method is suggested, which gives freedom to the pupil to choose his own schedule of work. They learn through observation and experiment, self-government and self-effort.
  • Naturalists emphasises ‘open air schools’ self-government in schools and establishment of co-education in educational institutions.

Thus the centre of naturalism to the field of modern methodology of education is most outstanding and most abiding. Naturalism and the Teacher Teacher can neither interfere with the activities of children nor can impose his own ideas and ideals, will power upon them or a moulder of character formation.

His place is ‘behind the scene’. He is a ‘spectator’ or an ‘observer’ of the child’s development. He cannot impose any activity, restrictions or limitations for the learner. He will allow the child, provided opportunity for free development of their own motives, growth and development in an atmosphere of non-intervention and freedom.

He does not expect undue respect from his pupils nor does he pose as superior. He tries to understand the pupils and approves their behaviour. Teacher cannot dictate to pupils, what they have to do. According to naturalistic concept, a teacher is only a setter of the stage, a supplier of materials and opportunities.

  • Extreme discipline is not desirable, as it stands in the way of the child’s natural development.
  • Free discipline may be applicable, as naturalists give utmost freedom to the child to do and learn whatever he likes, they do not advocate any sort of punishment for the child except that he is allowed to support the natural consequences of his actions.

For regulating the conduct of students, naturalists have evolved the concept of student self-government in tune with the demand of a democrative society. Weakness of Naturalism in Education

  • The simplicity of naturalistic educational practices may not be possible in urban areas.
  • Higher order of discipline may not be possible as textbooks and teachers are not playing crucial role and leisure pace of learning through experience is taking place.
  • The physical nature alone is not the power which can be used to control and direct education or any other human endeavour. Nature alone cannot find peace or beauty, there is something higher, which can direct man’s purposes, strivings towards positive ends.
  • Lacks ideals, no place for spiritual values.
  • No constructive suggestions to offer regarding a goal for educative effort thus it does not point to a higher end in the educational process.23

Conclusion Education is based on psychology of the child and in accordance with his nature. Naturalists keep the child in the forefront in the entire process of education. The teacher school, curriculum, methods of training are not so important as the child, who is to be educated.

Naturalists want the school, to provide an environment, which is conducive to the free development of the growing child. IDEALISM Introduction and Meaning The word, ‘idealism’ has been derived from ‘ideal’ or ‘ideas’. Ideals or higher values are much more significant in human life than anything else. This philosophy seeks to explain man and universe in terms of spirit or mind.

This philosophical thought, is originated by the great Greek philosophers, Socrates and Plato. They conceived ideas as the basis of their philosophy. Plato in his dialogues indicated the importance of mind and reason in the experience of man. Idealism idolizes ‘mind and self’; it explains man and the universe in terms of ‘spirit’ or ‘mind’.

  • Idealism believes in the ‘universal mind’ or ‘God’. He is the creator and he creates entire world. It is the source of all human values. The goal of all human activities is the realization of ‘universal mind’ in his own self.
  • It regards man as a ‘spiritual being’, superior to animals. Reality is found in the mind of man and in the external world.
  • Main aim of human life is to achieve spiritual values i.e., truth, beauty and goodness. These values are absolute, undying and permanent, with these terms, man rises higher and higher in the moral plane, till he becomes one with the ‘universal mind’. These are all attributes of god.
  • God is the source of all knowledge and real knowledge is perceived in mind. According to idealists, knowledge gained through mind is more important, than knowledge gained through the senses.
  • The world of ideas and values is more important than the world of matter. Idealism has full faith in eternal values which never change. They can neither be created nor destroyed.
  • Man can express himself in language and communicate through various forms of art and culture. Man expresses his spiritual aspirations through morality and religion.
  • Idealists maintain the distinctiveness and superiority of man’s nature, not only from his spiritual capacities but also seen in his power and control over the environment.
  • Man can change and manipulate the physical environment and shaping it according to his needs, he has also the power of controlling the spiritual and cultural environment and values, it can be represented by communi-cation through art, culture, knowledge, morality and religion.
  • Reality is spiritual. It exists in ideas, purposes, intangible values and internal truths.

Idealism in Education Educational idealists believe that man is born with spiritual self. He can realise his spirituality and understand its true nature only through the agency of education. Education is expected to enlarge the boundaries of the spiritual realm.

Ideals of race and its cultural pattern are preserved, transmitted and modified subsequently in the light of new situations. Intellectual Training The world is based on natural laws that are eternal and unchanging, logical consequence, 24 physical laws are based on reason must be taught, as nature is simply the outer expression of an inner logical order.

Unique Nature of Man In nature, man alone can understand logic order in existence through the power of his mind by reasoning and self-discipline. It is provided by the family and school, acquires an effort of mind and will. Social habits can be formulated with the process of rational development.

Idealism and Aims in Education Idealism lays proper stress on the glory and grandeur of human life, which is the best creation of god. It has provided human life with very high aims. Exaltation of Human Personality Education should lead to perfection in the individual. Human personality is of supreme value and constitutes the noblest work of god.

The aim of education should be the exaltation of the self, which implies self-realisation. It is the one i.e., specially associated with idealism, since man is a spiritual being, the divine in man should be unified and brought to his consciousness by means of education.

  • Duties to self. Cleanliness, neatness, moderation, satisfaction of all desires, self-control, self-sacrifice, punctuality, regularity, avoidance of obscenity, profanity and immoral language.
  • The function of education is to enable the individual to realise this unity within him and to establish a harmony between his nature and the ultimate nature of universe. Indian idealism practices liberation, mukti or nirvana as the ultimate aim of life.

Swami Vivekananda Explained the Fourfold Path

  • Gyana (wisdom)
  • Bhakti (devotion)
  • Karma (action)
  • Yajna (meditation)

Idealists aim at the full and complete training of man for manhood and not the development of some parts of man. Acquisition and Enrichment of Culture Environment Man himself is the creator of cultural environment. It is a product of man’s creative activity.

Idealists therefore, emphasise that each child should enter into the cultural heritage of mankind which is free from the limitations of the material environment. Man has to preserve the culture, what he has inherited, and also make to contribute the enrichment of that culture, so that the boundaries of spiritual realm will be enlarged.

Education must help the individual in this contribution. Education should aim at providing the mean of acquainting the student with great achievements in art, literature, mathematics and sciences. Man should be able to invent, create, produce new and beautiful ideas and objects of community and society.

Education should emphasise, encourage invention and creation as a part of culture. Development of Moral Sense: Powers and Rationality Intellectual development requires training in logical understanding and perception. When the child develops moral sense, he is able to distinguish between right and wrong.

Education should also develop the will power of the child, so that he may be able to follow the good and reject the evil. This power of truth, beauty and goodness which are the higher moral values. Self-culture The pupil has to learn:

  • Polite behaviour.
  • Good manners.
  • Self-control.


  • Reliability.25
  • Sincerity.
  • Perseverance.

Duties to Others

  • The virtues of modest.
  • Respect for the opinions of others.
  • Cooperativeness.
  • Liberality and generosity.
  • Religious education.

Universal Education Since all human beings are equally, the children of god. In idealistic society education should be universal without any distinction of caste, creed, color or social status. Development of Inventive and Creative Powers Man should not accept his physical environment as unchangeable.

He should modify the environment according to his needs and mould it according to his own purposes through his inventive and creative skill. Education must foster those inventive power of man to ensure his mastery over the material given to him. Idealism and Curriculum In idealism, the curriculum will be selected based upon ideas and ideals.

It aims to develop a true sense of appreciation of truth, goodness and beauty by which spiritual perfection will result. Spiritual act consists of moral, intellectual and aesthetic events. The three acts are inspired by the three corresponding desires of the spirit i.e., knowledge (gyan); feeling (bhakthi); and effort (karma); therefore the idealistic curriculum provides the training and cultivation of the intellectual, moral, aesthetic acts for intellectual advancement of the child.

Languages, literature, science, social studies and mathematics are included in the curriculum. For aesthetic and moral development: fine arts, poetry, ethics and religion are provided. Idealistic philosophy and education also insists on the creation of sound mind in a sound body. Therefore, physical exercises, hygiene, gymnastic and athletics are also included in the curriculum.

Thus the idealistic curriculum comprises of physical, intellectual and spiritual acts which will enable a man to develop completely. Idealism and Methods of Teaching

  • Self activity, project method, play way methods can be adopted to gain knowledge. ( Pestacozzi advocated )
  • Froebel developed ‘kindergarden method’.
  • Questioning, discussion, lecture method, single and group projects, imitation etc., also included as techniques of idealism.

Idealism and Discipline

  • Strict discipline is essential for self-realization.
  • Teacher’s guidance is necessary at every step.
  • As far as idealists are considered, freedom is not a means but it is an end.

Idealism and Teacher

  • Idealist teacher has attained self-realization. He is a practical man based on ideal and virtuous life. He should live a life of contentment contemplation, poverty and detachment. His personality is a source of inspiration for his pupils to follow and to learn the acts like a friend, a philosopher and guide.
  • The teacher personifies reality for the pupil. The student understands and learns about the universe through his teacher.
  • The teacher has to be a specialist in the knowledge in view of his pupils.
  • Good teacher commands the respect of pupils by virtue of his own, high standards of behaviour and conduct.
  • Teacher initiates the pupil into the life of the intellect, but he provides standards of attitudes, imitation. The social atmosphere of the school, pattern of speech, conduct and appearance encouraged in the school provide attitude for limitation by the student.

Weakness of Idealism in Education

  • Scientific research study does not support the idealistic view of a spiritual universe.26
  • Ideals cannot be simplified.
  • The social order today discourages imitation of ideas, ideals, behaviours and the standards that governed the lives of people of the older generation.
  • The emphasis on good manners, polite behaviour, docility, modesty sums out of tune with the present day world, where aggressiveness reiteration of demands, outspokenness and frankness are regarded as essential qualities in a competitive society.
  • A polite, restrained manner may be mistaken for snobbery.
  • Docility and modesty would be dubbed as evidence of diffidence.
  • Overloaded information — selectivity in reading and learning has become a necessity.

REALISM Introduction Viewpoint of Realism What is true and real in daily life is admissible; whose reality is not felt and unreal is inadmissible. This doctrine is against spiritualism and opposes to idealism. Meaning and Importance

  • Realism is an outcome of scientific development.
  • By observation, experimentation and exami-nation if it is found to be true, can be considered as real.
  • Realism is directly related to man and society.
  • Through realism, man is able to enjoy the comforts of society, after getting all the joys of life.
  • Realism provides education, which is useful for life where man can enjoy his activities and comforts in reality.

Supporters of Realism J Friedrich Herbart : He gave educational ideas on principles of realism and development of many-sided interests among the children. He explained, scientific effort has to be made by the teachers, which interest is for better welfare of the child and society.

  • Self-preservation (care of health).
  • Earning a living (preparation for vocation).
  • Fulfilling responsibilities related to race preservation.
  • Fulfilling citizen responsibilities.
  • Utilization of leisure time.

Franklin Bobit (American educationalist) : Education should be provided according to the reality of life. Human responsibilities and obligations which are necessary to lead a happy life are:

  • Acts concerned with language.
  • Acts concerned with hygiene.
  • Citizenship acts.
  • Ordinary social acts.
  • Leisure acts.
  • Acts of mental health.
  • Religious act.
  • Acts concerning race preservation.
  • Vocational behaviour activities.

Nature of Education Scientific attitude based on realistic principle, where the learner can extends his knowledge, which he learnt through books can be developed. Spiritual need has not considered as a real need of education. Aims of Education

  • Through education man leads a happy and comfortable life.
  • It enables the man to capable of earning by vocational form.
  • To develop the memory of the child.
  • To strengthen wisdom and power of decision-making.27
  • To create the capacity against struggles with adverse situations arising while earning a living.
  • To meet the felt needs of individual/related to materialistic.
  • To make the man as ‘utilitarian’ with the usage of mother tongue, experiments, demonstration and tours etc.
  • Education will be provided according to the reality of life.
  • To develop the child capacity for success in the struggles of future life.

Realism and Curriculum Science, mathematics, hygiene, vocational activities etc., have been given prominence in the curriculum. PRAGMATISM Introduction It is derived from Greek word, ‘pragmatism’ which means ‘practice or action; active and efficient’.

  • William James.
  • John Dewey.
  • S Kil Patrick.
  • Margaret H.
  • Mead.

Meaning Pragmatism is a matter of fact, treatment of things based solely on their practical utility. It is the element of utility that has the greatest appeal for a pragmatist. For him, utility is truth and truth is utility. Pragmatism believes in practical and utilitarian philosophy.

Pragmatism is a typical American philosophy. Americans experimented upon many new ideas and adopted those which proved useful for them in solving their day-to-day problems. Consequently they built up a ‘Pragmatism of life’, based on their own experiments and experiences. This is the pragmatic philosophy of life.

Man as a natural biological organism, schools become secular, scientific, practical and technical, scholarly pursuits became an extension of problem solving. The experiences which are helpful for the learner and help for direct training. It will be helpful for occupational activities.

  • Man creates his own values during the course of act. There are no fixed values for all times.
  • Every truth is man-made product. There is nothing like absolute truth.
  • Pragmatism laid special stress on the value of experimentation. It stands for testing every statement by finding out its practical implications. If these implications are desirable, the statement is accepted, otherwise it is rejected.
  • True pragmatism is one, that helps in the solution of practical problems of life.
  • Pragmatism should have meaning and utility in the solution of human problems (John Dewey).
  • Pragmatism should be practical and useful in influencing the conduct of life and not a passive enquiry or contemplation.
  • The growth of human personality takes place because of interaction with the environment. Man tries to adjust himself to his environment and this results in his growth. During the process of adjustment, man adopts himself to his environment but he also tries to mould the environment according to his needs, purposes and desires.
  • Pragmatism has deep faith in democracy, it is a Government by the people, of the people and for the people. Through democracy only individual can realise the maximum development of his personality. This development is possible only in social context.
  • Individual development also leads to the development of society.

28 Revolt against Traditionalism and Absolutism Reality or truth works out in a practical situation whatever fulfils one’s purpose and develops one’s life is true.

  • Movement in education is preoccupied with change.
  • Man shares his fundamental drives with other living creatures.
  • Moral values, e.g. truth, goodness, beauty etc., have evolved through social processes.
  • Man has biologically unique features; the phenomenon of language gives him the power to reflect upon experiences to identify, criticize, evaluate and judge them.
  • Man and his universal are natural; Man is an organism struggling to satisfy his need and to perpetuate himself in a natural world. The methods he has used in conserving life and satisfying his needs are scientific or empirical.
  • A new logic and concept of the nature of thought and enquiry.

Forms of Pragmatism

  1. Humanistic pragmatism: Truth satisfies human nature and welfare as a whole. Whatever fulfils one’s purpose, desires and develops one’s life is true
  2. Experimental pragmatism: Which can be verified or whatever work is the true.
  3. Biological pragmatism: It stresses the human ability of adaptation to the environment and that of adapting the environment to human needs.

Pragmatism in Education It is a practical and utilitarian school of pragmatism; It believes in imparting education with reference to human needs. It enables the child to solve his daily problems and also to lead a better and happy life by creating new values.

Education therefore must have its intellectual, moral, aesthetic, social and physical aspects. Pragmatism is the product of education, i.e. is outcome of educational experiments. Pragmatism of education is not an external application of readymade ideas to a system of practice. It is on the other hand, a formulation of the problems of right mental and moral habitudes which should help a person to meet the difficulties of contemporary social life— Dewey.

Pragmatism stands for progressive trends in education. According to pragmatism, activity lies at the centre of all educative process, which is progressive and flexible. It stands for freedom and worth of the individual. Pragmatism works on the principle of democracy and education is a social necessity.

  • The school becomes child centred, education will help the child to grow.
  • Education is centred in the experience of the children and this sense of need experienced by the children should be fulfilled.
  • In the school, the child learns the activities by practicing it, so the school has to provide conducive environment for the children. The child will learn most of the life things within the school. The teacher will act as a guide or counsellor. The pupil actively participates in the planning of activities with the teacher.
  • Cultivate creative interest among the child, intelligent cooperative effort is necessary.
  • Child centred education is to build a future centred society.

Pragmatism and Aims of Education Creation of New Values The pragmatist does not start with any fixed aims or scheme of values. The main task of the education is to put the education into a position of developing values for himself. The man has to create the values in the light of his own 29 experience and felt needs.

  • The child must learn, which values will fulfill and satisfy his needs and wants in the environment, he has to create such environment for the child.
  • Activity and Experience For the creation of new values, activity and experience are essential.
  • Education should therefore provide physical, intellectual, social, moral and aesthetic acts as the media for the creation of values, and for the development and selection of what the child wants to learn to satisfy his own needs for the present as well as for the future.

Personal and Social Adjustment All the aspects are developed for meeting the individual and social needs of man, this will help him to cope with the varied problems and situations in life successfully. Direct the impulses, interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in the environment.

  1. Reconstruction of Experience Pragmatists will provide a social setting for the development of cooperative and correlated learning in the school.
  2. Pragmatism emphasises adaptation to environment construction and reconstruction of experience and development of capacities to control the environment.
  3. All-round Development The learner through pragmatism will develop physically, mentally, socially, morally and aesthetically.

Pragmatism and Curriculum Activity Curriculum Pragmatists will not fix the curriculum in advance or in the beginning itself. Only an outline of the acts may be kept in view in the beginning and curriculum can be evolved according to the requirement of the situations.

Thus, it will be a flexible and changing curriculum. While deciding it, the nature of the child and the multiple acts of life must be taken into consideration. The curriculum should be based on child’s occupations and activities, his own experiences learnt by doing the activities. The principle of integration and correlated activities should guide in curriculum construction.

Utilitarian Curriculum It includes the subjects, which will impart knowledge and various types of skills, which the child needs in his present as well as future life. The curriculum is to be governed by the child’s natural interests and felt needs during the successive stages of development.

The experiences are provided which give knowledge and skills to the child. At the elementary stage reading, writing, arithmetic, nature study, drawing and handwork are provided. At a later stage, practical subjects like languages, social studies, physical sciences, mathematics and hygiene are included in the curriculum.

Agriculture for boys and home sciences for girls is prescribed. Training in some craft or vocation also advocated. Principle of Integration While deciding the subjects of curriculum, the principle of integration is kept in view. Instead of dividing knowledge into various subject fields, integrated knowledge around various problems of life is preferred.

  1. Project method and practical oriented (learning by doing): According to pragmatists, the method of teaching are devised by the teacher in the light of real life situations. Education is not training or imparting knowledge, but to encourage training through self effort and creative activity. Knowledge is not only obtained from books, but also actually doing things.30
  2. Provision of real life situation and touching and handling of objects, tools and making things: Project methods are carried out in natural settings. The child is given a real and purposeful task to carry out. Thus the child gets knowledge and skills from the experience gained in accomplishment of that task. Psychologically also these methods are effective because the child is always interested in doing things with his own hands. The school, the curriculum and the subject matter all are considered from the child’s point of view. Six stages in this method:
    • Providing a real situation.
    • Selection of the project.
    • Planning.
    • Execution of plan.
    • The evaluation.
    • Judgment of its utility.
  3. Discussion, questioning and inquiry: Methods also considered in philosophy of pragmatism.

Pragmatism and Discipline

  • Purposeful and cooperative acts carried in a free and happy environment are conducive to good discipline. Thus, they go a long way in the training of character and the establishment of self-discipline.
  • Self discipline is not exposed control by an external authority.
  • ‘Pragmatism’ also emphasises on social discipline through participation in cooperative acts in the school society.
  • Social discipline enables the child to have the virtues like toleration, mutual respect, sympathy, self-control, initiative, service of humanity and originality.

Pragmatism and the Teacher

  • The teacher will create real life situation in which some problems may emerge and the child is interested in the solution of those problems.
  • The teacher will keep the pupil in the position of a discoverer and experimenter.
  • Teacher will not impose anything in the child. The child will decide his own goals, aims and purposes independently.

Strengths of Pragmatism in Education

  • The student will learn the skills and meet his needs, prepared himself to live in society.
  • The student will try to meet the immediate felt needs.
  • The child learns the activities by doing. He will develop his qualities, abilities, thinking, reasoning, judgment based on either individual or social behaviour.
  • Both teacher and student should explore in the adventure of seeking knowledge.
  • The pragmatic approach is based upon recognition of technological and industrialized felt needs.
  • Applicable in American settings.
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Weaknesses of Pragmatism

  • It does not give raise the question of the ultimate reality behind the things.
  • Artificiality in situation.
  • Problem-solving activity may be pleasurable and challenging for the pupils, but it may have little or no relationship with problems that occur in real life situations.
  • The teacher may be unable to cope with the demands of teaching.
  • Humanities, cultural acts have no place.
  • Teacher will act as information officer only. No faith in eternal truth, which is a stable body of knowledge.
  • Many gaps and deficiencies in the learning approach has been observed.
  • Denial of spiritual, cultural values are unpalatable.
  • Less practiced in Indian settings.


  • Pragmatism emphasises on child’s individuality, his needs, interests and aptitudes.31 Principles of learning by doing, activity and experience, it stresses on integration of knowledge and relating the curriculum to real life situation, project method.
  • The teacher has to provide opportunities for act and to have the experience both in school and play ground.
  • The teacher is a friend and a helper.
  • The teacher should be alert, well informed and able to discuss the facts, subject matter with students.

MODERN CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION Introduction The world and its values are continuously changing, the educational system also changes from time to time. Each one philosophy has its own contributions and limitations; no one philosophy is complete in itself and can be applied successfully in all situations.

Education has to be flexible and dynamic. It has to adopt, to the changing conditions and environment through out the ages. EXISTENTIALISM Introduction It is the youngest philosophy, described as modern 20th century philosophy, however a wide general recognition in educational field is not yet received.

Definition A modern philosophy which is primarily built upon the work of the contemporary scholars of the 20th century. Meaning This philosophy views man as, participating in a world of things and events, human existence is the nature of man to exist, to stand out into reality, to participate in being, to be present to all.

  • Chief Exponents Soren Kierkegaard (Danish philosopher); Jan Paul Satre (French writer); Karl Jaspers (German philosopher); Paul T; Reinhold Niebuhr.
  • According to Soren Kierkegaard (founder of existentialism), it is ultimate aim of man in life is ‘to be that which is truly, man must accept the existence of God, is by faith, nor by reasoning’.

Later the thinkers did not consider God to be a necessity. Jean Paul Satre, argued that human life has no purpose, existence is ultimate and that we must choose, by choosing, we become ourselves. Assumptions

  1. The centre of existence is man rather than truth, laws, principles or essence: The recognition of the individual existence, man makes himself through choices among many alternatives in the environment. Man is characterized by decisions, will and choice; certain uniqueness and mastery about the human person.
  2. The uniqueness and mystery of man: The uniqueness of man comes from his emotions, feelings, perception and thinking. Man is the maker and master of culture. Man imposes a meaning on his universe.
  3. Man is not alone in the world: Man is a social being, he is gregariousness in nature, and he cannot live in a state of anarchy. Life is seen as a gift and mystery. Man is free to choose commitments in life, he is the product of the choices. Man’s existence is more important than his essence.
  4. Man cannot accept the ready-made concepts of existence forced upon him: Man is free agent capable of shaping his own life and choosing his own destiny. We cannot treat people as machines.
  5. Self-knowledge: Self-knowledge is the key to all truth and knowledge. ‘know thyself’ is the basic premise of this philosophy.32
  6. Freedom and responsibility: Based on freedom and responsibility, man can create his own values.
  7. Man is not complete: Man has to meet the challenges in the changing society. He has to accomplish all tasks and activities.

Existentialism and Education George Kneller has written ‘existentialism and education’. Educational Implications

  • Becoming a human being, as one who lives and makes decisions about what he will do. Human existence and the value includes knowing oneself, social relationship and biological development etc.
  • Trainers have to provide healthy atmosphere and environment for the children to find sense of securing encouragement, trust worthiness and acceptance.
  • Children have to receive from emotional stress, e.g. intense competition, harsh discipline, fear of failure.
  • Each individual has to grow to understand his own needs and values and take charge of the experiences for changing them.
  • Self-evaluation is the end of learning process. Education has to make the child to have free growing environment, fearless, understan-ding individuals.
  • Classroom atmosphere has to prepare young people to become active, trust worthy and responsible.
  • All school subjects should present situations for the development off human beings.
  • The teacher should facilitate development of originality and creativity by providing necessary material and equipment.
  • The teacher is in a position to foster individual growth and he is the foreground and is the centre of attention.
  • The teacher is very active and welcomes challenges to his ideas from the students.
  • The democratic ideals must pervade the school environment in which the students has to grow.
  • Concern and respect for the individual student should be the main concern of the school.
  • Mechanization and impersonality are to be counteracted in schools.

Limitations in Existentialism

  • Educational methods applied are said to be impractical, anti-intellectual and romantic because they appear to be inapplicable in the industrial society.
  • Time and effort consuming.
  • The concepts like ‘being’ ‘meaning’ existence’ ‘person’ are ambiguous and not clear.

PROGRESSIVISM Introduction It is an American philosophy, which is a revolt against the ‘formal/conventional/traditional’ system of education. It became popular, in 1929 the economic depression of USA adversely affected the educational system of the country.

Meaning Education is centred around for the present life itself. The development of an individual and the society is only possible, when education facilitates the growth of every phase of the child. Exponents John Dewey; William James; G Thomas Lawrence; William Kilpatric. A large number of schools in Europe and USA were started.

Aims of Education

To develop the personality of an individual through providing a democratic environment in the educational institutions.

Progressivism and Curriculum It should be based on the actual giving environment of the child. It must reflect his daily life.33 Curriculum Includes Political; Moral; Social; Vocational; Intellectual; Mathematics; General science, Languages; Integration of experiences. Progressivism and Methods of Teaching

  • Project method–active participation of the pupils in learning.
  • Socialized methods–to bring all the individuals into a group system of interaction.
  • Conferences.
  • Consultation.
  • Planning and participation in the activities.

Progressivism and the Teacher The human elements, human beings are given more importance. The teacher has to meet the needs of pupil as good human being. The teacher, who is vital in education process and having richer, superior experience and can analyse the present situation.

Teacher will act as a stage setter, guide and coordinator but he is not total authority, just he guides the situation. Progressivism and the School School is a cooperative enterprise, it provide conducive environment for democratic growth of the child. BEHAVIOURISM Introduction Person’s behaviour is the result of environmental conditioning.

Man is a passive recipient, who reacts to external stimuli, he has no will or decision of his own or the capacity to take spontaneous action. Principles According to Skinner, each individual is having an ‘ego’ / ‘mind’ centre of consciousness which enable him to choose any course of action, that he wanted to do.

  • Man is not separate from his surrounding environment.
  • Human behaviour is controlled with creativity.
  • Reflexes and other patterns of behaviour evolve and change as they increases the chances of survival of the species.

Techniques/Methods of Teaching

  • Law of effect.
  • Reinforcement.
  • Reward.
  • Shaping.
  • Modeling.
  • Programmed behaviour.
  • Token economy.
  • Classical conditioning.
  • Extinction.
  • Reciprocal inhibition.
  • Desensitization.
  • Cognitive learning.
  • Flooding.
  • Avertion.
  • Response prevention and restraint.
  • Self-control technique.
  • Contingency management.
  • Assertiveness training.
  • Negative practice.
  • Contact.
  • Time-out
  • Punishment.
  • Satiation.
  • Relaxation technique.
  • Operant conditioning.

Educational Applications Systematic applications of principles of learning aims at changing maladaptive behaviour with adaptive behaviour. Learning is governed by man’s action and reaction to various media (oral, written, machine). Learning occurs as a personal achievement through interaction between the learner and environment. Advantages

  • Man tries to understand, predict, influence and control human behaviour with rapidity.34
  • Individualized instruction.
  • Auto instruction.
  • Self corrective.
  • Reinforcement provided by correct answers is a source of encouragement to the slow learners.


  • It requires technical proficiency.
  • Goals are not kept in mind, in controlling human behaviour.
  • The concepts of freedom, capacity to choose, worthiness of individual will be completely lost.

HUMANISM Man is an end, not a means. Principles The humanist emphasis is on literature. He has to overcome the conflicts of his own time. Directions

  • Respect for language.
  • Ancient cultures.
  • Intellectuals for literary scholarship.

Humanism Attitude is Reflected in Certain Value Systems

  • Values are of the highest quality, benefit will occur.
  • Fall/decline in moral, esthetic standards, values results in violence and barbarism (undisciplined behaviour, crude tastes and rude manners)
  • Values are intellectual abstractions, eternal and unchanging.
  • Values are fundamental measures of human experience.
  • Human problems are problems of values.
  • Literature portrays man in historical circumstances and reflects moral decisions, civilized behaviour.
  • Absolute and eternal values are inexpressable.

The Role of Education in Humanism

  • Children must be taught to respect language, a sense of language perfection.
  • Children must be trained in modern literary standards of academics.

Curriculum Music, Literature; central concern is respect for intellectual values and traditions. Teacher The teacher is expected to be well-read, well-trained in humanities subjects and superior attainment. EXPERIMENTALISM Experimentalists reject the laissez-faire individualism and permissiveness.

  • Man is a social being and product of his environment.
  • Learning depends on environment.
  • Experimentalists ask people of the world, to appreciate and respect one another culture and to recognize that differences merely reflect environment circumstances.
  • Technology means progress in social development and social advance.
  • The goal of man is not only to survive but also to live a good life, economic well-being which is a motive for psychological and social behaviour. The school is social institution, democratic philosophy of education has to be represented.

ECLECTICISM Introduction To familiarize with different philosophies, draw the best and essential points inspiration from all of them and make into one harmonious whole 35 and build one’s own philosophy of education. It is known as, the ‘eclectic tendency’ in education.

All the philosophies are philosophy of life. it differs how one thinks about life; their own views related to life different educationists formulated different philosophies. Some gave importance to spiritual and mental aspects of life, while others gave emphasis to the physical and social aspects. Man is a complex being with physical, mental, psychological, spiritual and social aspects of life.

There should be a happy and harmonious life in various aspects related to life. A holistic philosophy of education which would help for the total development of the individual, is useful. No school of philosophy meets the entire requirements of varied situations in life.

  1. No system of education can be exclusively based on a particular school of philosophy.
  2. Infact, no educator is exclusively idealist, naturalist or pragmatist.
  3. For the modern educationists, it will be beneficial and effective, if they make a thorough study of these different schools of philosophy and then rearrange and relate the essential principles into one harmonious whole and thus build their own theory of the education with the best material.

This would be basis for ‘eclectic tendency’ in education. Definition The synthesis or harmonious blend of the diverse philosophies of education. It is the process of pulling out and putting together of the useful and essential aspects of various philosophies of education.

  • The fusion or synthesis of different philosophies of education.
  • The harmonization of principles underlying various tendencies and rationalization of educational practices–Munroe’s view.
  • The process of putting together the common views of different philosophies into comprehensive whole.


  • No philosophy is complete in itself. It cannot be applied successfully in all situations.
  • To find unity in diversity through eclectic approach.
  • To meet the changing needs and demands in the world and cultivate change in behaviour, no need for the learners to stick to one dogma, ideology or philosophy.
  • Indian philosophers have always recognized the value of adjustment in the midst of conflicting ideologies. They always try to resolve the difficulties through peaceful and consistence means. So in Indian culture and civilization, we find deep-rooted eclecticism and fusion.
  • There is a diversity of thinking in all aspects of human culture and civilization. The educator tries to discover some unity of thought in all this diversity.
  • Uniform tendency or holistic approach is needed for Indian culture and its civilization.
  • The abilities and the talents of youth are properly channelized and utilized, the eclectic tendency is needed.
  • To promote good citizenship, equality of opportunity, universality in education, eclectic tendency is essential.

Areas of Agreement or the Eclectic Tendency at Work in Education

Idealism stresses spirituality and absolute values; naturalism emphasises the matter in man; pragmatism is regarded as a sort of compromise between spiritualism and materialism.

The naturalistic philosophy moulds the individual in natural and physical environment; it follows natural environment and prepares the child to adapt himself to it. Idealism wishes the individual to fit him in the present day individualized and mechanized world, it goes to the extreme in the concept of changing the environment.

  1. To make the learner perfect with creative values and adjusting to the changing 36 demands of eclectic tendency in society, education has started.
  2. The respect for the child as an individual and placing him at the centre of the educational process, which is a common feature in most modern philosophies of education.

Meeting Ground of all Philosophies

  1. Respect for child’s personality: Dignity and respect the child’s personality. Child is the centre of educative process, the philosophies will mould the child according to their own view point.
  2. Powerful force of mind: Mind is powerful force in the life of man. Idealists regard mind as a creator of its objects and a discoverer of its own laws. The mind and spirit together form reality–naturalists believe in the impact of environment on mind. The external world within the environment influences the mind and intellect. Pragmatists view the mind is a functional behaviour.
  3. Free discipline: Discipline is only a means and not end in itself. Self-government is acceptable of all, as a powerful means of inculcating discipline.
  4. Individual and social development: Social efficiency and individual development are important aim of education. Health; Command of fundamental processes; Worthy home membership; Vocation; Citizenship; Worthy use of leisure; Ethical character; Enjoyment in freedom; Integrating personality.
  5. Curriculum: Unity of mind and heart of people among divergent traditions of the country. Life centred curriculum for providing total experiences. Humanities, language skills, mathema-tics, arts, practical arts and crafts, history, geography, sciences, logic, grammar, essential skills, desirable attitudes and social virtues are included in various curricula.

Methods of Teaching

  • Play way method.
  • Learning by doing.
  • Direct experiences through projects and problem solving etc.

Teacher Training Teachers, need to be prepared carefully for their role through courses of instruction and practical application. The educator seeks to find harmony among the various philosophical positions and a practical method for application of the finest principles needed in his educational work.

  • Education should give a child, a command of the basic processes of learning.
  • The child should become an efficient member of society.
  • The development of moral character.
  • Promotion of good health.
  • Skillful training.
  • To prepare the person to take his place in life.
  • To be able to think, reason and to adapt himself to his environment.
  • Interests and motivation of the child has to be improved.
  • The child should be educated in favourable, congenial environment. Education has to promote or encourage the child to develop skills and knowledge.

Conclusion We can easily find out, where a particular philosophy has succeeded and where it has failed and in this way, we can gain the good points of all of them. Infact, all these philosophy of education are complementary and not contradictory. if we take best from all the philosophies to have harmoniousness in nature idealism is fundamental while naturalism and pragmatism are 37 contributory factors in the theory and practice of education.

  1. To establish new ideals and standards, there is a necessity to formulate a holistic philosophy, where all the best means of development of child will take place and narrow feelings, mutual ill wills can be overcome.
  2. RECONSTRUCTIONALISM Introduction When political independence was achieved in India, the people realised that the educational system started by the British was against the nationalism, culture and traditions of the country.

The criticism of the educational system was started even before independence, because it was according to the British policy and not in the interest of India. Its aim was simply to produce clerks who might help in running the British Government. At the same time its aim was to impose English culture, civilization on the Indians.

In this educational system, Indian culture was deliberately neglected. Voice against this system has continuously been raised and it has been criticized persistently. In spite of the criticism, there education continues to run on the old lines. Several committees and commissions have been appointed to reform it, but no meaningful change has been brought so far.

Education in our country is still impracticable and against Indian culture and traditions. Because of the impracticability of Indian education demands for its reform have been raised. Meaning of Reconstruction It may be understood in two forms. First, total change.

  1. Second, desirable change.
  2. Hereby educational reconstruction, we mean both the types of reforms.
  3. The present educational system undoubtedly does not represent Indian culture and traditions.
  4. So it should be changed totally or reformed gradually.
  5. Total change is a difficult task and it requires deep thinking, money and research.

Total change done in haste is harmful and it takes time and energy to bring it on right lines. So the method of bringing desirable reforms is better and convenient. So instead of changing the educational system totally, it should be reformed gradually.

  1. But whether it is a total change or gradual reform, our educational system must be based on Indian culture and traditions and at the same time it should be practicable also.
  2. By reform it is also meant that attitudes of all persons related to education, students teachers, administration etc should begin to change.

Main Elements of Reconstruction

  1. National culture and philosophy of life: In educational reconstruction first of all we shall have to give freedom to our Indian philosophy and culture, the aim of which shall be to acquaint our students with our culture, customs, civilization, literature and history. For an all round development a person should be acquainted with his national culture and philosophy. So we shall have to familiarize our children with our culture and philosophy from very beginning in order. So we shall have to include these elements in our educational reconstruction.
  2. National education: In our education we have to include national education policy means narrow but broader nationalism. Our idea of national education should be so ambitious that it develops our national feelings and promotes our cultural development and all other types of advancement for the prosperity of the nation. This is real national education. The aim of national education should also be a development of mind and personality which may give rise to the feelings of self-control, self-regard, human love and sympathy in man. It should be the main aim of national education to acquaint man with his duties.
  3. Duty of government: Educational reconstruction is a difficult task. For that help and interest of the government is necessary. Education takes the nation to the path of progress. So the Government has a great responsibility in this regard. The Government has to come 38 forward in educational reconstruction and it has to provide money in its budget. After defence, education should be given utmost priority and it should be so organised that people extend their willing, cooperation. The Government has to pay attention on the entire education. Neglect of any respect will be harmful for the country. The Government has to pay equal attention on primary, secondary, higher, technical and vocational education. Only then it will be called as real national education.
  4. Duty of countryman: Along with Government, the countrymen too have some duties in the educational reconstruction because if the citizens are indifferent, Government alone cannot do this work. They will also have to change their outlook and will have to adopt an attitude of respect and honour towards their culture, philosophy, and traditions. The leaders in the field of social, political, and educational activities will have to take the lead and participation in educational reconstruction.

Aims of Education The primary aim of education is an all-round development of personality. It mainly includes physical, mental, moral and spiritual development. Along with it, reasoning, thinking, and intelligence should also be developed. The aims of education is to develop faith in democratic principles.

To inculcate the feelings of social service in the student and create in him the capacity for adoption to environment and earning his living. Emotional integration with the people of other states should also be developed. People should also be taught the skill of utilizing their leisure in constructive activities.

The things have to be paid attention in educational reconstruction. To create the ability to control factional tendencies such as communalism, casteism, regionalism, etc. for national integration. We should rise above narrow-mindedness, understanding and cooperation.

Curriculum The curriculum will be based on the age, capacity, social status, environment and geographical conditions. Free Education Upto a stage, the education should be entirely free and this expenditure should be done by the state. It will be better, if education is free upto secondary stage. It is necessary to adopt democratic principles in curriculum and in the administration of educational institutions.

General, technical, and vocational education should be provided and desirable changes should be made in primary secondary and higher education. Teaching Methods In the teaching methods, the aim should not be only to pass examination but to develop necessary qualities and abilities also; so education should be activity centred.

  1. Teaching should be so organised that the student may become self-reliant.
  2. Discipline Education should be so organized and conducted that the problem of indiscipline may not arise at all, in the educational institution.
  3. For this, qualities like liberalism, tolerance and discretion may be developed in students.

Competent Teachers Education cannot be beneficial in the absence of competent teachers. So proper arrangements for the training of teachers should be made. For this work, necessary changes are needed in the outlook of training institutions. Examination The prevailing examination system is defective, because it does not evaluate the ability of students properly.

  • So such changes are to be made that the ability of students may be evaluate properly.
  • The examination should be based on the work of the entire session.
  • The defects of essay tests may be removed.39 Guardians The cooperation of teachers and guardians is needed in the reconstruction of education because the child passes his time in the company of both.

So the education of guardians is also needed in this regard to fulfill their duties. Healthy Environment The work of educational reconstruction becomes easy if the schools are establishes in healthy environment.
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What is idealism Western school of philosophy?

Existentialism – Existentialism is a school of philosophy 
 that “focuses on the 
importance of the individual rather than on external standards” (Johnson et. al., 2011, p.93). Existentialists believe that our reality is made up of nothing more than our lived experiences, therefore our final realities reside within each of us as individuals.
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What is existentialism Western school of philosophy?

Existentialism | | | Existentialism is a philosophy that emphasizes individual existence, freedom and choice, It is the view that humans define their own meaning in life, and try to make rational decisions despite existing in an irrational universe,

  • It focuses on the question of human existence, and the feeling that there is no purpose or explanation at the core of existence.
  • It holds that, as there is no God or any other transcendent force, the only way to counter this nothingness (and hence to find meaning in life) is by embracing existence.

Thus, Existentialism believes that individuals are entirely free and must take personal responsibility for themselves (although with this responsibility comes angst, a profound anguish or dread). It therefore emphasizes action, freedom and decision as fundamental, and holds that the only way to rise above the essentially absurd condition of humanity (which is characterized by suffering and inevitable death ) is by exercising our personal freedom and choice (a complete rejection of ).

  • Often, as a movement is used to describe those who refuse to belong to any school of thought, repudiating of the adequacy of any body of beliefs or systems, claiming them to be superficial, academic and remote from life.
  • Although it has much in common with, Existentialism is more a reaction against traditional philosophies, such as, and, that seek to discover an ultimate order and universal meaning in metaphysical principles or in the structure of the observed world.

It asserts that people actually make decisions based on what has meaning to them, rather than what is rational, Existentialism originated with the 19th Century philosophers and, although neither used the term in their work. In the 1940s and 1950s, French existentialists such as, Albert Camus (1913 – 1960), and Simone de Beauvoir (1908 – 1986) wrote scholarly and fictional works that popularized existential themes, such as dread, boredom, alienation, the absurd, freedom, commitment and nothingness.

  1. Unlike, who believed in the primacy of consciousness, Existentialists assert that a human being is “thrown into” into a concrete, inveterate universe that cannot be “thought away”, and therefore existence (“being in the world”) precedes consciousness, and is the ultimate reality,
  2. Existence, then, is prior to essence (essence is the meaning that may be ascribed to life), contrary to traditional philosophical views dating back to the ancient Greeks.

As put it: “At first is nothing. Only afterward will he be something, and he himself will have made what he will be.” saw rationality as a mechanism humans use to counter their existential anxiety, their fear of being in the world. saw rationality as a form of “bad faith”, an attempt by the self to impose structure on a fundamentally irrational and random world of phenomena ( “the other” ).

This bad faith hinders us from finding meaning in freedom, and confines us within everyday experience. also stressed that individuals must choose their own way without the aid of universal, objective standards, further contended that the individual must decide which situations are to count as moral situations,

Thus, most Existentialists believe that personal experience and acting on one’s own convictions are essential in arriving at the truth, and that the understanding of a situation by someone involved in that situation is superior to that of a detached, objective observer (similar to the concept of ).

  • According to Camus, when an individual’s longing for order collides with the real world’s lack of order, the result is absurdity,
  • Human beings are therefore subjects in an indifferent, ambiguous and absurd universe, in which meaning is not provided by the natural order, but rather can be created (however provisionally and unstable) by human actions and interpretations,

Existentialism can be, theological (or ) or, Some Existentialists, like, proclaimed that “God is dead” and that the concept of God is obsolete, Others, like, were intensely religious, even if they did not feel able to justify it. The important factor for Existentialists is the freedom of choice to believe or not to believe.

History of Existentialism

Existentialist-type themes appear in early Buddhist and Christian writings (including those of and ). In the 17th Century, suggested that, without a God, life would be meaningless, boring and miserable, much as later Existentialists believed, although, unlike them, saw this as a reason for the existence of a God.

  1. His near-contemporary,, advocated individual autonomy and self-determination, but in the positive pursuit of and rather than in response to an Existentialist experience.
  2. Existentialism in its currently recognizable form was inspired by the 19th Century Danish philosopher, the German philosophers,, Karl Jaspers (1883 – 1969) and, and writers like the Russian Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821 – 1881) and the Czech Franz Kafka (1883 – 1924).

It can be argued that and were also important influences on the development of Existentialism, because the philosophies of and were written in response or in opposition to them. and, like before them, were interested in people’s concealment of the meaninglessness of life and their use of diversion to escape from boredom,

  • However, unlike, they considered the role of making free choices on fundamental values and beliefs to be essential in the attempt to change the nature and identity of the chooser.
  • In ‘s case, this results in the “knight of faith”, who puts complete faith in himself and in God, as described in his 1843 work “Fear and Trembling”,

In ‘s case, the much-maligned “bermensch” (or “Superman” ) attains superiority and transcendence without resorting to the “other-worldliness” of Christianity, in his books “Thus Spake Zarathustra” (1885) and “Beyond Good and Evil” (1887). was an important early philosopher in the movement, particularly his influential 1927 work “Being and Time”, although he himself vehemently denied being an existentialist in the Sartrean sense.

His discussion of ontology is rooted in an analysis of the mode of existence of individual human beings, and his analysis of authenticity and anxiety in modern culture make him very much an Existentialist in the usual modern usage. Existentialism came of age in the mid-20th Century, largely through the scholarly and fictional works of the French existentialists,, Albert Camus (1913 – 1960) and Simone de Beauvoir (1908 – 1986).

Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908 – 1961) is another influential and often overlooked French Existentialist of the period. is perhaps the most well-known, as well as one of the few to have actually accepted being called an “existentialist”. “Being and Nothingness” (1943) is his most important work, and his novels and plays, including “Nausea” (1938) and “No Exit (1944), helped to popularize the movement.

In “The Myth of Sisyphus” (1942), Albert Camus uses the analogy of the Greek myth of Sisyphus (who is condemned for eternity to roll a rock up a hill, only to have it roll to the bottom again each time) to exemplify the pointlessness of existence, but shows that Sisyphus ultimately finds meaning and purpose in his task, simply by continually applying himself to it.

Simone de Beauvoir, an important existentialist who spent much of her life alongside, wrote about and existential ethics in her works, including “The Second Sex” (1949) and “The Ethics of Ambiguity” (1947). Although Sartre is considered by most to be the pre-eminent Existentialist, and by many to be an important and innovative philosopher in his own right, others are much less impressed by his contributions.

Criticisms of Existentialism

ul> Herbert Marcuse (1898 – 1979) has criticized Existentialism, especially ‘s “Being and Nothingness”, for projecting some features of living in a modern oppressive society (features such as anxiety and meaninglessness) onto the nature of existence itself, Roger Scruton (1944 – ) has claimed that both ‘s concept of inauthenticity and ‘s concept of bad faith are both self-inconsistent, in that they deny any universal moral creed, yet speak of these concepts as if everyone is bound to abide by them,, such as and Rudolf Carnap (1891 – 1970), claim that existentialists frequently become confused over the verb “to be” (which is meaningless if used without a predicate) and by the word “nothing” (which is the negation of existence and therefore cannot be assumed to refer to something ).

, especially in post-War France, found Existentialism to run counter to their emphasis on the solidarity of human beings and their theory of economic determinism, They further argued that Existentialism’s emphasis on individual choice leads to contemplation rather than to action, and that only the bourgeoisie has the luxury to make themselves what they are through their choices, so they considered Existentialism to be a bourgeois philosophy,

Christian critics complain that Existentialism portrays humanity in the worst possible light, overlooking the dignity and grace that comes from being made in the image of God, Also, according to Christian critics, Existentialists are unable to account for the moral dimension of human life, and have no basis for an ethical theory if they deny that humans are bound by the commands of God,

On the other hand, some commentators have objected to ‘s continued espousal of Christianity, despite his inability to effectively justify it. In more general terms, the common use of pseudonymous characters in existentialist writing can make it seem like the authors are unwilling to own their insights, and are confusing philosophy with literature,
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What is idealism of Western philosophies?

This article is about the metaphysical perspective in philosophy. For the psychological attitude, see optimism, For the concept in ethics, see Ideal (ethics), In philosophy, the term idealism identifies and describes metaphysical perspectives which assert that reality is indistinguishable and inseparable from perception and understanding ; that reality is a mental construct closely connected to ideas, Idealist perspectives are in two categories: subjective idealism, which proposes that a material object exists only to the extent that a human being perceives the object; and objective idealism, which proposes the existence of an objective consciousness that exists prior to and independently of human consciousness, thus the existence of the object is independent of human perception.

The philosopher George Berkeley said that the essence of an object is to be perceived. By contrast, Immanuel Kant said that idealism “does not concern the existence of things,” but that “our modes of representation” of things such as space and time are not “determinations that belong to things in themselves,” but are essential features of the human mind.

In the philosophy of ” transcendental idealism ” Kant proposes that the objects of experience relied upon their existence in the human mind that perceives the objects, and that the nature of the thing-in-itself is external to human experience, and cannot be conceived without the application of categories, which give structure to the human experience of reality.

Epistemologically, idealism is accompanied by philosophical skepticism about the possibility of knowing the existence of any thing that is independent of the human mind. Ontologically, idealism asserts that the existence of things depends upon the human mind; thus, ontological idealism rejects the perspectives of physicalism and dualism, because neither perspective gives ontological priority to the human mind.

In contrast to materialism, idealism asserts the primacy of consciousness as the origin and prerequisite of phenomena. Idealism holds that consciousness (the mind) is the origin of the material world. Indian and Greek philosophers proposed the earliest arguments that the world of experience is grounded in the mind’s perception of the physical world.

  • Hindu idealism and Greek neoplatonism gave panentheistic arguments for the existence of an all-pervading consciousness as the true nature, as the true grounding of reality.
  • In contrast, the Yogācāra school, which arose within Mahayana Buddhism in India in the 4th century AD, based its “mind-only” idealism to a greater extent on phenomenological analyses of personal experience.

This turn toward the subjective anticipated empiricists such as George Berkeley, who revived idealism in 18th-century Europe by employing skeptical arguments against materialism. Beginning with Kant, German idealists such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, and Arthur Schopenhauer dominated 19th-century philosophy.

  1. This tradition, which emphasized the mental or “ideal” character of all phenomena, gave birth to idealistic and subjectivist schools ranging from British idealism to phenomenalism to existentialism,
  2. Idealism as a philosophy came under heavy attack in the West at the turn of the 20th century.
  3. The most influential critics of both epistemological and ontological idealism were G.E.

Moore and Bertrand Russell, but its critics also included the new realists, According to Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the attacks by Moore and Russell were so influential that even more than 100 years later “any acknowledgment of idealistic tendencies is viewed in the English-speaking world with reservation.” However, many aspects and paradigms of idealism did still have a large influence on subsequent philosophy.

  • Phenomenology, an influential strain of philosophy since the beginning of the 20th century, also draws on the lessons of idealism.
  • In his Being and Time, Martin Heidegger famously states: If the term idealism amounts to the recognition that being can never be explained through beings, but, on the contrary, always is the transcendental in its relation to any beings, then the only right possibility of philosophical problematics lies with idealism.

In that case, Aristotle was no less an idealist than Kant. If idealism means a reduction of all beings to a subject or a consciousness, distinguished by staying undetermined in its own being, and ultimately is characterised negatively as non-thingly, then this idealism is no less methodically naive than the most coarse-grained realism.
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What is Western philosophy of education naturalism?

NATURALISM PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION Naturalism is a philosophy with the belief that nature alone represents the entire reality. There is nothing beyond behind, or other than nature. According to this philosophy, human life is the part of the scheme of nature.

Physical naturalism: It is believed that reality exists in the natural universe not within the individual. Tagore has called nature as a ‘manuscript of God’. Mechanical naturalism: It regards man as a mere machine. There is no spirit or soul. Only matter is everything. Mind is also a matter made up atoms, empty space, and motion. Biological naturalism: It tries to explain man in terms of lower form of life from which he has evolved.

The chief exponent of naturalism are Bacon, Comenius, Herbert Spencer, Huxley, Bernard Shaw, and Rousseau. Naturalism and Education Naturalism is a revolt against traditional system of education, which gives very little freedom to the child. In naturalism, maximum freedom and central position is given to the child.

  1. This philosophy believes that education should be according to the nature of child.
  2. It advocates creation of natural conditions in which natural development of child can take place.
  3. Whenever a system of education becomes stereotype, there is reaction against it in the form of revival of naturalism.
  4. According to Rousseau, there are three sources of education namely, nature, men, and things.

Education from nature is to prepare a natural man. Aim of Education self-realization, self-expression and self-preservation. Curriculum There is no fixed curriculum. Every child is given the right to determine his own curriculum. He is expected to learn directly from nature through personal experiences.

  • Subjects like agriculture, nature study, gardening, art, craft, geology, and astronomy are taught.
  • The subjects are correlated with the physical activities of the child and with the life around him.
  • Methods of Teaching Learning by doing, playway method, observation and experimentation are used, so as to govern self.

According to Rousseau, ‘Students should not be given any verbal lessons rather they should be taught experience alone. Teacher tries to give lots of hand-on training and practical experiences’. Discipline Naturalist gives utmost freedom to the child to do and learn the behavior.

  1. There is no punishment of any kind.
  2. External discipline is not desirable, as it stands in the ways of child development.
  3. Naturalism also believes that formal education is the invention of society, which is created and can be called artificial,
  4. Therefore, rigid man-made discipline must be avoided in the teaching-learning process.

Role of Teacher Teacher is always behind the screen. He is a spectator or an observer. Teacher plays his role behind the scene. He does not interfere in students’ activities. Teacher acts as a facilitator, a setter of the stage, and as a supplier of materials and opportunities.
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