Which Indian School Of Thought Considers All Knowledge As Relative?


Which Indian School Of Thought Considers All Knowledge As Relative
Which Indian school of thought considers all knowledge as re Free 10 Questions 20 Marks 12 Mins All schools of Indian philosophy recognize various sets of valid justifications for knowledge or pramana and many see the Vedas as providing access to truth.

School of thought Explanation

In epistemology, the Buddha seeks a middle way between the extremes of dogmatism and skepticism, emphasizing personal experience, a pragmatic attitude, and the use of critical thinking toward all types of knowledge. The Buddha’s epistemology has been compared to empiricism, in the sense that it was based on the experience of the world through the senses. The Buddha taught that empirical observation through the six sense fields ( ayatanas ) was the proper way of verifying any knowledge claims.


Pramāṇa ( Sanskrit : प्रमाण ) literally means “proof”, “that which is the means of valid knowledge ” It refers to epistemology in Indian philosophies and encompasses the study of reliable and valid means by which human beings gain accurate, true knowledge, The focus of Pramana is the manner in which correct knowledge can be acquired, how one knows or does not know, and to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired Ancient and medieval Indian texts identify six pramanas as correct means of accurate knowledge and truths:

Pratyakṣa (perception) Anumāṇa (inference) Upamāṇa ( comparison and analogy) Arthāpatti (postulation, a derivation from circumstances) Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) Śabda (scriptural testimony/ verbal testimony of past or present reliable experts).


Jainism made its own unique contribution to this mainstream development of philosophy by occupying itself with the basic epistemological issues. According to Jains, knowledge is the essence of the soul. This knowledge is masked by the karmic particles, As the soul obtains knowledge through various means, it does not generate anything new. It only shreds off the knowledge-obscuring karmic particles. According to Jainism, consciousness is a primary attribute of Jīva (soul) and this consciousness manifests itself as darsana (perception) and jnana (knowledge ). According to the Jain text, Tattvartha sutra, knowledge ( Jnana ) is of five kinds:

Sensory knowledge Scriptural knowledge Clairvoyance (Avadhi Jnana) Telepathy (manahparyaya jnana) Omniscience (Kevala Jnana)


The core idea of Islamic knowledge evolves from the concept of Divine Law or absolute knowledge as obtained through faith from the Quran, Avicenna ‘ s most influential theory in epistemology is his theory of knowledge, in which he developed the concept of tabula rasa, He argued that the “human intellect at birth is rather like a tabula rasa, a pure potentiality that is actualized through education and comes to know” and that knowledge is attained through ” empirical familiarity with objects in this world from which one abstracts universal concepts ” which is developed through a ” syllogistic method of reasoning ; observations lead to propositional statements, which when compounded lead to further abstract concepts.”

Conclusion: According to Buddhism whatever we perceive through our senses is true knowledge, Vedanta t alks about pramana, and Islam tells that whatever is mentioned in the Quran is true knowledge. While Jainism tells that the true essence of knowledge is the soul itself.
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In which school of Indian philosophy memory is not considered as relevant source of knowledge?

Nyaya, (Sanskrit: “Rule” or “Method”) one of the six systems ( darshan s) of Indian philosophy, important for its analysis of logic and epistemology, The major contribution of the Nyaya system is its working out in profound detail the means of knowledge known as inference ( see anumana ). Which Indian School Of Thought Considers All Knowledge As Relative More From Britannica Indian philosophy: Nyaya-Vaisheshika In its metaphysics, Nyaya is allied to the Vaisheshika system, and the two schools were often combined from about the 10th century. Its principal text is the Nyaya-sutra s, ascribed to Gautama ( c.2nd century bce ).

  • The Nyaya system—from Gautama through his important early commentator Vatsyayana ( c.450 ce ) until Udayanacharya (Udayana; 10th century)—became qualified as the Old Nyaya (Prachina-Nyaya) in the 11th century when a new school of Nyaya ( Navya-Nyaya, or “New Nyaya”) arose in Bengal.
  • The best-known philosopher of the Navya-Nyaya, and the founder of the modern school of Indian logic, was Gangesha (13th century).

The Nyaya school holds that there are four valid means of knowledge: perception ( pratyaksha ), inference ( anumana ), comparison ( upamana ), and sound, or testimony ( shabda ). Invalid knowledge involves memory, doubt, error, and hypothetical argument.

  • The Nyaya theory of causation defines a cause as an unconditional and invariable antecedent of an effect.
  • In its emphasis on sequence—an effect does not preexist in its cause—the Nyaya theory is at variance with the Samkhya – Yoga and Vedantist views, but it is not unlike modern Western inductive logic in this respect.

Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now Three kinds of causes are distinguished: inherent or material cause (the substance out of which an effect is produced), non-inherent cause (which helps in the production of a cause), and efficient cause (the power that helps the material cause produce the effect).
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What is the Indian theory of knowledge?

The Indian epistemological tradition comprises six important sources of knowledge. They are: perception (pratyaksa), inference (anumana), verbal testimony (Sabda), comparison (upamana), presupposition (arthapatti) and non- apprehension (anupalabdhi).
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What is real knowledge according to Indian culture?

The most important means of knowledge are sense perception (pratyakṣa ), inference (anumāna ), and verbal communication (śabda ), under which sacred writings such as the Vedas or the teaching of the Buddha are subsumed.
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What is the difference between heterodox and orthodox schools of Indian philosophy?

The Basic difference between the two branches of Indian Philosophy schools is said to be based on the recognition of the Vedas. Orthodox or Āstika schools recognize the authority of the Vedas while Heterodox or Nāstika schools don’t believe in the authority of the Vedas.
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Which school of Indian philosophy accepts only one source of knowledge?

Correct answer is Charvaka. Charvaka’s school of Hinduism holds that only one (perception) is a reliable source of knowledge. Charvaka school is an orthodox school of Indian philosophy and is also known as Lokayata. Brishpati is known as the founder of Charvaka school.
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Which school of philosophy says Vedas are eternal and possess all knowledge?

Orthodox Schools of Indian Philosophy – Orthodox (astika) schools, originally called sanatana dharma, are collectively referred to as Hinduism in modern times. The ancient Vedas are their source and scriptural authority. Hinduism consists of six systems of philosophy & theology.

Samkhya (Kapila): Samkhya is the oldest of the orthodox philosophical systems, and it postulates that everything in reality stems from purusha (self, soul or mind) and prakriti (matter, creative agency, energy).

Purush cannot be modified or changed while prakriti brings change in all objects.

Yoga (Patanjali): Yoga literally means the union of two principal entities. Yogic techniques control body, mind & sense organs, thus considered as a means of achieving freedom or mukti.

This freedom could be attained by practising self-control (yama), observation of rules (niyama), fixed postures (asana), breath control (pranayama), choosing an object (pratyahara) and fixing the mind (dharna), concentrating on the chosen object (dhyana) and complete dissolution of self, merging the mind and the object (Samadhi). Yoga admits the existence of God as a teacher and guide.

Nyaya (Gautama Muni): Nyaya Philosophy states that nothing is acceptable unless it is in accordance with reason and experience (scientific approach). Nyaya is considered as a technique of logical thinking.

Nyaya Sutras say that there are four means of attaining valid knowledge: perception, inference, comparison, and verbal testimony.

Vaisheshika (Kanada): The basis of the school’s philosophy is that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms and Brahman is regarded as the fundamental force that causes consciousness in these atoms.

Vaisheshika system is considered as the realistic and objective philosophy of universe. The reality according to this philosophy has many bases or categories which are substance, attribute, action, genus, distinct quality and inherence. Vaisheshika thinkers believe that all objects of the universe are composed of five elements–earth, water, air, fire and ether. They believe that God is the guiding principle. The living beings were rewarded or punished according to the law of karma, based on actions of merit and demerit. The Vaisheshika and Nyaya schools eventually merged because of their closely related metaphysical theories (Vaisheshika only accepted perception and inference as sources of valid knowledge).

Purva Mimamsa (Jaimini): This philosophy encompasses the Nyaya-vaisheshika systems and emphasises the concept of valid knowledge. According to Purva Mimamsa, Vedas are eternal and possess all knowledge.

According to Mimamsa philosophy Vedas are eternal and possess all knowledge, and religion means the fulfilment of duties prescribed by the Vedas. It says that the essence of the Vedas is dharma. By the execution of dharma one earns merit which leads one to heaven after death.

Vedanta: The Vedanta, or Uttara Mimamsa, school concentrates on the philosophical teachings of the Upanishads (mystic or spiritual contemplations within the Vedas), rather than the Brahmanas (instructions for ritual and sacrifice). The school separated into six sub-schools, each interpreting the texts in its own way and producing its own series of sub-commentaries:

Advaita (Adi Shankara): It states that both the individual self (Atman) and Brahman are the same, and knowing this difference causes liberation. Visishtadvaita (Ramanuja): It believes that all diversity is subsumed to a unified whole. Dvaita (Madhvacharya): It considers Brahman and Atman as two different entities, and Bhakti as the route to eternal salvation. Dvaitadvaita (Nimbarka): It states that the Brahman is the highest reality, the controller of all. Shuddhadvaita (Vallabhacharya): It states that both God and the individual self are the same, and not different. Achintya Bheda Abheda (Chaitanya Mahaprabhu): It emphasizes that the individual self (Jīvatman) is both different and not different from Brahman.

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What is the Buddhist view of knowledge?

Buddhist epistemologists examine knowledge in terms of a knowledge-event or act of knowing (pramiti ). Their account rests on the claim that the mind consists of a series of causally related, instantaneous mental moments, each of which is ontologically irreducible.
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What is epistemology in Indian philosophy?

Theory of knowledge, pramāṇa-śāstra, is a rich genre of Sanskrit literature, spanning almost twenty centuries, carried out in texts belonging to distinct schools of philosophy. Debate across school occurs especially on epistemological issues, but no author writes on knowledge independently of the sort of metaphysical commitment that defines the various classical systems ( darśana ), realist and idealist, dualist and monist, theist and atheist, and so on.

  • And every one of the dozen or so major schools from early in its history takes a position on knowledge and justification, if only, as with the Buddhist skeptic (Prasaṅgika), to attack the theories of others.
  • There are nevertheless many common epistemological assumptions or attitudes, the most striking of which is a focus on a belief’s source in questions of justification.

Mainstream classical Indian epistemology is dominated by theories about pedigree, i.e., views about knowledge-generating processes, called pramāṇa, “knowledge sources.” The principal candidates are perception, inference, and testimony. Other processes seem not truth-conducive or reducible to one or more of the widely accepted sources such as perception and inference.

However, surprising candidates such as non-perception (for knowledge of absences) and presumption (defended as distinct from inference) provoke complex arguments especially in the later texts—from about 1000 when the number of Sanskrit philosophical works of some of the schools begins to proliferate almost exponentially.

The later texts present more intricate views and arguments than the earlier from which the later authors learned. Classical Indian philosophy is an unbroken tradition of reflection expressed in the pan-Subcontinent intellectual language of Sanskrit. Or, we should say it is comprised of interlocking tradition s since there are the distinct schools, all nevertheless using Sanskrit and engaging with other schools.

  1. Later authors expand and carry forward positions and arguments of their predecessors.
  2. Skepticism and the issue of whether knowledge that p entails that you know that you know that p are addressed as well as the question of the usefulness of knowledge not only for the purposes of everyday life but also the religious goal of world-transcendence, about which most schools take positions.

The authority of testimony, among candidate sources, is considered by some to have special religious importance. Others view yogic perception and/or meditative experience as crucial for religious knowledge, which is usually distinguished from the everyday knowledge analyzed in the textbooks of epistemology.
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What is the Buddhist concept of knowledge?

Buddhism is essentially a teaching about liberation – from suffering, ignorance, selfishness and continued rebirth. Knowledge of ‘the way things really are’ is thought by many Buddhists to be vital in bringing about this emancipation. This book is a philosophical study of the notion of liberating knowledge as it occurs in a range of Buddhist sources.

  1. Buddhism, Knowledge and Liberation assesses the common Buddhist idea that knowledge of the three characteristics of existence (impermanence, not-self and suffering) is the key to liberation.
  2. It argues that this claim must be seen in the context of the Buddhist path and training as a whole.
  3. Detailed attention is also given to anti-realist, sceptical and mystical strands within the Buddhist tradition, all of which make distinctive claims about liberating knowledge and the nature of reality.

David Burton seeks to uncover various problematic assumptions which underpin the Buddhist worldview. Sensitive to the wide diversity of philosophical perspectives and interpretations that Buddhism has engendered, this book makes a serious contribution to critical and philosophically aware engagement with Buddhist thought.

Written in an accessible style, it will be of value to those interested in Buddhist Studies and broader issues in comparative philosophy and religion. Contents: Preface; First thoughts on knowledge and liberation; Impermanence, not-self and suffering; Thorough knowledge versus deficient understanding; Moral knowledge and the Buddhist path; Buddhist anti-realism; Buddhist scepticism; Mysticism and ineffability; Compassion, faith and human fallibility; Bibliography; Index.

‘This erudite volume is a welcome addition to the philosophical literature on Buddhism. Burton writes as a philosopher, reconstructing arguments with care, and subjecting them to judicious, critical scrutiny. This exemplary engagement with the Buddhist tradition is grounded in sound textual scholarship.
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What are the two types of knowledge according to Vedic philosophy?

Free OCT 1: Teaching Aptitude (Concepts of Teaching) – Beginner Level 10 Questions 20 Marks 12 Mins There are two categories of knowledge, declares the Rishi of Mundaka Upanishad – knowledge of the world and knowledge of the inner world, material knowledge (apara vidya), and spiritual knowledge (para vidya). Para vidya :

Para Vidya is one of two types of knowledge in Hindu philosophy and refers to higher or spiritual knowledge. The term comes from the Sanskrit para, meaning “the highest point,” and vidya, meaning “knowledge,” “clarity” or “learning.” Para vidya is spiritual realization, which is knowledge of the Self, Brahman, or the Absolute. In Hinduism and yogic philosophy, the goal is to obtain para vidya, which removes the veils of ignorance and frees the yogi from the recurring cycle of life, death, and reincarnation. Para Vidya means – higher learning or learning related to the Self or the Ultimate Truth i.e. transcendental knowledge, Para Vidya is defined as the intuitive vision of non-duality; it is the transcendental knowledge that is beyond all limits of knowledge, experience, and reason, which is, beyond intellect, mind, and sense. Para Vidya is the intuitive level of vidya that stems from unity, and manifests as a vision, manifests as an experience.

Thus, option 2 is the correct answer. Apara Vidya : The lower knowledge is of the intellect and the senses and comprises all empirical and objective knowledge. It is, therefore, limited to the finite world. Empirical knowledge presupposes a knower, the thing known, and the act of knowing. Ace your Indian Logic preparations for Means of Knowledge with us and master Logical Reasoning for your exams. Learn today!
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What is the epistemology of Hinduism?

Epistemology – Main article: is called, It has been a key, much debated field of study in Hinduism since ancient times. Pramāṇa is a Hindu theory of knowledge and discusses the valid means by which human beings can gain accurate knowledge. The focus of pramāṇa is how correct knowledge can be acquired, how one knows, how one does not, and to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired.

  1. Pratyakṣa – Direct perception
  2. Anumāṇa – Inference or indirect perception
  3. Upamāṇa – Comparison and analogy
  4. Arthāpatti – Postulation, derivation from circumstances
  5. Anupalabdi – Non-perception, absence of proof
  6. Shabda – Word, testimony of past or present reliable experts

Each of these are further categorized in terms of conditionality, completeness, confidence and possibility of error, by the different schools. The schools vary on how many of these six are valid paths of knowledge. For example, the nāstika philosophy holds that only one (perception) is an epistemically reliable means of knowledge, the school holds that three are (perception, inference and testimony), while the Mīmāṃsā and Advaita schools hold that all six are epistemically useful and reliable means to knowledge.
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What does Hinduism say about knowledge?

Many a times I have been called a “wise guy”. But seldom has anyone referred to me as a “wise person”. Joking aside, let me explore wisdom in this article, as explained in Hindu philosophy. Which Indian School Of Thought Considers All Knowledge As Relative Many a times I have been called a “wise guy”. But seldom has anyone referred to me as a “wise person”. Joking aside, let me explore wisdom in this article, as explained in Hindu philosophy. Hindu scriptures describe different paths to ” Moksha ” or salvation.

Of these, the path of ” J ÑANA ” is likely to be misinterpreted or misunderstood most often. The misunderstanding can arise from either interpreting ” J ÑANA ” as simply knowledge of the physical world (acquired by learning the sciences or mathematics), or as expertise in philosophical thought (of any origin or school).

Alas, the short Sanskrit word ” J ÑANA ” is indeed not easy to translate, and even more difficult to comprehend. The Hindu scriptures called Upanishads describe two types of knowledge – the “lower” knowledge, which is the understanding of the phenomenal world, and the “higher” or spiritual knowledge, which is knowledge of the “Supreme Self” ( atman ) beyond duality.

  1. The Upanishads encourage us to acquire both types of knowledge.
  2. The lower knowledge includes the sciences, mathematics, and even an understanding of philosophy.
  3. It also includes knowledge of righteous actions (” dharma “) and unrighteous actions (” adharma “).
  4. The higher knowledge is attained when the understanding of the “Supreme Self”, which is the experience of being one with the Supreme Being or ” Brahman “, pervades one’s mind and consciousness at every moment – whether waking, asleep or dreaming.

Wisdom arises naturally as one climbs the ladder of higher knowledge, and it keeps growing. The “lower knowledge”, or its acquisition is not to be disregarded. Indeed, the process of acquiring it not only helps us develop an understanding of Nature in which we are immersed, but helps us acquire the discipline necessary to acquire the “higher knowledge”, as illustrated by the chant in the Upanishads which says: ” May Brahman protect us both – the teacher and the student; may Brahman nourish us both; may we both acquire energy by this education; may we not hate each other (and not hate any other being in the universe),” Education nourishes inspiration, self confidence, and mental maturity, amongst other attributes, of the student, and paves the path towards enlightenment.

As the prayer in the Vedas says: ” Lead us from (mental and spiritual) darkness to illumination ” – that is the true purpose of education. Being one with the Supreme Being is being one with the creation, and everything and everyone in it. The Hindu scripture Bhagavad Gita says: “Those who possess this wisdom have equal regard for all.

They see the same Self in a spiritual aspirant and an outcaste, in an elephant, a cow, and a dog.” Lack of wisdom creates an unfathomable chasm between us, creates an unsurmountable wall between us. What are the contributing factors to wisdom ? The Upanishads describe many of these factors, and Hindu mythologies illustrate them through stories.

Some of these factors are: controlling the senses, the refinement of speech, discipline of the mind, channeling of the will, the exercising of consideration, engaging in meditation and reflection, developing and constantly refining understanding. Keeping hope and faith, being steadfast. and inculcating many other such attributes enables us to move towards wisdom and mental as well as spiritual maturity.

All these, learned and assimilated from childhood, prevents us from becoming what the enlightened Swami Vivekananda once characterized as ” moustached babies ” Wisdom diverts us away from a singular focus on “me, myself and I”, to understanding our transience through this life, to understanding true bliss (and differentiating it from temporary happiness), to not be discouraged by short-term problems, difficult circumstances or even devastating experiences. Which Indian School Of Thought Considers All Knowledge As Relative Suresh Basrur practises the Hindu faith, participates in inter-faith activities in Victoria, and speaks to audiences about Hindu religion, philosophy and practices. You can read more articles on our interfaith blog, Spiritually Speaking, HERE * This article was published in the print edition of the Times Colonist on Saturday, November 17th 2018 Photo of path by John Salzarulo on Unsplash
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What is the Vedanta school of thought?

Six Orthodox Schools of Hindu Philosophy – The six orthodox schools are called as shatdarshanas and include Nyaya, Sankhya, Yoga, Vaisheshika, Purva Mimamsa and Uttara Mimamsa (Vedanta Philosophy). Most of these schools of thought believe in the theory of Karma and rebirth.

Moksha (salvation) is believed to be the liberation from the cycle of birth and death and is the ultimate goal of human life. Nyaya school follows a scientific and a rational approach. Sage Gautama is the founder of this school. Nyaya school banks upon various pramanas (mechanism of attaining knowledge).

It believes that gaining knowledge through the five senses is the sole way of attaining liberation from the cycle of birth and death. Sankhya is the oldest of all philosophies put forth by the sage Kapila. It is a dualistic philosophy with Purusha (soul) and Prakriti (nature) in it.

Advaita Vedanta derives its base from Sankhya School. Sankhya also devolves philosophical basis for Yoga. It emphasizes the attainment of knowledge of self through meditation and concentration. Yoga school introduces the methods of the discipline of body and mind. Sage Patanjali is the founder of Yoga. Emancipation of Purusha from Prakriti by self-awareness through the discipline of body and mind is conceptualized by Yoga.

It is believed that practising Ashtanga Yoga is the way to relieve oneself from past sins in order to make way for liberation. Vaisheshika school deals with metaphysics. It was founded by the sage Kanada. It is an objective and realistic philosophy of the Universe.

  • According to the Vaisheshika school of philosophy, the universe is reducible to a finite number of atoms, Brahman being the fundamental force causing consciousness in these atoms.
  • Purva Mimamsa school believes in the complete authority of Vedas.
  • It is based on sage Jaimini’s Mimamsa Sutras.
  • It emphasizes the power of yajnas and mantras in sustaining the activities of the universe.

It states that a human being can attain salvation only by acting in conformity with the principles of Vedas. Vedanta school is a monistic school of philosophy that believes that the world is unreal and the only reality is Brahman. The three sub-branches of Vedanta are Advaita of Shankaracharya, Vishishta Advaita of Ramanujacharya and Dvaita of Madhwacharya.
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What is the Samkhya school of philosophy?

Samkhya Philosophy or Sankhya Philosophy In India, philosophy originated as an exploration of the mystery of life and existence. Indian Philosophy refers to a number of philosophical traditions that arose on the Indian subcontinent. have evolved to embody India’s intellectual quest for truth throughout the ages, these are Vaishesika, Nyaya, Samkhya, Yoga, Purva Mimansa, and Vedanta or Uttara Mimansa,

Almost all Indian schools of thought recognized the principle of karma and reincarnation, and the goal of moksha is viewed as an escape from the cycle of births and deaths. Moksha/liberation is regarded as the greatest aim of human effort. Samkhya is the oldest of the orthodox philosophical schools, and it holds that everything, in reality, is derived from Purusha (self, soul, or intellect) and Prakriti (matter, creative agency, energy).

In this article, we will go through the aspects of Samkhya School in-depth, which would be useful for UPSC aspirants, preparing for the exam.
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Which Indian schools of philosophy are heterodox?

What are Indian philosophy’s heterodox schools? – Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mms, and Vedanta are the six primary schools of Vedic philosophy, whereas Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajana, and Charvaka are the five major heterodox (shamanic) schools.

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    What is the difference between heterodox and orthodox?

    The concepts of orthodoxy and heterodoxy are found within all the major religious traditions, expressed by a variety of terms. In relation to religious life, orthodoxy means correct or sound belief according to an authoritative norm; heterodoxy refers to belief in a doctrine differing from the norm.
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    What is the school of Mimamsa philosophy?

    This article is about an ancient school of Hindu philosophy. For annual Science quiz competition, see Mimamsa-IISER, Mīmāṁsā ( Sanskrit : मीमांसा ) is a Sanskrit word that means “reflection” or “critical investigation” and thus refers to a tradition of contemplation which reflected on the meanings of certain Vedic texts.

    This tradition is also known as Pūrva-Mīmāṁsā because of its focus on the earlier ( pūrva ) Vedic texts dealing with ritual actions, and similarly as Karma-Mīmāṁsā due to its focus on ritual action ( karma ). It is one of six Vedic “affirming” ( āstika ) schools of Hinduism, This particular school is known for its philosophical theories on the nature of dharma, based on hermeneutics of the Vedas, especially the Brāḥmanas and Saṃhitas,

    The Mīmāṃsā school was foundational and influential for the vedāntic schools, which were also known as Uttara-Mīmāṁsā for their focus on the “later” ( uttara ) portions of the Vedas, the Upaniṣads, While both “earlier” and “later” Mīmāṃsā investigate the aim of human action, they do so with different attitudes towards the necessity of ritual praxis.

    Mīmāṁsā has several sub-schools, each defined by its epistemology, The Prabhākara sub-school, which takes its name from the seventh-century philosopher Prabhākara, described the five epistemically reliable means to gaining knowledge: pratyakṣa or perception; anumāna or inference; upamāṇa, by comparison and analogy; arthāpatti, the use of postulation and derivation from circumstances; and śabda, the word or testimony of past or present reliable experts.

    The Bhāṭṭa sub-school, from philosopher Kumārila Bhaṭṭa, added a sixth means to its canon; anupalabdhi meant non-perception, or proof by the absence of cognition (e.g., the lack of gunpowder on a suspect’s hand) The school of Mīmāṃsā consists of both atheistic and theistic doctrines, but the school showed little interest in systematic examination of the existence of Gods.

    • Rather, it held that the soul is an eternal, omnipresent, inherently active spiritual essence, and focused on the epistemology and metaphysics of dharma,
    • For the Mīmāṃsā school, dharma meant rituals and social duties, not devas, or gods, because gods existed only in name.
    • The Mīmāṃsakas also held that Vedas are “eternal, author-less, infallible”, that Vedic vidhi, or injunctions and mantras in rituals are prescriptive kārya or actions, and the rituals are of primary importance and merit.

    They considered the Upaniṣads and other texts related to self-knowledge and spirituality as subsidiary, a philosophical view that Vedānta disagreed with. While their deep analysis of language and linguistics influenced other schools of Hinduism, their views were not shared by others.

    Mīmāṃsakas considered the purpose and power of language was to clearly prescribe the proper, correct and right. In contrast, Vedāntins extended the scope and value of language as a tool to also describe, develop and derive, Mīmāṁsakās considered orderly, law driven, procedural life as central purpose and noblest necessity of dharma and society, and divine (theistic) sustenance means to that end.

    The Mīmāṁsā school is a form of philosophical realism, A key text of the Mīmāṁsā school is the Mīmāṁsā Sūtra of Jaimini,
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    What is the difference between Advaita Vedanta and Dvaita Vedanta?

    What is the difference between Advaita and Dvaita? Advaita Vedanta states that the soul is identical with god. Dvaita states that the soul is separate from god, yet that the soul is created by god.
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    What is the difference between Vedanta and Advaita?

    Advaita is one of the two oldest of the schools of Vedanta, having been formed around the eighth century. What distinguishes Advaita from other forms of Vedanta is the belief that the Self or Soul (Atman) is identical to Brahman. Knowledge of this oneness of Atman and Brahman is full awareness.
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    What is the only reality according to Advaita Vedanta school?

    Brahman – According to Advaita Vedānta, Brahman is the true Self, consciousness, awareness, and the only Reality ( Sat ). Brahman is Paramarthika Satyam, “Absolute Truth” or absolute Real. It is That which is unborn and unchanging, and immortal. Other than Brahman, everything else, including the universe, material objects and individuals, are ever-changing and therefore maya,

    Brahman is “not sublatable”, which means it cannot be superseded by a still higher reality: the true Self, pure consciousness the only Reality ( sat ), since It is untinged by difference, the mark of ignorance, and since It is the one thing that is not sublatable”. In Advaita, Brahman is the substrate and cause of all changes.

    Brahman is considered to be the material cause and the efficient cause of all that exists. The Brahma Sutras I.1.2 state that Brahman is:,that from which the origination, subsistence, and dissolution of this universe proceed. Advaita’s Upanishadic roots state Brahman’s qualities to be Sat-cit-ānanda, “true being-consciousness-bliss,” or “Eternal Bliss Consciousness”.
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    What is invalid knowledge in Indian philosophy?

    Knowledge is a quality of the self which has the nature of manifestation. Knowledge manifests an object physically or mentally. The genus of knowledge inheres in it. It has already been stated that valid knowledge is that which apprehends an object in its real nature.

    • Invalid knowledge is that which apprehends an object as different from it.
    • There are divergences of views regarding the forms of invalid knowledge.
    • The Nyāya system includes doubt ( saṃśaya ) as well as error ( viparyaya ) and hypothetical reasoning ( tarka ) under apramā or invalid knowledge.
    • According to the Vaiśeṣika system, invalid knowledge is of four kinds, viz., doubt ( saṃśaya ), error ( viparyaya ), indefinite perception ( anadhyavasāya ) and dream ( svapna ).

    According to Kumārila, there are three kinds of invalid knowledge, viz.; error or illusion ( mithyājñānam ), non-cognition or ignorance ( ajñāna ) and doubt ( saṃśaya ). Sucaritamiśra, a commentator of Kumārila, mentions illusion, doubt, remembrance and samvāda as the types of invalid knowledge.
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    Why is memory not valid knowledge for Mimansa?

    This School was founded by Jaimini who was the author of ‘Mimansa sutra’, It deals with the initial part of the Veda (which concerns on human action, their rituals and the sacrifices) and is therefore called as Purva-Mimansa (PM). Me taphysics – PM is a pluralistic realistic philosophy but it is not empirical as it accepts extra-sensory entities as being real.

        It must not arise from defective causes. It must be free from contradiction i.e. it must be self-consistent and should not be contradicted by subsequent knowledge. It provides the experience of an object which has not experienced earlier. It must represent the object.

    Once these conditions are satisfied, our cognition of an object will be treated as valid. While considering these conditions, memory can’t be regarded as valid knowledge because it arises from the impression of a prior cognition which contradicts the third condition of valid knowledge. SOURCES OF VALID KNOWLEDGE

        Perception – It results from the contact between the object and the sense- organs, Whatever is perceived by our senses must be true because in perception, the objects are directly known through our sense-organs. For instance, by seeing and touching a table one can acquire the knowledge of that table. Inf e r e n ce – Herein, an object is inferred to be present in a particular case because it has been invariably perceived to be present in all such similar cases. Thus the cognition of an object is based on our prior knowledge of it. For example, we see smoke in a distant hill and infer that there must be fire in the hill. Comparison – It is determined by comparing it from other similar kinds of objects. For example, Suppose You have not seen a wild cow but a forester told you that a wild cow is like a country cow but she is more furious and has big horn in her forehead. Once you come across a wild cow and recognizes it by comparing the descriptions made by the forester. Verbal Testimony – Testimony is a reliable statement uttered by a trust worthy person similar to Nyaya Philosophy.(Refer) Postulation – It is the knowledge which r esolves the conflict between two facts, It entails a presupposition which solves the problem that occurred between two facts. For example, Vinay is a fat man by fasting in the day. In this proposition we find two facts – Vinay is a fat human being alive and he is not eating in day time. In order to resolve this conflict, i.e. how a person will be fat and not eating anything in day time, we postulate the existence of third fact, i.e. he must be eating in the night. Non-apprehension – It is the immediate knowledge of the non-existence of an object, Here, one does not perceive the book directly through his sense organs but the knowledge of non-existence of the book on the table arises because of the non-perception of the perceivable object.

    Validity of Knowledge – For example, if I have to see a thing then my eye should be free of defect, otherwise, I cannot see the thing clearly. Hence, the condition that generates valid knowledge should be free of defect and also beyond doubt, This is known as the theory of intrinsic validity which means that truth is self-evident and not verified by any other conditions.

    The validity of any knowledge is evident only in the conditions that generate that knowledge. T HEORY OF ERROR – Truth is self evident and error is recognized by inference. For example, when we mistake a rope to be a snake we are afraid of the rope as long as we think it to be a snake. Only when we realize that it is not a snake and that it is a rope, we come out of that fear.

    Thus, knowledge of rope as a snake is an error due to inference. T HEORY OF REALITY – It is based on their theory of perception, and the theory of intrinsic validity of knowledge enables us to understand the reality of objects. For Mimamsaks, u niverse is real and is independent of the mind which perceives it.

    Thus, the world is neither created nor destroyed. They also seem to believe in souls, heaven, hell, deities to whom sacrifice is to be performed. Th e ory of Causation – It is explained through ‘ theory of energy’ – There are potent energies found in the cause which produces a particular effect and that has been observed or known by us.

    If the potent energy is absent, no effect would be observed. For instance, if we fry a seed and sown in the soil, it won’t sprout out. The reason is the potent energy of the seed is consumed in the process of burning it. Vedas – Vedas are eternal and are not of human origin,

    Vedas are free from errors which would not be a characteristic of human creation. The sole purpose of the Vedas is to enjoin one to perform rituals to discharge one’s duty which leads to desirable goals such as attainment of heaven etc. Gods – There are many eternal Vedic nature gods. However, these deities do not exist in space and time.

    They do not even give boons and benefits for the sacrificial offerings given to them. The deities cannot be on par or superior to the Vedas. Re li g i on – PM is perhaps the first truly religious Darshana. PM is all about action with emphasis on faithful observance of Vedic rituals.

    1. Although sacrifices were offered to the deities but the faith in the deities seems lacking.
    2. NATURE OF SELF – There are innumerable selves exist in the world.
    3. Souls are of two sorts – liberated soul and living soul (individuals of the earth).
    4. This implies every living being possesses a distinct soul which is an eternal and imperishable substance.

    When a living being dies, soul won’t die with it but continues to live to reap the fruits of its deeds. L I BERATION – Self moves in the cycle of birth and death because of its action and attachment towards worldly pleasures, The state of liberation can be attained only when the self gets emancipation from the bondages of mind, body, sense organs and objects of the world.

    In the state of liberation, the self cannot enjoy the experience of pleasure and pain because it is devoid of consciousness. Thus, l iberation is not a state of bliss but a state where the self achieves its real nature and dissociated from worldly pleasure and pain. A theism – The traditional conception of Mimamsa is atheistic.

    The Mimamsakas argue that if a creator (God) is accepted then he is liable to the charges of cruelty, partiality etc. Therefore, they deny any such creator-God. Unlike other Darshanas, PM appears to be much more about faith than about inquiry, An abiding faith in the Vedas and an equally strong commitment to discharging the duties commanded by the Vedas is the core of PM.
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    What is the source of knowledge in Jain philosophy?

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Stella depicting complete knowledge Jainism made its own unique contribution to this mainstream development of philosophy by occupying itself with the basic epistemological issues. According to Jains, knowledge is the essence of the soul. This knowledge is masked by the karmic particles.
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    Which of the following is not an Indian school of philosophy?

    The Indian Philosophy is a combination of orthodox or heterodox philosophy which is guided either by the recognition of Vedas or don’t believe in the authority of Vedas. In this article, we are giving 10 GK Questions and Answers on the Heterodox School of Indian Philosophy, which is very useful for the competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

    The Indian Philosophy is a combination of orthodox or heterodox philosophy which is guided either by the recognition of Vedas or don’t believe in the authority of Vedas. There are six orthodox schools (Astika) and five heterodox (Nastika) schools. Out of these, eight are atheistic as there is no place for God in them.

    Only Uttara Mimansa, which is also called Vedanta, has a place for God in it.1. Which of the following is not school of Heterodox Indian Philosophy? A. Vaisheshika B. Ajivika (Fatalism) C. Unchedvadi (Materialism) D. Nityavadi (Eternalism) Ans: A Explanation: The Schools of Indian Philosophy that do not accept the authority of Vedas are by definition unorthodox (nastika) systems.

    1. Vaisheshika school of Indian Philosophy is orthodox school Indian Philosophy.
    2. Hence, A is the correct option.2.
    3. Who among the following was the proponent of Ajivika (Fatalism) school of Indian Philosophy? A.
    4. Ajita Kesakambali B.
    5. Makkhali Gosala C.
    6. Pakudha Kaccayana D.
    7. Sanjaya Belatthiputta Ans: B Explanation: Ajivika (Fatalism) is one of the heterodox (Nastik) schools of Indian Philosophy.

    Makkhali Gosala was the proponent of this philosophy. Hence, B is the correct option.3. Which of the following Indian philosopher who was the first disciple of Vardhaman Mahavira? A. Ajita Kesakambali B. Makkhali Gosala C. Pakudha Kaccayana D. Sanjaya Belatthiputta Ans: B Explanation: Makkhali Gosala was the proponent of Ajivika (Fatalism) philosophy.

    He was the first disciple of Vardhaman Mahavira. Hence, B is the correct option. GK Quiz on Gandhara, Mathura and Amravati School of Arts 4. Who among the following considered as the first known proponent of Indian materialism? A. Purana Kassapa B. Sanjaya Belatthiputta C. Pakudha Kaccayana D. Ajita Kesakambali Ans: D Explanation: Ajita Kesakambali was an ancient Indian philosopher in the 6th century BC and considered as the first known proponent of Indian materialism.

    Hence, D is the correct option.5. Who among the following was the proponent of agnosticism in Indian Philosophy? A. Purana Kassapa B. Sanjaya Belatthiputta C. Pakudha Kaccayana D. Ajita Kesakambali Ans: B Explanation: Sanjaya Belatthiputta was the proponent of agnosticism in Indian Philosophy.

    1. Hence, B is the correct option.6.
    2. Which of the following movement gave rise to the diverse range of heterodox beliefs? A.
    3. Bhakti Movement B.
    4. Sufi Movement C.
    5. Sramana movement D.
    6. All of the above Ans: C Explanation: The Sramana movement gave rise to the diverse range of heterodox beliefs, ranging from accepting or denying the concept of soul, atomism, antinomian ethics, materialism, atheism, agnosticism, fatalism to free will, idealization of extreme asceticism to that of family life, strict ahimsa (non-violence) and vegetarianism to permissibility of violence and meat-eating.

    Hence, C is the correct option.7. Who among the following was the proponent of Akriyavadi (Amoralism)? A. Purana Kassapa B. Sanjaya Belatthiputta C. Pakudha Kaccayana D. Ajita Kesakambali Ans: A Explanation: Purana Kassapa was the proponent of this philosophy.

    It denies any reward or punishment for either good or bad deeds. Hence, C is the correct option.8. Which of the following heterodox Indian Philosophy was very popular during the time Bindusara (Mauryan Emperor)? A. Vaisheshika B. Ajivika (Fatalism) C. Unchedvadi (Materialism) D. Nityavadi (Eternalism) Ans: B Explanation: Ajivika (Fatalism) philosophy believed in Karma, Fatalism and extreme passivity.

    It was very popular during the time Bindusara (Mauryan Emperor). Hence, B is the correct option.9. Which of the following Indian Philosophy similar to the Western philosophical doctrine of Subjectivism? A. Anekantavada B. Buddhist Philosophy C. Indian Political Philosophy D.

    None of the above Ans: A Explanation: Anekantavada Philosophy is similar to the Western philosophical doctrine of Subjectivism. Hence, A is the correct option.10. Which of the following is related with the philosophy deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics and epistemology? A.

    Jain Philosophy B. Buddhist Philosophy C. Carvaka Philosophy D. Vedanta Philosophy Ans: B Explanation: Buddhist philosophy deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics and epistemology. Hence, B is the correct option. GK Questions and Answers on Art and Philosophy Literature
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