Which Is The First Step Of Education Process?
Summary – The first part of the education process is to set goals or objectives for what you want to achieve in the class. In general, you want the students to understand the information, are able to use or apply it, and retain what they have learned.
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What are the steps of education?
For the stages of educational knowledge expected of students at various ages in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Gibraltar, see Key Stage, Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education,
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Which one is the component of educational process?
INTRODUCTION: Over recent years the study of the curriculum has assumed importance in all fields of education. The school curriculum of a country reflects the traditions, philosophy, values and principles of the country and people. Curriculum planning and development has itself become a specialized area of education.
- A well planned and administered curriculum contributes to the development of the country and its people.
- The term ‘curriculum’ is derived from the latin word ” curre ” which means ‘run’.
- Thus curriculum means running race or course or ‘runaway’ for reaching a certain goal or destination as in a course of study1.
Pedagogically curriculum means the course of the studies to be pursued by the students or the content of education to be imparted through the organization of its entire work5. DEFINTION: In the words of Cunningham, “curriculum is in the hands of the artist (teacher) to mould his material (pupils) according to his ideals (aims and objectives) in his studio (school).
- The secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) states that the “curriculum includes all the totality of experiences that a pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school, in the class room, library, laboratory, workshop, playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and students” 1,5,
- Peynes ‘ definition of curriculum is that “curriculum consists of all the situations that the school may select and consciously organize for the purpose of developing the personality of its pupils and for making behaviour changes in them” 1,
- CONCEPTS OF CURRICULUM:
The traditional concept of the curriculum represented the mastery over subjects, certain type of knowledge and skills, as the main objective of the educational programme. The teacher emphasized mastery over subject matter by the students according to a strict syllabus planned by the administrative system of the school.
- Passing of examination was the goal.
- The stress is on intellectual development, rather than on development of values 1,
- The need of learner was not taken into consideration in planning the curriculum.
- This type of curriculum is static and not adaptable to individual needs.
- THE NEWER CONCEPTS OF CURRICULUM: According to the newer concepts of curriculum, education is a dynamic process, by which the learner is guided and helped to live in the present world making necessary adaptations, solving problems of life and being creative in planning and building one’s own future.
Education should include the various experiences the learner has in the school, outside the school, in the community and society in which one lives. In other words, the modern curriculum is learner cantered and not subject cantered. It is flexible according to changes in the environment 1,
- CRITIERIA OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT:
- Bhatia explains the ABC of curriculum as Articulation, Balance and Continuity.
Refers to correlation between subjects. Articulation in the organization of curriculum present mainly three problems. First is the interdisciplinary problems, Teaching of various subjects like anatomy, physiology, psychology etc. are done by different teachers, at different times of the day and each subjects is dealt as though they have no relationships with each other.
Correlation necessitates cooperative planning and material help and understanding among teachers. Another area of poor articulation is in terms of theory and practice application. The student should be able to see that what is learned in theory classes have direct relationship with practical situations.
The inter relationship between the subjects, like anatomy and physiology applied to daily problems of living must be understood by the learners.
- A third articulation lies in the nature of the relationship between the school and the life outside the school community.
- Refers to the relation between the class room experience and learning experience outside the class or extracurricular activities like craft, arts or NCC.
- There should be proper balance between direct and indirect experiences, theory and practice, individual and social aims, subjects taught and time allotted and between core subjects and electives.
The balanced curriculum will be a broad field curriculum containing humanities, social sciences and natural sciences organized into “core” and “periphery” subjects or general and special areas giving freedom for learners to choose according to their interest.
Balance is the one which will help the students to meet all the needs of individuals – physical, intellectual, social, aesthetic, emotional and spiritual. Continuity: This refers to the vertical relation of the major elements of curriculum. The learners moves from one stage to the other, from one class to the other.
Learning must be a continuous process 2,
- SOURCES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT:
It is central to curriculum development with rapid expansion of knowledge resulting from new research findings in various discipline, The curriculum has to be changed as often as necessary to learn new ways and means of learning and students must know how to select and apply knowledge in the practical aspects and keep up-to-date with the necessary information.
LEARNERS: The first and the most important aspect to be considered in any curriculum is the human aspect of the curriculum in which the needs and capacities of individual pupils are recognized. Learners vary in their culture, intellectual capacities, needs and interest. SCIENCE: Every day new discoveries and inventories are bombarding the society.
Use of television, satellite and information network facilitate learning. Research findings and changes in practice areas especially in professional course content and skills to be learnt. SOCIETY: The cultural heritage values and ideals of society influence the objectives of education.
- The socio economic background, the employment opportunities and the consumer’s need for services affect the curriculum and type of education provided.
- The major goal of education in the present world is the need for employment.
- The consumer demand for services are to be taken into consideration in preparing students for life activities especially in the job oriented, vocational and professional curricula.
EXTERNAL FORCES AND DIVINE : The policy makers, government, universities, institutions of higher education, professional colleges and statutory bodies are the external forces and outside agencies which influence curriculum planning 1, 3, CURRICULAM PLANNING: Planning of curriculum is the responsibility of the faculty of a college.
- All the curricula of particular education which are prescribed by the statutory body may be the university in the state.
- In case of professional education the minimum required standard and experiences are prescribed by the concerned councils of the profession.
- Advancement of knowledge in various disciplines, research findings, changes in traditional customs, increasing availability of resources, all have effect on education, teaching and learning method.
What is learned today becomes redundant in future. Therefore modification of curriculum is essential if the programme offered by the school is to keep pace with the changing society. Research in curriculum planning and implementation is much needed.
- The conceptual model by Heidgerken depicts how the objectives of education are achieved through the educational process and the various dimensions of the process leading to desired outcome.5
- THE COMPONENTS OF EDUCATIVE PROCESS
- Figure 1: The components of education process
The components of the educative process are the learners, teacher and the subject matter. The subject matter is what is to be learned, the way it is to be learned and the setting in which is to be learned. Four dimensions in the educative process identified by Heidgerken (1965) are; 1.
- The substantive dimensions (the curriculum) what is taught and what is learned.2.
- The procedural dimensions.
- It is the way and method.
- It also includes the teachers and learners motivation leading to self-learning.3.
- The environmental dimension it is the physical and social factors in which teaching and learning take place.
It includes all the learning environment like college, community and clinical laboratory.4. The human relation dimension It includes the interaction with various people in the environment, teachers, other students and administrative staff; all the individuals who play some role in the learning process 5,1,
- BASIC CURRICULUM MODEL
- Curriculum Planning:
- The total curriculum plan should include, the overall objectives, objectives for each course units, lessons, type of learning experiences to provided methods of teaching, duration of each course and plan for evaluation.
- Curriculum planning is a complex process involving many groups of people; like faculty, community leaders, subjects experts, consumers, students, employers of the prospective graduates, educationalist and psychologist 6,
- The curium planned in various stages, planning of curriculum as a whole, planning of various courses and units and lessons for each area.
- Discipline :
- All academic activities, curricular and extra-curricular, which are planned, includes staff and other students rules and decisions, routines as well as physical environment like building etc and social environment like community and public opinion all constitute curriculum.
- Broad fields:
Curriculum is prepared by organizing subjects around new unifying centers, and bringing together subjects from different related subjects and grouping them under a new theme. Field selected for curriculum are humanities, social sciences and natural sciences.
Correlation process: It is an attempt to overcome the defects of the separate subject curriculum. With the aim to relate the various subjects so that each can better reinforce and complement the other.b. Learner centred design: Child centred : Teaching must be that organization of subject matter into units of projects which would create opportunities for self-activity on the parts of the students.
These should largerly replace the formal lesson. Experience centred : True learning is experiencing. It based on the needs and interests of learner is the surest means of effective learning. Experience means trying out. It describes what has been seen, felt, thought or done in a situation.c.
Problem centred design: Life situation : Programme has the students. Findings common interest and working together of students bring about growth in life related skills. There is flexibility in the content and instructional methods and variety of resources such as newspaper, journals, libraries, excursion, and audio- video tapes.
Social problems: Development of social organization and moral development. Most of the fights and unhappy social situations which arise in the primary school is the result of lack of development of the social domain. Education should aim at development of social consciousness, character development of citizenship, ability to adopt to society and to be socially productive and of value to others 3,
- Phases of Curriculum Development:
- There are four phases such as:
- 1. Planning phase
- 2. Development phase
- 3. Implementation phase
- 4. Evaluation phase
- Planning phase:
In this phase, there will be a involvement of administrators, faculty and students in the curriculum. Review the curriculum by a committee to identify areas that need to be changed. The objectives, learning experiences provided, teaching and learning activities need to be studied. To arrange for orientation programmes for the staff to prepare them for change and to overcome resistances.
- Development phase:
- Prior to constructing a curriculum, we should consider certain factors 7, They are:
- Factor relating to learners :
- Religion and culture
- Employment opportunities
- Social civic and economic aspects
- Psychological aspects and so on.
- Factors related to the teachers:
- Educational qualification
- Level of preparation
- Employment opportunities
- Social civic and economic aspects
- Psychological aspects,
- Factors related to the subjects:
- Subject content
- Hours for theory and practical’s
- Learning experiences
- Audio visual aids
- Method of teaching
- Factors related to the environment:
- Physical environment
- Needs of the society
- National aspiration and needs
- Culture and changes in values
- Problems of the society
- Social changes
- Technological changes
- Economical changes
- Political changes
- Manpower need
- Factors related to the Resources available:
- Financial resources
- Human resources
- Material resources
- Government regulation and policies.6
- Implementation phase:
Once the curriculum plan has been finalized, the course modification steps have to be taken. Implemented by formulating objectives, course content, learning methods, teaching approaches and evaluation procedures. Behaviour changes expected in the students, with the implementation of the change have to be clearly stated.
New teaching method also may have to be accepted according to the change. Evaluation phase: It must be used to monitor the progress of the students learning to determine the extent to which the objectives have been achieved and to find ways of improving teaching learning methods. This will give feed back to the planners and should be used to further improvement of curriculum.1 REFERENCES: 1 DR.
Aleyamma Kurian George, Principles of Curriculum Development and Evaluation, Published by Vivekananda Achagam, 2004.
- 2 Bhatia and Bhatia, Theory and Principles of Education, Douba Book House, Delhi 2000.
- 3 Saffaya, Mathur et al, Development of Educational Theory and Practice, Dhanpat Rai and Sons Delhi, 1982.
- 4 Tyler, Ralph, Basic Principles of Curriculum Construction, Chicago Press, 1949.
5 Heidgerkin, Lorreta, Teaching and Learning in Schools of Nursing Principles And Methods., J.B Lippincot, New York, 2002.
- 6 Neeraja KP, Textbook of Nursing Education, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, 2009.
- 7 Taba, Hilda, Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice, New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1962.
- 8 Aggarval JC, Theory and Principles of Education, VIKAS Publishing House, New Delhi.
What is primary stage of education?
Elementary education, also called primary education, the first stage traditionally found in formal education, beginning at about age 5 to 7 and ending at about age 11 to 13.
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What is the final step in the education process?
What are the Important Steps of Teaching Process? Steps of Teaching Process Teaching is a very complex process, under which certain specific steps are being taken by the teacher. Mentions of some important steps in brief are as follows i. In the beginning, proper planning of teaching is done by the teacher, in which content is being analysed properly, objectives and established and identified.
These functions are conducted in proper written form. ii. Then comes the process of organising the teaching process, by which teaching strategies designed for achieving the objectives of teaching are being highlighted and come into light. iii. After this, communication strategies are being identified in relation to teacher and learners.
iv. In the fourth and last step, teaching function is being controlled and managed properly. During this process, focus is being placed on the assessment of learning objectives in terms of performance of students and it is this assessment that forms the feedback to teacher and the learners.
- As known that in schools and educational institutions, various subjects are being included in the curriculum to get over-all development of the students.
- Different courses can be designated, but it is important to keep in mind that they are in reality, an expression of some underlying philosophy which have general nature.
For intelligent teaching, it is necessary for the teacher to have some specific philosophical background. Although various important and significant courses can be introduced in the school or institution and qualified personnel can be appointed their teacher, but such persons will fail to accomplish the task successfully unless they do not know how to represent the facts and information in front of students in effective manner.
- Thus, it can be said in other words that methods employed in the presentation of content of the subjects or course are of much significance to the success and failure of the course or subject.
- There are various methods which are being employed by teachers to perform their function.
- From various studies, it has been found that while making use of same or similar kind of teaching method, two teachers can get different levels of success in their fields.
Thus, it can be said that all the teaching methods cannot be employed without taking into consideration the situation or condition prevalent at time of teaching. Various factors enter into all good teaching for one to be able to classify them under a given method.
Ind of personality teacher possesses, manner in which he approaches towards the students and means of motivation employed by him are some of the important factors which determine the level of success and failure of different teaching methods to considerable extent. To achieve the set objectives of teaching, teachers try to plan and arrange for all suitable learning experiences.
This is done in the form of curriculum. Through the analysis of experience, a teacher thinks in advance of the time the methods by which he will provide the desired learning experiences to the students. Although the main function of a teacher is to provide students with different information’s of subject, but this function cannot be performed by him without probing into the mind of the learners.
It is a complex process in which a teacher interprets the world of knowledge to the student’s mind. This complex function is done through the way of teaching, which is generally called Method of Teaching. There are various factors with which process of teaching a particular content and process has to remain compatible.
Nature of science, existing classroom conditions and objectives are instances of such factors. As various subjects are taught to the students in educational institutions and their nature differ to considerable extent, because of which various methods of varying nature are devised and used by the teachers.
- There are various teaching methods which are used in the present day in various parts of the nation, while some of them have become obsolete and has been discarded by teachers.
- The main reason that why some of the methods are being used for teaching purpose is that such methods provide something to a capable teacher.
The methods which are employed by teachers for science teaching are varied. It is important for teachers to make use of effective and most desirable method. Before making use of any teaching method, it is very important for the teacher to have thorough knowledge of that method.
It is not possible for a teacher to have complete information regarding all the methods which are used by teachers in different parts of the world, but information regarding some of the important methods should be gathered by him. It is only after understanding the method, advantages and limitations by its use that he should take this crucial decision as to which method to employ in his classroom.
In this chapter, some of the methods employed to teach science in different parts of the world have been discussed, but before doing it, it is necessary to first throw some light on the kind of methods which are being employed at present time in our nation for science teaching.
Various commissions have been set up by the Indian government to analyse the situation of science teaching in the nation. It has been concluded from various studies that science teaching is in pathetic condition in our nation and one of the main reason of this sorry state of this important and complex subject is use of improper methods of teaching.
At present, in our nation, the methods which are being employed for science teaching have been divided into two categories by the experts, which are: a. Teacher-Centred Methods, and b. Students’ Centred Methods. Following methods are included in the Teacher- Centred Methods:
Lecture Method, Lecture-Demonstration Method, and Historical Method.
In Student’s Centred Methods, following methods are being included:
Project Method, Heuristic Method, Problem Solving Method, Laboratory Method, Discussion Method, Inductive-Deductive Method.
The main reason that why science teachers in our nation prove to be failure in achieving set objectives is not that the methods employed by them are ineffective and inappropriate, but the fact that they do not possess significant information regarding these methods.
Teachers are not informed about the proper meaning and other aspects of the methods, as a result of which they fail to judge out the conditions in which one method can be used successfully. In lack of such kind of knowledge, generally they employed wrong teaching method in their classes and at last they realise the fact that inspite of making use of all the available materials, they could not accomplish the set objectives as a result of using inappropriate kind of teaching method.
It is with this intention to provide such kind of important information to the teachers that in this chapter, all the teaching methods employed to impart science have been discussed. Not only this, light have been thrown on the merits and demerits accruing from their use.
- Methods have not been put under any categories in the chapter, as author is of the view that it is not possible to categories these methods in water tight compartments as one method which can prove be successful in one situation can become a failure in another situation.
- However, with information provided in the present chapter, teachers will find themselves in better position while selecting the t caching method which will prove to be more effective and useful for them.
As said earlier that a teacher’s choice of teaching method got affected by various factors, but while doing this function, it is very necessary for him to keep in mind the aims and objectives of science teaching. Although this topic has been dealt in length in the preceding chapters, but here some light has been thrown on it by which teachers cannot make any kind of mistake in judging the usefulness of different methods.
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Why process is important in education?
In education, process as important as final product When I took piano lessons many decades ago, I had a teacher whose favorite back to school advice was the well-worn adage, “Practice makes perfect.” My mother repeated that same phrase, and each evening after dinner, she would set the kitchen timer to 30 minutes and send me off to practice scales, chords and my recital pieces.
- Somewhere along the way, repeated practice and learning through process became replaced by today’s “benchmark standards” to measure excellence.
- Never mind the importance of practice, the final product — be it an “A” on a paper or a standing ovation on opening night — became more important than the process of creating the product.
We need a return to the lost art of process in education. There is substantial research quantifying the success of arts students across many academic subjects. The arts require daily practice. The process of rehearsal in dance, theater, vocal and instrumental music requires discipline.
An experienced colleague of mine who taught visual arts for decades assigned grades not only on the finished works of art in her students’ portfolios, but also on the daily process of caring for the tools necessary in creating art. For decades as an English teacher, I assessed student research papers based on process as well as product.
- Students received independent grades for crafting a well-written thesis, notes taken along the way, an outline demonstrating a strategic plan and their first draft.
- By the time the final paper was submitted, it was almost anticlimactic.
- The arts and humanities are not the only subjects to benefit from process-based assessments and strategies.
I will never forget the algebra teacher who refused to mark a problem correct unless we “showed our work.” He told us to circle our final answer, but without the sequential steps showing the process by which we arrived at each answer, we could forget the idea of receiving a 100 on our weekly Friday algebra tests.
(Imagine requiring such sequential logic in today’s world of politics: You can’t vote for a candidate until you show the critical thinking process by which you made your final decision.) Before the acronym STEM existed, science teachers often began their curriculum with a lesson on scientific method.
I have not performed a biology lab assignment since high school, but I still understand the importance in any project of developing a hypothesis, using appropriate materials with care and thrift, strategic methods, mindful observation and evidence-based conclusions. Perhaps our goal-oriented young people today need our reassurance as they determine the educational process most successful for them. I could never have learned how to drive a car without the patient side-by-side instruction of my driver’s ed teacher, supplemented by my father’s willingness to allow me to practice using the family car.
My own kids mastered the “times tables” in 2nd grade arithmetic by repeating them with my husband. An insightful assistant principal once commented during exam week at my school, some students have no concept of what the process of studying even looks like. She suggested we teachers consider demonstrating to the students the physical components and characteristics in the process of effective studying.
She often did just that in her office, inviting students to sit down with her to “study how to study.” Process prepares learners far beyond classroom walls. As we reflect on those transformative moments that give life meaning, the journey is more than a destination.
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Is learning a step by step process?
In summary, learning is a step-by-step process in which an individual experiences permanent, lasting changes in knowledge, behaviors, or ways of processing the world.
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What is secondary stage of education?
Secondary education, the second stage traditionally found in formal education, beginning about age 11 to 13 and ending usually at age 15 to 18. The dichotomy between elementary education and secondary education has gradually become less marked, not only in curricula but also in organization.
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