Which Article Is Related To Education?
Departmen of School Education & Literacy The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine.
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.
Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘Free education’ means that no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.
‘Compulsory education’ casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group. With this, India has moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation on the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child right as enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act.
The RTE Act provides for the:
Right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood school. It clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. ‘Free’ means that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class. It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments. It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working hours. It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief. It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications. It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d) private tuition by teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition, It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centered learning.
: Departmen of School Education & Literacy
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- 0.1 What is educational article?
- 0.2 What is Article 24?
- 0.3 What does Article 19 says?
- 0.4 What is Article 28?
- 1 What is Article 13 of the Human rights Act?
What is educational article?
How to Write Educational Articles Educational articles are informational writings that inform, instruct or otherwise impart knowledge to readers. Articles are usually written for specific publications and with a particular audience in mind. You’ll need to first organize your thoughts in order to convey information in a meaningful way.
A methodical approach can ensure that all points are covered in your article. Keep readers alert and eager for more with illustrative references and expressive language. Give decisive concluding remarks or allow readers to interpret information for themselves. Choose an appropriate subject or topic to write about and one that can be completed within the allocated amount of space.
Use material that will appeal to a particular audience or age group. If you already know the venue for publication, make sure to adhere to specific guidelines. Research your subject matter to provide current or updated information. You may be familiar with a topic, but if new findings have been released, you may not appear informed if you neglect referencing them.
- For example, if you’re writing about earthquakes in New Zealand, you might want to mention a few that have recently rocked Christchurch, New Zealand.
- Match dates to the areas effected and research what geologists predict about future seismic events.
- Organize the information into categories or groupings that share a common thread and further subgroup information to further delineate it.
Look at the content structure and decide how you want to present the information based on all the evidence and examples you have. Choose an angle to write about and be consistent with it throughout the piece. Describe your subject matter and what is the emphasis or focus of the article.
- Give introductory remarks to gear up readers for the information they are about to read.
- Write expressively to stir the imagination of readers.
- Demonstrate your expertise or at least passion for the subject matter.
- Write paragraphs or sections that tell how to do something or why one method is more effective than another.
Describe how or why something is done in a particular way and the processes required to do it. Fully detail the text so that readers can understand what it is you’re trying to convey. Defend your findings with compelling arguments and reasons that readers can believe what you write.
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What is Article 24?
Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment Provided that nothing in this sub clause shall authorise the detention of any person beyond the maximum period prescribed by any
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What does Article 19 says?
(a) to freedom of speech and expression; (b) to assemble peaceably and without arms; (c) to form associations or unions; (d) to move freely throughout the territory of India; (e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and.
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What is Article 28?
28. Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions. (1) No religion instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.
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What is Article 13 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution?
ARTICLE XIII – SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS Section 1. The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social, economic, and political inequalities, and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for the common good.
- To this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, ownership, use, and disposition of property and its increments.
- Section 2.
- The promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create economic opportunities based on freedom of initiative and self-reliance.
- LABOR Section 3.
- The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and unorganized, and promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all.
It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization, collective bargaining and negotiations, and peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike in accordance with law. They shall be entitled to security of tenure, humane conditions of work, and a living wage.
They shall also participate in policy and decision-making processes affecting their rights and benefits as may be provided by law. The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and employers and the preferential use of voluntary modes in settling disputes, including conciliation, and shall enforce their mutual compliance therewith to foster industrial peace.
The State shall regulate the relations between workers and employers, recognizing the right of labor to its just share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable returns to investments, and to expansion and growth. AGRARIAN AND NATURAL RESOURCES REFORM Section 4.
The State shall, by law, undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers and regular farmworkers who are landless, to own directly or collectively the lands they till or, in the case of other farmworkers, to receive a just share of the fruits thereof. To this end, the State shall encourage and undertake the just distribution of all agricultural lands, subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the Congress may prescribe, taking into account ecological, developmental, or equity considerations, and subject to the payment of just compensation.
In determining retention limits, the State shall respect the right of small landowners. The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary land-sharing. Section 5. The State shall recognize the right of farmers, farmworkers, and landowners, as well as cooperatives, and other independent farmers’ organizations to participate in the planning, organization, and management of the program, and shall provide support to agriculture through appropriate technology and research, and adequate financial, production, marketing, and other support services.
Section 6. The State shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship, whenever applicable in accordance with law, in the disposition or utilization of other natural resources, including lands of the public domain under lease or concession suitable to agriculture, subject to prior rights, homestead rights of small settlers, and the rights of indigenous communities to their ancestral lands.
The State may resettle landless farmers and farmworkers in its own agricultural estates which shall be distributed to them in the manner provided by law. Section 7. The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen, especially of local communities, to the preferential use of the communal marine and fishing resources, both inland and offshore.
It shall provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research, adequate financial, production, and marketing assistance, and other services. The State shall also protect, develop, and conserve such resources. The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion.
Fishworkers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources. Section 8. The State shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the agrarian reform program to promote industrialization, employment creation, and privatization of public sector enterprises.
Financial instruments used as payment for their lands shall be honored as equity in enterprises of their choice. URBAN LAND REFORM AND HOUSING Section 9. The State shall, by law, and for the common good, undertake, in cooperation with the private sector, a continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will make available at affordable cost, decent housing and basic services to underprivileged and homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlement areas.
It shall also promote adequate employment opportunities to such citizens. In the implementation of such program the State shall respect the rights of small property owners. Section 10. Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwelling demolished, except in accordance with law and in a just and humane manner.
No resettlement of urban or rural dwellers shall be undertaken without adequate consultation with them and the communities where they are to be relocated. HEALTH Section 11. The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods, health and other social services available to all the people at affordable cost.
There shall be priority for the needs of the underprivileged, sick, elderly, disabled, women, and children. The State shall endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers. Section 12. The State shall establish and maintain an effective food and drug regulatory system and undertake appropriate health, manpower development, and research, responsive to the country’s health needs and problems.
- Section 13.
- The State shall establish a special agency for disabled persons for their rehabilitation, self-development, and self-reliance, and their integration into the mainstream of society.
- WOMEN Section 14.
- The State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working conditions, taking into account their maternal functions, and such facilities and opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full potential in the service of the nation.
ROLE AND RIGHTS OF PEOPLE’S ORGANIZATIONS Section 15. The State shall respect the role of independent people’s organizations to enable the people to pursue and protect, within the democratic framework, their legitimate and collective interests and aspirations through peaceful and lawful means.
- People’s organizations are bona fide associations of citizens with demonstrated capacity to promote the public interest and with identifiable leadership, membership, and structure.
- Section 16.
- The right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels of social, political, and economic decision-making shall not be abridged.
The State shall, by law, facilitate the establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms. HUMAN RIGHTS Section 17. (1) There is hereby created an independent office called the Commission on Human Rights. (2) The Commission shall be composed of a Chairman and four Members who must be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and a majority of whom shall be members of the Bar.
- The term of office and other qualifications and disabilities of the Members of the Commission shall be provided by law.
- 3) Until this Commission is constituted, the existing Presidential Committee on Human Rights shall continue to exercise its present functions and powers.
- 4) The approved annual appropriations of the Commission shall be automatically and regularly released.
Section 18. The Commission on Human Rights shall have the following powers and functions: (1) Investigate, on its own or on complaint by any party, all forms of human rights violations involving civil and political rights; (2) Adopt its operational guidelines and rules of procedure, and cite for contempt for violations thereof in accordance with the Rules of Court; (3) Provide appropriate legal measures for the protection of human rights of all persons within the Philippines, as well as Filipinos residing abroad, and provide for preventive measures and legal aid services to the underprivileged whose human rights have been violated or need protection; (4) Exercise visitorial powers over jails, prisons, or detention facilities; (5) Establish a continuing program of research, education, and information to enhance respect for the primacy of human rights; (6) Recommend to Congress effective measures to promote human rights and to provide for compensation to victims of violations of human rights, or their families; (7) Monitor the Philippine Government’s compliance with international treaty obligations on human rights; (8) Grant immunity from prosecution to any person whose testimony or whose possession of documents or other evidence is necessary or convenient to determine the truth in any investigation conducted by it or under its authority; (9) Request the assistance of any department, bureau, office, or agency in the performance of its functions; (10) Appoint its officers and employees in accordance with law; and (11) Perform such other duties and functions as may be provided by law.
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What is Article 13 in the Bill of rights?
SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS – Section 1. The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social, economic, and political inequalities, and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for the common good.
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What is Article 13 of the Human rights Act?
Article 13 of the Convention – Right to an effective remedy ‘Everyone whose rights and freedoms as set forth in Convention are violated shall have an effective remedy before a national authority notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity.’
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What is an Article 13 in the military?
Article 13 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) prohibits the imposition of punishment or penalty upon an accused prior to trial, as well as pretrial arrest or confinement conditions which are more rigorous than ‘the circumstances required’ to ensure the Soldier’s presence at trial.
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