Which Satellite Series Is Used For Education?


Which Satellite Series Is Used For Education
EDUSAT Sep 20, 2004 GSAT-3, known as EDUSAT is meant for distant class room education from school level to higher education. This was the first dedicated “Educational Satellite” that provide the country with satellite based two way communication to class room for delivering educational materials.

Mission Education
Spacecraft Mass 1950.5 kg mass (at Lift – off) 819.4 kg (Dry mass)
Onboard power Total four solar panel of size 2.54 M x 1.525 M generating 2040 W (EOL), two 24 AH NiCd batteries for eclipse support
Stabilization 3 axis body stabilised in orbit using sensors, momentum and reaction wheels, magnetic torquers and eight 10 N & 22N reaction control thrusters.
Propulsion 440 N Liquid Apogee Motor with MON – 3 and MMH for orbit raising

Six upper extended C – band transponders Five lower Ku band transponders with regional beam coverage One lower Ku band National beam transponder with Indian main land coverage Ku beacon 12 C band high power transponders with extended coverage, covering southeast and northwest region apart from Indian main land using 63 W LTWTAs

Launch date September 20, 2004
Launch site SHAR, Sriharikota, India
Launch vehicle GSLV-F01
Orbit Geostationary (74 o E longitude)
Mission Life 7 Years (minimum)

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Which satellite is used in educational?

EDUSAT : An Introduction With the success of the INSAT-based educational services, a need was felt to launch a satellite dedicated for educational service and ISRO conceived the EDUSAT project in October 2002. EDUSAT is the first exclusive satellite for serving the educational sector.
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Which are the satellites sent by India for educational and communicational purposes?

Collect information regarding the satellites sent by India for educational and communicational purposes. Make use of ICT for that. – Geography and Economics India has been successfully launching satellites of many types since 1975. The organization responsible for India’s space program is the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).

COMMUNICATIVE SATELLITES APPLE The Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE), was an experimental communication satellite launched by the Indian Space Research Organization on June 19, 1981, by Ariane, a launch vehicle of the European Space Agency (ESA) from Centre Spatial Guyanais near Kourou in French Guiana.

APPLE was India’s first experimental geostationary communication satellite. It was used in several communication experiments, including relay of TV programmes and radio networking. It went out of service on September 19, 1983. Which Satellite Series Is Used For Education INSAT-1A INSAT-1A was an Indian communications satellite which formed part of the Indian National Satellite System. It was launched in 1982 for a period of seven years. Following a series of failures, the satellite was abandoned in September 1983. It was the first operational multi-purpose communication satellite.

INSAT-1B INSAT-1B was an Indian communications satellite which formed part of the Indian National Satellite System. It was launched in 1983 for seven years. At the end of its seven-year design life, it was replaced by the newly launched INSAT-1D. In 1992, it was relocated before being decommissioned in August 1993.

INSAT-1C INSAT-1C was the third in the first generation INSAT series of satellites built by Ford Aerospace to satisfy the domestic communication requirement of India. The Govt. agencies using its services were All India Radio, Doordarshan, Department of Space and Indian Meteorological Department.

INSAT-1C was launched from Guiana Space Centre in Kourou using Ariane 3 rocket on July 21, 1988. It was planned for a period of seven years, but it achieved only 1 year and 3 months. INSAT-1D INSAT-1D was 4th and the concluding multi-purpose geostationary satellite of INSAT-1 series. It was launched on June 12, 1990.INSAT-1D was a joint venture of the Department of Space, Department of Telecommunications, Indian Meteorological Department and All India Radio.

It was a success and was deactivated on 22 May 2002. GSAT-1 GSAT-1 was an experimental communications satellite launched aboard the maiden flight of the GSLV rocket. It was launched on 18 April 2001. The spacecraft was unable to complete its mission after a launch failure.

HAMSAT HAMSAT also known as HAMSAT INDIA, VU2SAT and VO-52 is a microsatellite providing amateur radio satellite communications services for Indian and international amateur radio operators. It was launched by PSLV-C6 on May 5, 2005, from Sriharikota. It was officially decommissioned after 9 Years and 2 Months but is still semi-operational providing unreliable service due to battery failure.

ANUSAT The Anna University Satellite (ANUSAT) was an Indian student research microsatellite designed, developed and integrated at Aerospace Engineering, Madras Institute of Technology. Students and faculties of Madras Institute of Technology and College of Engineering, Guindy were involved in the design of ANUSAT. Which Satellite Series Is Used For Education SWAYAM Swayam is a pico satellite (CubeSat) developed by the undergraduate students of College of Engineering, Pune under the guidance of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in January 2015. The structural design of the satellite, design of its electronic and control systems as well as the manufacturing of the satellite was carried out by the students.

The project was completed over a span of 8 years. The Satellite was launched by ISRO on 22 June 2016 from Satish Dhawan Space Center, Sriharikota, India. SOUTH ASIA SATELLITE The South Asia Satellite, also known as GSAT-9, is a geostationary communication and meteorology satellite operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation for the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region.

The satellite was launched on the 5th of May 2017. During the 18th SAARC summit held in Nepal in 2014, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi mooted the idea of a satellite serving the needs of SAARC member nations as a part of his neighbourhood first policy.

  • Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka are the users of the multidimensional facilities provided by the satellite.
  • Pakistan declined to participate in the project.
  • The South Asia Satellite provides crucial information on telemedicine, tele-education, banking, and television broadcasting opportunities.

It is also equipped with remote sensing state-of-the-art technology which enables the collection of real-time weather data and helps in observations of the geology of the South Asian nations. These are some of the most important communicative satellites.

  1. Many other satellites apart from this were launched by India for integration in communication.
  2. EDUCATIVE SATELLITES EDUSAT GSAT-3, also known as EDUSAT, was a communications satellite which was launched on 20 September 2004 by the Indian Space Research Organization.
  3. EDUSAT is the first Indian satellite built exclusively to serve the educational sector.

It is mainly intended to meet the demand for an interactive satellite-based distance education system for the country. EDUSAT was successfully launched into from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota. India’s first broadband network on EDUSAT for schools – ViCTERS (Versatile ICT Enabled Resource for Students) was inaugurated by Dr.A.P.J Abdul Kalam, on 28 July 2005 in Thiruvananthapuram.

  1. It has revolutionized classrooms through an interactive IP-based technology called ‘ Project’.
  2. Erala has since demonstrated how EDUSAT could be used to successfully empower teachers.
  3. It was decommissioned in September 2010 and relocated to a graveyard orbit.
  4. Collect information regarding the satellites sent by India for educational and communicational purposes.

Make use of ICT for that. – Geography and Economics
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Is India’s first thematic educational satellite?

Free 80 Questions 80 Marks 50 Mins A satellite is a spacecraft that receives signals from a transmitter on earth and amplifies these signals, changes the carrier frequencies, and then retransmits the amplified signals back to the receivers on earth.

A human-made satellite is an artificial body that is designed by scientists to collect information about the universe. For example, INSAT, EDUSAT, etc.

Key Points

​ GSAT-3 also known as EDUSAT is the first Indian satellite exclusively built for the use of the education sector. It is a communication satellite launched on 20th September 2004 by ISRO. It is India’s first dedicated ‘Educational Satellite’ providing the country with satellite-based two-way communication to classrooms for delivering educational material. With the help of GSAT-3 or EDUSAT, television programs can now be telecast in almost every Indian language and every primary school can be reached through this satellite to improve both the quality and content of primary education. It is meant for providing connectivity to schools and colleges for better education outcomes. Currently, 25 States are covered by the footprint of EDUSAT with more than 55,000 EDUSAT classrooms.

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​Thus, it is concluded that GSAT – 3 was India’s first dedicated ‘Educational Satellite’ providing the country with satellite-based two-way communication to classrooms for delivering educational material. Hint

Kalpana – 1 is the first in the series of exclusive meteorological satellites built by ISRO. It was built to study the weather condition. INSAT-3C satellite built by ISRO, INSAT-3C is the second satellite to be launched in the INSAT-3 series. The first satellite, INSAT-3B, was launched on March 22, 2000. INSAT-3C is expected to augment the present INSAT capacity for communication and broadcasting, besides providing continuity of the services of INSAT-2C when it reaches the end of mission life late this year. SATEDU is an educational satellite used to train and attract a new generation of learners into the world of Science and Technology.

Last updated on Sep 30, 2022 The Delhi Subordinate Services Selection Board (DSSSB) has released the final result and cut-off marks for the DSSSB PRT, The result and marks are released for the post code – 42/21. A total of 434 candidates are finally selected for the post of Assistant Teacher (Primary) in the Directorate of Education.
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What is a 6G satellite used for?

Test satellite launch – External video, YouTube video On November 6, 2020, successfully launched an experimental test satellite with candidates for 6G technology into orbit, along with 12 other satellites, using a, The satellite is intended to “verify the terahertz (THz) communication technology in space”, according to the newspaper.6G network will be developed and will be released by 2030.
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How are satellites useful in education?

EduSat was created primarily for the purposes of providing connectivity to school, college and higher levels of education and also to support non-formal education including developmental communication. The satellite was designed to provide service for seven years.
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Which satellite is used for TV in India?

INSAT has been a major catalyst for the expansion of television coverage in India. Satellite television now covers 100% area and 100% population.s The terrestrial coverage is over 81 percent of the Indian land mass and over 92 percent of the population.

Doordarshan is a major user of INSAT satellites for providing television services over the country. At present, 33 Doordarshan TV channels are operating through C-band transponders of INSAT-3A, INSAT-3C, and INSAT-4B. All of the Satellite TV channels are digitalised. The following satellite television services are being operated by Doordarshan: National networking service (DD-1), DD News (DD-2), DD-Sports, DD-Urdu, DD-India, DD-Bharati and DD-HD Regional services in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, UP, Assam, Maharashtra, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tripura, Odisha, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal), Haryana, Mizoram, Jharkhand, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Islands Around 1415 transmitters of Doordarshan are working through INSAT system to cater to DD-1 network, DD-News network and Regional services.59 Doordarshan and Private TV channels are operational through DTH service (“DD Direct+”).10 channel DTH planned in C-Band for Andaman & Nicobar Islands is operational since September 17, 2009.

DD HD Service has been started on October 03, 2010 with the start of Commonwealth Games 2010. DTH services are becoming popular with the introduction of premium services like HDTV services, On-demand movie services, etc. High power Ku-band transponders are used to support DTH television service with smallest dish antenna all over India.
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What is Saral satellite used for?

The Satellite with ARGOS and ALTIKA (SARAL) is a joint Indo-French satellite mission for oceanographic studies. SARAL performs altimetric measurements designed to study ocean circulation and sea surface elevation. The payloads of SARAL are:

Ka band Altimeter, ALTIKA- built by the French National Space Agency CNES. The payload is intended for oceanographic applications, operates at 35.75 Giga Hertz. ARGOS Data Collection System- built by the French National Space Agency CNES. ARGOS contributes to the development and operational implementation of the global ARGOS Data Collection System. It will collect a variety of data from ocean buoys to transmit the same to the ARGOS Ground Segment for subsequent processing and distribution. Solid State C-band Transponder (SCBT) is from ISRO and intended for ground RADAR calibration. It is a continuation of such support provided by C-Band Transponders flown in the earlier IRS-P3 and IRS-P5 missions.

The payloads of SARAL are accommodated in the Indian Mini Satellite-2 bus, which is built by ISRO. SARAL Applications SARAL data products will be useful for operational as well as research user communities in many fields like

Marine meteorology and sea state forecasting Operational oceanography Seasonal forecasting Climate monitoring Ocean, earth system and climate research Continental ice studies Protection of biodiversity Management and protection of marine ecosystem Environmental monitoring Improvement of maritime security

प्रमोचन भार / Launch Mass: 407 kg मिशन कालावधि / Mission Life : 5 years शक्ति / Power: 906 W प्रमोचक राकेट / Launch Vehicle: PSLV-C20/SARAL उपग्रह का प्रकार / Type of Satellite: Earth Observation निर्माता / Manufacturer: ISRO स्‍वामी / Owner: ISRO अनुप्रयोग / Application: Climate & Environment Earth Observation कक्षा का प्रकार / Orbit Type: SSPO (Sun Synchronous Polar Orbit)

Lift-off Mass 407 kg
Orbit 781 km polar Sun synchronous
Sensors 4 PI sun sensors, magnetometer, star sensors and miniaturised gyro based Inertial Reference Unit
Orbit Inclination 98.538 o
Local Time of Equator 18:00 hours crossing
Power Solar Array generating 906 W and 46.8 Ampere-hour Lithium-ion battery
Onboard data storage 32 Gb
Attitude and Orbit Control 3-axis stabilisation with reaction wheels, Hydrazine Control System based thrusters
Mission Life 5 years
Launch date Feb 25, 2013
Launch site SDSC SHAR Centre, Sriharikota, India
Launch vehicle PSLV – C20

More Details PSLV-C20/SARAL SARAL Gallery Brochure PDF – 7.80 MB
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What are the 5 types of satellites?

Types of Satellites – Satellites can be divided into five principal types: research, communications, weather, navigational, and applications. Research satellites measure fundamental properties of outer space, e.g., magnetic fields, the flux of cosmic rays and micrometeorites, and properties of celestial objects that are difficult or impossible to observe from the earth.

Early research satellites included a series of orbiting observatories designed to study radiation from the sun, light and radio emissions from distant stars, and the earth’s atmosphere. Notable research satellites have included the Hubble Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Infrared Space Observatory, and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (see observatory, orbiting ).

Also contributing to scientific research were the experiments conducted by the astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the space stations launched by the United States ( Skylab ) and the Soviet Union ( Salyut and Mir ); in these stations researchers worked for months at a time on scientific or technical projects.

  • The International Space Station, whose first permanent crew boarded in 2000, continues this work.
  • Communications satellites provide a worldwide linkup of radio, telephone, and television.
  • The first communications satellite was Echo 1 ; launched in 1960, it was a large metallized balloon that reflected radio signals striking it.

This passive mode of operation quickly gave way to the active or repeater mode, in which complex electronic equipment aboard the satellite receives a signal from the earth, amplifies it, and transmits it to another point on the earth. Relay 1 and Telstar 1, both launched in 1962, were the first active communications satellites; Telstar 1 relayed the first live television broadcast across the Atlantic Ocean.

  • However, satellites in the Relay and Telstar program were not in geosynchronous orbits, which is the secret to continuous communications networks.
  • Syncom 3, launched in 1964, was the first stationary earth satellite.
  • It was used to telecast the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo to the United States, the first television program to cross the Pacific Ocean.
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In principle, three geosynchronous satellites located symmetrically in the plane of the earth’s equator can provide complete coverage of the earth’s surface. In practice, many more are used in order to increase the system’s message-handling capacity. The first commercial geosynchronous satellite, Intelsat 1 (better known as Early Bird ), was launched by COMSAT in 1965.

  • A network of 29 Intelsat satellites in geosynchronous orbit now provides instantaneous communications throughout the world.
  • In addition, numerous communications satellites have been orbited by commercial organizations and individual nations for a variety of telecommunications tasks.
  • Weather satellites, or meteorological satellites, provide continuous, up-to-date information about large-scale atmospheric conditions such as cloud cover and temperature profiles.

Tiros 1, the first such satellite, was launched in 1960; it transmitted infrared television pictures of the earth’s cloud cover and was able to detect the development of hurricanes and to chart their paths. The Tiros series was followed by the Nimbus series, which carried six cameras for more detailed scanning, and the Itos series, which was able to transmit night photographs.

Other weather satellites include the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), which send weather data and pictures that cover a section of the United States; China, Japan, India, and the European Space Agency have orbited similar craft. Current weather satellites can transmit visible or infrared photos, focus on a narrow or wide area, and maneuver in space to obtain maximum coverage.

Navigation satellites were developed primarily to satisfy the need for a navigation system that nuclear submarines could use to update their inertial navigation system. This led the U.S. navy to establish the Transit program in 1958; the system was declared operational in 1962 after the launch of Transit 5A.

  • Transit satellites provided a constant signal by which aircraft and ships could determine their positions with great accuracy.
  • In 1967 civilians were able to enjoy the benefits of Transit technology.
  • However, the Transit system had an inherent limitation.
  • The combination of the small number of Transit satellites and their polar orbits meant there were some areas of the globe that were not continuously covered—as a result, the users had to wait until a satellite was properly positioned before they could obtain navigational information.

The limitations of the Transit system spurred the next advance in satellite navigation: the availability of 24-hour worldwide positioning information. The Navigation Satellite for Time and Ranging/Global Positioning Satellite System (Navstar/GPS) consists of 24 satellites approximately 11,000 miles above the surface of the earth in six different orbital planes.

The GPS has several advantages over the Transit system: It provides greater accuracy in a shorter time; users can obtain information 24 hours a day; and users are always in view of at least five satellites, which yields highly accurate location information (a direct readout of position accurate to within a few yards) including altitude.

In addition, because of technological improvements, the GPS system has user equipment that is smaller and less complex. The Soviet Union (now Russia) established a Navstar equivalent system known as the Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS).

The Russian-operated GLONASS uses a similar number of satellites and orbits to those of Navstar. Many of the handheld GPS receivers can also use the GLONASS data if equipped with the proper processing software. Beidou is China’s satellite-based navigation and global positioning system. It began operations is 2011 with 10 satellites, succeeding an experimental system that became operational in 2001, and is planned to utilize 35 satellites when completed in 2020.

The European Union and European Space Agency’s Galileo satellite navigation system began operation in 2016 with 18 satellites and will have 24 in all when fully operational in 2020. Applications satellites are designed to test ways of improving satellite technology itself.

Areas of concern include structure, instrumentation, controls, power supplies, and telemetry for future communications, meteorological, and navigation satellites. Satellites also have been used for a number of military purposes, including infrared sensors that track missile launches; electronic sensors that eavesdrop on classified conversations; and optical and other sensors that aid military surveillance.

Such reconnaissance satellites have subsequently proved to have civilian benefits, such as commercially available satellite photographs showing surface features and structures in great detail, and fire sensing in remote forested areas. The United States has launched a series of Landsat remote-imaging satellites to survey the earth’s resources by means of special television cameras and radiometric scanners.
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What is the full form of EDUSAT satellite?

The full form of EDUSAT is Educational Satellite. These are satellite systems that have been used in India for multiple reasons. In the education sector, EDUSAT used to give knowledge to students.
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Which is the first educational channel in India?

Gyan-Darshan Educational Channel (2000) Ministry of Human Resource Development, Information & Broadcasting, the Prasar Bharti and IGNOU launched Gyan Darshan (GD) jointly on 26th January 2000 as the exclusive Educational TV Channel of India.
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Which was the first satellites of India?

ISRO’s first satellite, Aryabhata, was launched by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1975. Rohini, the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle (the Satellite Launch Vehicle 3), was launched on July 18, 1980.
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Which country launched the first student satellite?

The first student satellite was built by an Indian high school student team and launched by NASA is Kalamsat. The satellite is named after former President and nuclear scientist Dr APJ Abdul Kalam and is called ‘KalamSat’. It was flown into space in a NASA rocket.
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Where is 7G used?

Netherlands – The Netherlands is the second nation that offers fast Internet service after Norway. Although we cannot claim that the network is 7G or 8G, the internet speed is the quickest and ranks second only to Norway. This indicates that if compared to other nations, the network speed offered in that country is higher.
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Which country has 7G network?

Which country has 8G network? – We can say that internet speeds such as 7G or 8G are provided in Norway, Norway’s top telecom service provider ‘Telenor’ increased the speed of personal internet usage in September last year. There are a total of three telecom companies in Norway, including Telenor, which have established their own mobile network.
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What country has 8G?

The 8G is a Soviet-built electric locomotive used in China. It is developed and built by Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant.
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What are the 7 types of satellites?

A satellite is a moon, planet or machine that orbits a planet or star. For example, Earth is a satellite because it orbits the sun. Likewise, the moon is a satellite because it orbits Earth. Usually, the word satellite refers to a machine that is launched into space and moves around Earth or another body in space.

There are so many types of satellites like: Communication Satellites, Earth Observation Satellites, Navigation satellites, scientific Exploration satellites, experimental satellites, small satellites etc launched by ISRO. A satellite is a moon, planet or machine that orbits a planet or star. For example, Earth is a satellite because it orbits the sun.

Likewise, the moon is a satellite because it orbits Earth. Usually, the word “satellite” refers to a machine that is launched into space and moves around Earth or another body in space. There are so many types of satellites like: Communication Satellites, Earth Observation Satellites, Navigation satellites, scientific & Exploration satellites, experimental satellites, small satellites etc.

  • Launched by ISRO.A.
  • Communication Satellites: The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in Asia-Pacific region with nine operational communication satellites placed in Geo-stationary orbit.
  • Established in 1983 with commissioning of INSAT-1B, it initiated a major revolution in India’s communications sector and sustained the same later.

Currently operational communication satellites are INSAT-3A, INSAT-3C, INSAT-3E, INSAT-4A, INSAT-4B, INSAT-4CR, GSAT-8, GSAT-10 and GSAT-12. The system with a total of 195 transponders in the C, Extended C and Ku-bands provides services to telecommunications, television broadcasting, satellite news gathering, societal applications, weather forecasting, disaster warning and Search and Rescue operations.

Launch Date Launch Mass Power Launch Vehicle
GSAT-15 Nov 11, 2015 3164 kg Solar array providing 6200 Watts and Three 100 AH Lithium-Ion batteries N/A
GSAT-6 Aug 27, 2015 2117 kg Generated power 3100 W N/A
GSAT-16 Dec 07, 2014 3181.6 kg Solar array providing 6000 Watts and two 180 AH Lithium lon batteries Ariane-5 VA-221
GSAT-14 Jan 05, 2014 1982 kg 2600 W GSLV-D5
GSAT-7 Aug 30, 2013 2650 kg 3,000 W Ariane-5 VA-215
INSAT-3D Jul 26, 2013 2060 Kg 1164 W Ariane-5 VA-214
GSAT-10 Sep 29, 2012 3400 kg 6474 Watts Ariane-5 VA-209
GSAT-12 Jul 15, 2011 1410 kg 1430 Watts PSLV-C17
GSAT-12 Jul 15, 2011 1410 kg 1430 Watts PSLV-C17
GSAT_8 May 21, 2011 3093 kg 6242 Watt Ariane-5 VA-202
GSAT-5P Dec 25, 2010 2310 kg N/A GSLV-F06
GSAT-4 Apr 15, 2010 2220 Kg N/A GSLV-D3
INSAT-4CR Sep 02, 2007 2,130 kg 3000 W GSLV-F04
INSAT-4B Mar 12, 2007 3025 Kg 5859 W Ariane5
INSAT-1B Aug 30, 1983 N/A Shuttle
INSAT-1A Apr 10, 1982 N/A Delta
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B. Earth Observation Satellites: Starting with IRS-1A in 1988, ISRO has launched many operational remote sensing satellites. Today, India has one of the largest constellations of remote sensing satellites in operation. Currently, eleven operational satellites are in orbit – RESOURCESAT-1 and 2, CARTOSAT-1, 2, 2A, 2B, RISAT-1 and 2, OCEANSAT-2, Megha-Tropiques and SARAL.

  • Varieties of instruments have been flown onboard these satellites to provide necessary data in a diversified spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions to cater to different user requirements in the country and for global usage.
  • The data from these satellites are used for several applications covering agriculture, water resources, urban planning, rural development, mineral prospecting, environment, forestry, ocean resources and disaster management.

List of Earth Observation Satellites

Name of Satellites Launch Date Launch Mass Power Launch Vehicle
SARAL Feb 25, 2013 407 kg 906 W PSLV-C20
RISAT-1 Apr 26, 2012 1858 kg 2200 W PSLV-C19
Megha-Tropiques Oct 12, 2011 1000 kg 1325 W PSLV-C18
RESOURCESAT-2 Apr 20, 2011 1206 kg 1250 W PSLV-C16
CARTOSAT – 2B Jul 12, 2010 694 kg 930 W PSLV-C15
Oceansat-2 Sep 23, 2009 960 kg 1360W PSLV-C14
RISAT-2 Apr 20, 2009 300 kg PSLV-C12
Bhaskara-II Nov 20, 1981 444 kg 47 W C-1 Inter-cosmos
RS-D1 May 31, 1981 38 kg 16 W SLV-3
Bhaskara-I Jun 07, 1979 442 kg 47 W C-1Intercosmos

C. Experimental Satellites: ISRO has launched many small satellites mainly for the experimental purposes. This experiment includes Remote Sensing, Atmospheric Studies, Payload Development, Orbit Controls, recovery technology etc.

Launch Date Launch Mass Power Launch Vehicle Orbit Type
SRE – 1 Jan 10, 2007 550 kg
Apple Jun 19, 1981 670 kg 210 Ariane -1(V-3)
RS-1 Jul 18, 1980 35 kg 16 Watts
RTP Aug 10, 1979 35 kg
Aryabhatta Apr 19, 1975 360 kg 46 atts

D. Navigation Satellite: To meet the Civil Aviation requirements, ISRO is working jointly with Airport Authority of India (AAI) in establishing the GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) system. To meet the user requirements of the positioning, navigation and timing services based on the indigenous system, ISRO is establishing a regional satellite navigation system called Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).

(i) GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN): This is a Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) implemented jointly with Airport Authority of India (AAI). The main objectives of GAGAN are to provide Satellite-based Navigation services with accuracy and integrity required for civil aviation applications and to provide better Air Traffic Management over Indian Airspace.

The system will be interoperable with other international SBAS systems and provide seamless navigation across regional boundaries. The GAGAN Signal-In-Space (SIS) is available through GSAT-8 and GSAT-10. (ii) Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS): This is an independent Indian Satellite based positioning system for critical National applications.

Standard Positioning Service (SPS) Restricted Service (RS)

List of Navigation Satellites:

Launch Date Launch Mass Power Launch Vehicle
IRNSS-1E Jan 20, 2016 PSLV-C31/IRNSS-1E
IRNSS 1D Mar 28, 2015 PSLV-C27
IRNSS 1C Nov 10, 2014
IRNSS-1B Apr 04, 2014 1432 kg 1660 W PSLV-C24
IRNSS-1A Jul 01, 2013 1425 kg 1660 W PSLV-C22

E. Scientific & Exploration: Indian space programme encompasses research in areas like astronomy, astrophysics, planetary and earth sciences, atmospheric sciences and theoretical physics. Balloons, sounding rockets, space platforms and ground-based facilities support these research efforts.

Launch Date Launch Mass Power Launch Vehicle
Mars Orbiter Mission Spacecraft Nov 05, 2013 1337 kg 840 W PSLV-C25
Chandrayaan-1 Oct 22, 2008 1380 kg 700 W PSLV-C11
SRE-1 Jan 10, 2007 550 kg PSLV-C7
SROSS-C2 May 04, 1994 115 kg 45 W Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV)
SROSS-C May 20, 1992 106.1 kg 45 W Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV)
SROSS-1 Mar 24, 1987 150 kg 90 W Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV)

Image source: www.isro.gov.in
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What are 2 types of satellites?

There are two different types of satellites – natural and man-made. Examples of natural satellites are the Earth and Moon. The Earth rotates around the Sun and the Moon rotates around the Earth. A man-made satellite is a machine that is launched into space and orbits around a body in space.
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How does satellite help in education?

EduSat was created primarily for the purposes of providing connectivity to school, college and higher levels of education and also to support non-formal education including developmental communication. The satellite was designed to provide service for seven years.
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How is VSAT used in education?

It covers the entire spectrum of interactive distance learning from Synchronous to Asynchronous, Classroom to Desktop PC based solutions and high quality video over IP networks. VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) is a satellite communications system that serves educational institutions and business users.
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What is MEO satellites used for?

Advantages and disadvantages – LEO and GEO/GSO are the two extremes when it comes to altitude. LEO satellites are much smaller and their orbits are much closer to earth, so the rockets needed to launch them are also smaller and cheaper. The downside with LEO satellites is that many are needed to cover any specific geographical area.

LEO satellites orbit the Earth many times per day, so as each satellite flies over the coverage area, another one must follow behind it, ready to take over the communication once the first satellite has passed the area. This also adds to the network complexity as many ground stations are needed to communicate with all these satellites and they also need to use different frequencies to avoid interfering with each other’s communication.

Compare this with a GEO satellite, which is parked in the sky above the area that needs coverage and it will stay there. While GEO satellites are bigger and more expensive to deploy, the network operator can gradually add to their coverage as their business grows.

So why does a company like Globalstar use LEO satellites? LEO is well suited for connecting mobile devices. With a GEO satellite, the antenna needs to be pointed to the satellite. This works great for a TV antenna fixed to a building, but it’s impractical for a satellite phone that you carry in your pocket.

All GEO satellites are in orbit above the equator, so as you move towards higher latitudes in places like Canada or Europe, the angle of the antenna gets smaller and smaller. Having to receive a signal from an angle makes the transmission susceptible to interference from obstacles like tall buildings or mountains. In fact, GEO satellites only cover about 42% of the Earth’s surface. Globalstar’s LEO devices can typically see and communicate with multiple satellites at the same time, from multiple angles, making the communication more robust. For applications requiring global mobile communication, like disaster relief or maritime operations, LEO is the technology of choice.

Lower altitude means a signal takes much less time to travel to the satellite, resulting in a low latency. This is useful for real-time communication such as making voice calls. If you’ve ever tried to speak to someone over a bad VOIP connection, then you know how frustrating a long delay can be. You may be thinking, well what about MEO satellites? Wouldn’t that be a happy medium between LEO and GEO? Like LEO, MEO satellites also require a constellation of satellites to provide geographic coverage.

MEO satellites are commonly used for positioning information like GPS, GLONASS and Galileo. GPS satellites have an altitude of about 22000km, which gives an orbital period of 12 hours. If you compare that to Globalstar’s altitude of 1414km you can see that you’ll need much more fuel to propel a satellite that far.
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