What Were The Effects Of Western Education?
Impact of Western Education in India – Education in western countries has impacted India greatly. Many changes can be seen through the implication of this system in the country of India. They are like:
The emergence of the English language helps Indians of different languages to communicate with each other The thinking of western countries has entered the society of India and has marked consequences The field of Indian literature has also been influenced greatly Social awareness of various sections is noticeable after the entrance of western education
The above points show the impact of western education in India. The various fields related to social-cultural education flourished through this appearance. Visit to know more about How to Prepare for UPSC without Coaching
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What are the effects of western education on the life of Ghanaians?
Abstract: Prior to the arrival of Europeans in the 15th century, informal education existed in Ghana with the goal of introducing young people into the society. The traditions and values of the community, as well as the meaning of life, were taught to the child.
- By using postcolonial theory as a framework for analysis, it is evident that the Western formal education introduced to the people of the Gold Coast by the Christian missionaries and the British Colonial government did not serve the indigenous population well.
- Rather, it denationalized and facilitated the indignity and loss of cultural identity of the Ghanaian.
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What impact did western education have on Africans?
The Gold Coast – 1. When did education get introduced in this colony? The first western kind of schools were introduced in the Gold Coast by protestant missionaries in the beginning of the 19th century. More advanced and sophisticated secondary schools or colleges started to get introduced in 1876; higher education was established after the Second World War.2.
- By whom was the education conducted and who had control over it? Education in the Gold Coast was in the hand of the missionaries, who next to the inhibition of slave trade devoted their efforts largely to this matter.
- In the 1950s, three fourths of the schools were run by religious institutions, the ratio of protestant to catholic schools being two to one.3.
How was the educational system outlined and how big was the proportion of Africans that were schooled? Before the introduction of university education, the Gold Coast had a three-tiered system of primary, middle and secondary schools with additional vocational schools (e.g.
- For teachers training) at the middle and secondary levels.
- At the apex, there was a secondary school to train the new elite groups, which was the Achimota School.
- This school was a specialized institution with the aim of preparing students for the administrative service which, as we will see later, should have a profound impact on nationalism.
Curtain notices about Achimota and its French West African counterpart William Ponty in Dakar that “hey were sometimes the nurseries of entire national elites – Westernized, alienated from the mass of the population, but fervent nationalists with the intention of exercising the leadership roles for which they had been trained.” Some statistics illustrate the scale of the educational efforts in the Gold Coast.
- In 1950, 6.5 percent of the total population attended school.
- School enrolment doubled from 1950 to 1955 to 599,843 in February, 1955.
- The growth from 1946 to 1951 was 61.2 percent.
- The vast educational efforts of the missionaries led to a large quantity of educated people.
- This went so far that much more people were produced towards the end of one educational stage that could actually move into the next stage.
This was a reason for discontent, as we will see later. The Gold Coasters could attend English universities since the nineteenth century, but territorial university education came only after WWII.4. Where and when was the vernacular, where and when the language of the colonisers used in the educational process? A knowledge of English was considered as necessary for civilisation by the colonisers, which is why the British language policy was to switch the classroom language to English after the first years of schooling.5.
- What were the underlying ideologies and colonial policies that determined the education? Since the British administration left the education in the hand of the missionaries, the Gold Coast had the educational system with the least state intervention of the three case studies.
- This is noteworthy, because schooling was not carefully designed by colonial authorities to create an ideological “message of its own”.
Instead, there was an educational system controlled by the missionaries that started from a very wide base, and the reason for this was that the Protestant missionaries wanted to create as many converts as possible. But what made sense from the view of the Protestant missionaries proved how haphazard British educational policy really was, because no matter how large the number of graduates on different levels was, the British did not expand the positions available for African placement to the expanded supply.
- The result was that there were large numbers of graduates who were either unemployed or employed below the levels of their skills.
- As we will see, the French assimilative approach and the Belgian approach towards education were both more systematic and followed certain aims.
- It has to be noted though, that the outcome of the British educational policy proved to more assimilative than the educational policy of the French, because there was more secondary education available in the British colonies which could influence African habits and attitudes.6.
In what kind of jobs or functions and with what kind of attitudes or orientations did the educated continue their lives when leaving the educational institutions? How did this affect the emergence of nationalism and the struggle for independence? The new West African institutions like the administration, the schools and the missions needed trained personnel which gave rise to a new class, the educated elite.
- There are many parallels in the development and impact of this new class in the history of the Gold Coast and Ivory Coast, while the picture in the Belgian Congo is quite different in this aspect.
- It makes sense therefore to leave the concept of focussing on one colony for a while in order to look simultaneously on the basic features that characterized the emerging educated elites in the two West African colonies of the three case studies before looking at territorial specificities later on.
One of the most prominent features which made African elites make an impact on colonial politics was their language ability. Africans who were educated to a high standard in a European language had influence because they could negotiate and debate with the conquerors.
It also meant that they could get jobs in the colonial administration or European firms. This did not mean that they could compete successfully for expatriate jobs in the most cases, although this situation changed in the short period prior to independence. The anti-political attitudes of the European powers in the early days of the colonial period forced the Africans to mask their political protest in non-political voluntary associations and churches.
The political channels which were made available by the colonisers were ” for the chiefs and, in the Gold Coast more than the Ivory Coast, for a small group of intellectuals.” But the local government bodies and territorial assemblies only had very limited power.
- The decisions were mainly made by the administrative hierarchy, an consequently it was the civil service where power and prestige could be found.
- The primary requirement for the admission to the civil service and to advance in it was education.
- Therefore it were members of the educated elite who entered the civil service: Intellectuals and even professionals like doctors and lawyers chose to make a career in it.I.
Wallerstein: The Road to Independence. Ghana and the Ivory Coast. Paris: Mouton & Co, 1964, 15
- ibid., 15
- ibid., 138-9
- Wallerstein, 15
- Philip Curtin and others: African History, London: Longman, 1978, 535
- Wallerstein, 137
- Curtin, 535
- ibid., 533
- Wallerstein, 15
- Wallerstein, 39-40
- ibid., 24
- Curtin, 569
- Wallerstein, 146
: How far did the impact of western education on Africans vary between different territories or colonies in terms of their struggle for independence?
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What are benefits of western education?
Western Education in the Gulf: The Costs and Benefits of Reform Originally posted July 2010 Educational reform from the West has arrived on a grand scale in the Gulf, particularly in higher education. American, Canadian, Australian, and British universities are being established throughout the region.
- In addition, Western-style methodologies and best-practices are being employed.
- Although there are considerable benefits to adopting Western models of education, such reform does not come without a price.
- Historically, the purpose of education in Gulf society was to preserve and transmit traditional culture.
Nowadays, leaders throughout the region view education as a basic component in building their nations and the foundation of economic development and social change. In the process of development and modernization, they have realized that in order to limit the erosion of traditional culture, they need to prepare their own citizens to run the business of their country and stop relying on foreign professionals and experts.
Consequently, substantial resources have been invested to provide greater educational opportunities; however, developing educational systems that can produce students capable of tending to the needs of a changing society while at the same time preserving traditional Islamic values has been a major challenge.
The sudden introduction of foreign concepts and practices has disrupted society, and interaction between Arabs and Westerners has resulted in conflicts in some cases. It has also led to a division within society between those who feel that change is necessary for progress and those who feel that change is an assault of Western morals and values on their societies.
The conceptual framework for this study is based primarily on Diffusion Theory as defined by Everett Rogers. Roger’s work provides a synthesis of the last 30 years of diffusion research and offers a set of guiding principles for the dissemination of new ideas. He tells us under what conditions these ideas are most likely to be implemented and delineates the process of adaptation, why some people or organizations adopt new ideas before others, and how they are influenced at each stage.
He also helps us to understand the consequences that relate to the adoption of innovations and calls for more research to be done in this subject area, hence the relevance of this study. According to Rogers, there has been inadequate attention paid by change agents and educators to the consequences of innovations because they are difficult to measure.
- There is also an assumption that consequences will be positive, which is not always the case.
- Rogers defines consequences as “the changes that occur to an individual or to a social system as a result of the adoption or rejection of an innovation.” He classifies consequences into three categories: 1) desirable and undesirable, 2) direct and indirect, and 3) anticipated and unanticipated.
According to Rogers, “the desirable, direct, and anticipated consequences usually go together as do the undesirable, indirect, and unanticipated consequences.” Findings The first finding below supports Roger’s classification of “Desirable Consequences” because Western models of education and best practices are seen as useful and positive.
They have a desirable impact on those who adopt them, and it is expected that there will be continued desirable consequences resulting from their diffusion. In other words, people see value in the new ideas and therefore adopt them. The primary benefit of adopting Western-style education and best practices in the Gulf is to help produce a qualitative shift in the learning styles of the students — to steer them away from rote memory as the sole tool of learning and to encourage them to become self-reliant, independent thinkers.
The goal is to provide students with the analytical skills they need to make their own decisions, enabling them to become lifelong learners who are capable of contributing to their societies and communities. The second finding is related to “Direct Consequences,” which Rogers defines as the “changes that occur to an individual or a system in immediate response to an innovation.” The direct consequences below are the results of the diffusion of innovations from the West both in and outside the classroom.
The changes in education are positive and stem primarily from Western best practices in the classroom. Classroom learning is a two-way process whereby both faculty and students are affected by each other’s culture and background. In the past more attention was paid to male students. However, nowadays there is a new positive attitude in education toward female students.
This is due, in part, to the adoption of the Western educational system. Not all change in the Gulf region is due to Western-style education. Much of it is the direct result of extensive exposure to Western lifestyles, pop-culture (via television and computer), and other non-Western expatriates.
So, education, technology, and social interaction all overlap to influence change in the region. Rogers defines “Anticipated Consequences” as “changes brought about by an innovation that are recognized and intended by the members of a social system.” In the findings below, Western best practices in education are recognized and viewed as accomplishments by the respondents.
Adopting Western-style education gives Gulf students the opportunity to gain some perspective on Western culture, which will help to minimize differences and bridge gaps of understanding. This kind of cross-cultural understanding is seen as key to helping solve some of the conflicts between the Arab world and the West.
There have been many accomplishments in education due to the adoption of Western standards, such as timelines and best practices. Practical knowledge is also gained from the West, such as the use of technology. However, Islamic guidelines are imperative for striking a balance between Gulf and Western societies.
Because Islam is considered part and parcel of daily life, it holds the key to the ethical components of Arab society. Rogers’ model refers to “Undesirable Consequences” as the dysfunctional or negative effects of an innovation to the adopter. The findings below illustrate how educational innovations from the West can have an undesirable impact on Gulf society: Western models of education, best practices, textbooks, and educators inevitably bring Western culture to the classroom and into the learning process.
- Although it is important to challenge students and foster critical thinking, if what they are learning is totally different from their own cultural norms, contradicts what they’ve learned, and goes against their Islamic values, there can be negative consequences.
- Furthermore, students are not changing, but are merely mimicking the behavior of their instructors.
There are many instances where Western faculty – knowingly or unknowingly – infringe on the cultural and religious beliefs of Arab students. The change agent, in this case the expatriate, brings his or her own norms and values, which at times are threatening to the student and society in general.
The findings also support Rogers’ (2003) contention that it is difficult for a change agent to be objective about the desirability of an innovation in another country. He suggests that the values, beliefs, and attitudes of a particular culture are effective for that culture and should be judged based on their functionality in terms of their own specific circumstances and needs.
The norms of the outsider or change agent should not be imposed on the user’s culture. Rogers argues that, “Every social system has certain qualities that should not be destroyed if the welfare of the system is to be maintained.” Rogers refers to “Indirect Consequences” as the changes that come about as a result of direct consequences.
- They are referred to as the “consequences of consequences” as illustrated in the finding below: Due in part to the post-9/11 backlash many families from the Gulf are reluctant to send their children abroad.
- Consequently, Western universities have been contracted to set up campuses in the Gulf states.
Western models of education and the recruitment of Western teachers has become a way to “get the best of both worlds.” However, sometimes students pick up behavior, concepts, etc. indirectly, and because there is an element of prestige attached to families whose children are taught by Westerners, the potential negative social impact from those teachers is often ignored for the sake of social status.
- Those Gulf students who do travel to the West often return home with new views and attitudes toward their own culture, not all of them positive.
- According to Rogers, innovations do not come without any strings attached.
- Some consequences may be anticipated, but others are unintended or unexpected, or hidden.
These types of potential changes are in line with Rogers’ analogy of a social system to a bowl of marbles: “move any of its elements and the position of all the others are inevitably changed also.” Adopters do not always fully understand this interdependence; moreover, there is a lack of understanding on the part of the change agents of the internal and external forces at work when a new idea is introduced, as is illustrated in the finding below: Although influence from the West is transmitted through education, such education would not have come about had it not been for the discovery of oil in the region.
- All of this “Western influence” is seen as the by-product of a “boom economy.” Many people of the region have the financial means to make choices about where they go and how they live, which is believed to have affected tradition to an enormous degree.
- Change is happening too fast and has already distorted local customs and traditions.
Classes are more and more mixed, females are much less reserved, nuclear families are replacing extended families, there are more mixed marriages, children are being raised in both Eastern and Western cultures, Abayas in Saudi Arabia are changing colors, women are taking off headscarves and going out on their own (unaccompanied by a male), and mass media is disseminating information faster than ever before.
- Re-invention is another aspect of Roger’s Diffusion Theory.
- This is “the degree to which an innovation is changed or modified by the user in the process of its adoption and implementation.” What is perplexing is that often, Western universities come to the Gulf with the idea that they can “cut and paste” their model of education into the region only to discover that it is doesn’t work that way.
Western educational programs must be modified, tailored, and adapted to the local Gulf context. In other words, as Rogers points out, an adopter is not always a passive recipient of change, but can also be an active adapter of new ideas. Concluding Thoughts Continued change in the Gulf is inevitable, but the resistance to reform is powerful and in some cases, extreme as is evident with some of the fundamentalist movements.
As one respondent explained during an interview, “There is a battle going on.” People want to move forward like Western societies but they are afraid that they will take on all of the West’s problems. It is very important to keep in mind that that each country must evolve at its own pace. Furthermore, it is imperative that the change agent understands fully his or her own culture in order to understand how he or she may be perceived by the host culture and thus communicate better and avoid some of the misunderstandings that are repeated over and over.
Equally important, experts and consultants need to take the time to understand their clients and analyze the setting where their educational projects are to be implemented. Joseph S. Szyliowicz, Education and Modernization in the Middle East (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1973).
- Halid Mrabet, “A Glance at the United Arab Emirates: A Setting Analysis,” unpublished paper, 2000,
- Everett M.
- Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (New York: Free Press, 1995).
- Stephanie Vanderslice, “Listening to Everett Rogers: Diffusion of Innovations and WAC,” Journal of Language and Learning Across the Disciplines, Vol.4 (2000), pp.22-29.
Robert Hornick, “Some Reflections on Diffusion Theory and the Role of Everett Rogers,” Journal of Health Communication, Vol.9 (2004), pp.143-48. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (New York: Free Press, 2003), p.150. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (New York: Free Press, 1995), p.441.
- Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (1995), p.415.
- Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (1995), p.419.
- Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (1995), p.411.
- Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (1995), p.412.
- Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (1995), p.415.
- Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (1995), p.419.
- Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (1995), p.174.
This phrase was used by a respondent to sum up the tension in the Gulf region with regard to influence from the West. The Middle East Institute (MEI) is an independent, non-partisan, non-for-profit, educational organization. It does not engage in advocacy and its scholars’ opinions are their own.
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Who strongly reacted against western education?
There were other Indians, however, who reacted against Western education. Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore were two such individuals.
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