Which Commission Recommended For Diversification Of Secondary Education?


Which Commission Recommended For Diversification Of Secondary Education
Secondary Education Commission – Wikipedia The established the Secondary Education Commission on 23 September 1952 under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmanaswamy Mudaliar. It was called the Mudaliar Commission after him. The commission recommended diversifying the, adding an intermediate level, introducing three-tier undergraduate courses, etc.
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What are the recommendations of Mudaliar Commission regarding secondary education?

New organizational pattern of Secondary Education: –

  • Secondary education should be of 7 years.
  • It should be for children of 11 to 17 years.
  • It suggested to end intermediate college and merge class 11 with secondary schools and class 12 with B.A.
  • Commission divided secondary education into two parts.
  • Degree course should be of three years.
  • One year Pre-university course for high school students to enter in university.
  • Students who passed Pre-University should be allowed to enter in professional courses.
  • Multipurpose schools should be established to take care of various abilities of students.
  • Technical education-large number of schools should be opened along with Central Technical Institutions.
  • Such institutions should be opened near factories so that so that students can take practical trainings.
  • Industrial education cess should be levied on industries to finance technical education.
  • Other types of school
  • Public schools should be reconstructed as secondary schools after 5 years.
  • The boys and girls should be provided same education through co-education but there should be provision of home science teaching for girls.
  • Girls’ schools should be opened in the areas where required.

Curriculum: The study of some compulsory subjects was made necessary for all students. Besides, the optional subjects were divided into seven groups for enabling students to get an opportunity to study as many subjects of their liking as they desired.

Compulsory Subjects: (1) Regional language or mother tongue or a combined course of classical language and mother tongue. (2) One of the following languages: (A) (a) a classical language (b) besides Hindi one more Indian language (c) Advanced English (for those students who had earlier studied English) (d) Elementary English (for students studying it at the secondary stage) (e) besides English, another modern foreign language (f) Hindi (for those students whose mother tongue is not Hindi.) (B) (a) Curriculum of General Science with arithmetic for the first two years only (b) General course of social sciences for the first two years only.

(C) One of the following vocational subjects:- (1) Carpentry (2) Gardening (3) Printing (Spinning and Weaving) (4) Embroidery (5) Tailoring, embroidery and cutting and (6) Smithy
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What was proposed by the Mudaliar Commission?

What is Mudaliar Commission? Find the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation The Mudaliar Commission was an education commission set up with the aim of examining the system of secondary education in India. Its main purpose was to examine the conditions of the secondary education system in the country and suggest ways to improve it. : What is Mudaliar Commission? Find the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation
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What are the recommendations of Kothari Commission?

Brief Details on Important Recommendations of Kothari Commission (1964-66) –

Provision of Free and Compulsory Education – Recommended providing free and compulsory education for children aged 6 to 14 years. Languages – The Commission recommended adopting a three-language formula at state levels. It intended to promote a language of the Southern States in Hindi speaking states. It intended to promote Hindi, English and a regional language in non-Hindi speaking states. The Kothari Commission recommended promoting regional languages, Sanskrit as well as international languages, preferably English. The Kothari Commission recommended providing favourable and adequate service conditions for teachers and providing them with the necessary freedom to conduct and publish those findings. To promote social justice, the Kothari Commission focused on girls education, education of backward classes, education of tribal people, physically and mentally handicapped children. As Science and Maths are an integral part of the growth of any nation, the Kothari Commission recommended making Maths and Science an integral part of education. The Commission recommended reforms to improve education at University level by paying special attention to postgraduate level research, training, providing adequate libraries, laboratories and funds.

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Which commission suggested the establishment of secondary education Board in India?

Kothari Commission

Kothari Commission
Agency overview
Formed 14 July 1964
Dissolved 29 June 1966
Jurisdiction Government of India

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What are the main aim of Kothari Commission?

Kothari Education Commission FAQs – Q.1 Who founded the Kothari commission? Ans.1 It was founded in 1964 under the chairmanship of Dr. Dulat Singh Kothari.Q.2 What was the objective of the Kothari Commission? Ans.2 The main objective of the Kothari Commission was to review the then educational system of the country and make recommendations to the Government of India on the national pattern of education and the policies and principles which would develop education at all stages.Q.3 What were the types of secondary schools recommended by the Kothari Commission? Ans.3 The Kothari Commission recommended two types of secondary schools.

One is the high school which provides 10 years of educational course and the other is the higher secondary school which provides an 11 or 12 years course.Q.4 What were the recommendations of the Kothari Education Commission? Ans.4 10+2+3 pattern of the educational structure, three-language formula, free and compulsory education for all children up to 14 years of age, the establishment of the National Board of Education and State Education department, common school system, the introduction of part-time education, incorporation of subjects such as maths and science into the curriculum at all stages of education are some of the major recommendations of the Kothari Commission.Q.5 What is Work Experience as suggested by the Kothari commission? Ans.5 According to Kothari Commission, work experience, implies engaging in productive work while in school, at home, in a workshop, in a factory, or in any other productive situation.

As suggested by the Kothari Education Commission work experience should be introduced as an integral part of all education whether general or vocational.Q.6 What is the concept of a school complex according to the Kothari commission? Ans.6 The concept of a school complex according to the Kothari commission is predicated on the idea that secondary and higher education institutions have better lab and library resources that elementary and middle schools can use.Q.7 Why Kothari commission opposed basic education? Ans.7 Kothari Education commission opposed basic education because it stated the education system consists of many defects like not giving emphasis to agriculture and no mention of moral and spiritual values to students.Q.8 What was the title of the report of Kothari Commission? Ans.8 Education and National development was the title of the report of the Kothari Commission.
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What were the recommendations of Hunter Commission secondary education?

Hunter Commission of 1920 – While the Hunter Commission of 1882 was appointed by the then Governor-General in circumstances of relative peace, the Hunter Commission of 1920 was appointed by the then Secretary of State for India, Edwin Montagu under far more tragic circumstances during a time of turmoil.

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The official name of the Hunter Committee of 1920 was the Disorders Inquiry Committee and was constituted after the massacre at Jallianwalla Bagh on 13 April 1919. The events leading up to the actions of General Dyer at Jallianwalla Bagh are well known and form an important part of the History of the Freedom Movement.

The, also known as the Amritsar Massacre of 1919 took place when General Dyer of the British Indian Army ordered his troops to open fire and keep firing into a crowd of unarmed people inside Jallianwalla Bagh. The Hunter Commission of 1920 appointed to investigate the Amritsar Massacre had the following members:

  • Lord William Hunter, Chairman of the Hunter Commission, former Solicitor General of Scotland
  • W.F. Rice, Home Department member
  • Thomas Smith, Member, Legislative Council, United Provinces
  • Pandit Jagat Narayan, Member, Legislative Council, United Provinces and lawyer
  • H.C. Stokes, Secretary of the Commission and Home Department member
  • Sardar Sahibzada Sultan Ahmad Khan, Gwalior State lawyer
  • Sir Chimanlal Harilal Setalvad, Vice-Chancellor, Bombay University and advocate, Bombay High Court
  • Mr Justice George C. Rankin, Calcutta
  • Major-General Sir George Barrow, KCB, KCMG, GOC Peshawar Division

Due to the commission being composed of both British and Indian officials, there were reports of racial tension between them. In spite of this, the committee unanimously condemned General Dyer’s actions and published the following findings:

  • Dyer did not ask the crowd to disperse before opening fire into the crowd and continued firing until ammunition was exhausted. This constituted a serious error.
  • Dyer’s intention of producing moral effect through the use of force was condemnable and he had exceeded the limits of authority assigned to him.

There was no conspiracy to oust British Rule from Punjab that had led to the assembly of people at Jallianwalla Bagh. The Indian members added to these findings, the following observations:

  • Orders prohibiting public meetings had not been sufficiently circulated in Punjab in general and in Amritsar in particular which could have prevented the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre.
  • Innocent people formed the crowd at Jallianwalla Bagh and there was no violence before the massacre.
  • Dyer should have ordered troops to help the wounded people or informed civilian authorities to arrange aid. His actions were condemned as inhuman and greatly damaged the image of the British in India.
  • The Hunter Commission report was important in the context that its findings paved the way for public opinion in both Britain and India gradually turning against British rule in India. In particular, General Dyer was relieved of command and officially rebuked by the House of Commons of the UK based on his actions and statements during the massacre and afterwards.
  • The Hunter Commission report findings were also instrumental in the development of the use of minimum force in crowd control worldwide.

Due to the impact of the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre on the freedom movement and the scale of brutality shown by the British Indian Army troops, the Hunter Commission of 1920 is an important part of the static syllabus on History of the Freedom Movement for Prelims and General Studies for IAS Mains.2019 being the centenary year of the tragedy at Jallianwalla, the Government of India has decided to mark the remembrance of the people killed in the Amritsar Massacre.

This means that the Amritsar Massacre and the Hunter Commission is also part of the dynamic syllabus of UPSC 2022 exam and questions from this concept could be asked in Current Affairs for IAS. The two administrative reforms suggested by Hunter Commission 1882 in the field of Secondary education are: (i) Gradual withdrawal of the Government from direct enterprise in secondary education.

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(ii) Maintenance of some Secondary schools by the Govt. as Model to aided schools. Hunter Education Commission was a landmark commission appointed by Viceroy Lord Ripon with objectives to look into the complaints of the non-implementation of the Wood’s Despatch of 1854; the contemporary status of elementary education in the British territories; and suggest means by which this can be extended and improved.

  1. Hunter Commission Report – UPSC Notes:-
  2. UPSC aspirants should brush up their History knowledge for UPSC 2022 by referring to as well as by reading on current affairs based on major historical events. They can also read some important Modern History topics linked in the table below:
  3. For more information on UPSC Preparation, please visit:

: Hunter Commission Report – Hunter Commission 1882 and 1920
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What was the objective of the Hartog committee 1929?

This Committee was formed to examine the development of education in British India. It placed far more emphasis on mass education than on secondary and university education. Increase in the number of schools and colleges led to deterioration of education standards across the country.
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What was the aim of recommendation of Mudaliar commission?

OBJECTIVES OF MUDALIAR COMMISSION To study aims, curriculum & teaching standard of secondary education of every province in India. To study pay-scales & service conditions of secondary school teachers. To study condition of secondary schools in every province. To study examination system of secondary level.
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What are the recommendations of Hartog committee?

Who appointed the Hartog Commission? Find the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation The Hartog Commission was appointed by Viceroy Lord Irwin. The Hartog Commission was appointed in 1929 to survey on the growth of education in India. One of the recommendations of the Hartog Commission was that more boys be diverted to industrial and commercial careers at the end of the middle stage, where they should be prepared for specialized education in technical and industrial schools. : Who appointed the Hartog Commission? Find the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation
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What were the recommendations for secondary education by NPE 1986?

The NPE ’86 recommends that the institutions of national importance like UGC, NCERT, NIEPA, AICTE, ICAR, IMC etc. will be strengthened to enable them to give shape to national system of education and to cope with the emerging demands of the nation.
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What is Acharya Narendra committee?

Acharya Narendra Deva Committee. This was concerned with education and its organization in relation to political and constitutional conditions and potentialities of progress. The terms of reference imposed serious limitations on the Committee and much narrowed down the scope of its inquiry.
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What was the suggestion of Hunter commission with respect to the medium of secondary education?

Secondary Education – The Hunter Commission reported that the secondary education was making commendable progress, particularly in Bengal, where the system of Grants-in-aid worked well. At that time, there were two private schools for every one government school.
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What were the recommendations for secondary education by NPE 1986?

The NPE ’86 recommends that the institutions of national importance like UGC, NCERT, NIEPA, AICTE, ICAR, IMC etc. will be strengthened to enable them to give shape to national system of education and to cope with the emerging demands of the nation.
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What were the aim of secondary education according to the Secondary Education Commission?

The aims are: 1. Democratic Citizenship 2. Improvement of Vocational Efficiency 3. Development of Personality 4. Education for Leadership.
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