What Were The Aims Determined By Secondary Education Commission?


What Were The Aims Determined By Secondary Education Commission
The aims are: 1. Democratic Citizenship 2. Improvement of Vocational Efficiency 3. Development of Personality 4. Education for Leadership.
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What are the main objectives of secondary education in India?

The main objective of secondary education is to impart knowledge and understanding among students in terms of not only academic subjects, but also in terms of factors that would enable them to form their identity.
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What are the main aims of Kothari Commission?

Results of Kothari Commission Recommendations –

The education system at the national level was aligned in 10+2+3 pattern, as recommended by the Kothari Commission. One of the most important recommendations of the Kothari Commission was the National Policy on Education. The Bill was passed in the Parliament under the leadership of former Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi. It has been reported that even the National Policy on Education in 1986 (which was formulated under the leadership of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi), was influenced by recommendations of Kothari Commission. As per recommendations of Kothari Commission, the education sector in India was stratified into national bodies, state bodies and Central Board.

Kothari Commission – UPSC Notes:- Central Advisory Board of India decided to set up two commissions, University education commission (1948) to report on the status of Indian university education and Mudaliar Commission (1952-53) to deal with secondary education.

  • In accordance with the recommendations of Kothari commission, the National education policy of 1968 was formulated.
  • It intended to promote a language of the Southern States in Hindi speaking states.
  • It intended to promote Hindi, English and a regional language in non-Hindi speaking states.
  • The Kothari Commission recommended promoting regional languages, Sanskrit as well as international languages, preferably English.

The Kothari Commission was appointed by the Central government to look into the educational aspects and revamp the sector in order to set guidelines for the pattern of education in India. The first education commission in India was the Hunter Commission.

  • It was set up on February 3, 1882 under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter, a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy.
  • Othari Commission was formed on 14 July 1964 under the Chairmanship Daulat Singh Kothari.
  • He was the then chairman of University Grants Commission (UGC).
  • Candidates can find the general pattern of the UPSC Exams by visiting the page.

Related Links : Kothari Commission (1964-66) – Facts, Objectives, Recommendations
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What are the main aims and objectives of education?

What are the Aims and Objectives of Education? Education is a never-ending journey. Its primary goal is to promote a child’s holistic development. As the child grows, the results of education are visible in the form of a better and more prosperous life.

Education teaches us to distinguish between fair and evil, unethical and ethical.Education provides a person hope that they will be able to address the difficulties that humanity is currently facing.Education empowers you to challenge everything that appears to be incorrect.Education teaches you how to conduct yourself correctly and effectively.Education assists you in discovering the truth and challenges you to think in new ways.Illusions get dispelled by proper education.It increases your awareness and confidence.Education aims to develop children into good citizens. Responsible citizens apply their learning and gained skills to help themselves and others. They help to move the human race ahead in areas such as equality, justice, and harmony.

Aims of Education Vocational Aim: Education enables students to make a good living in the future. It makes them independent and successful not just culturally but also financially. Occupational competence should be a strong focus of education. Knowledge: Knowledge is as essential for intellectual development as nutrition is for body development.

It encourages lifestyle changes, self-realization, and societal progress. Thus, knowledge is as much a source of strength as comfort. It leads to effective interpersonal relationships and healthy life adaptations. Thus, knowledge acquisition should be a significant goal of education. Complete Living: Education must familiarise a child with the actions of healthy living.

These may include childbearing and childrearing, consciousness, activities connected to socioeconomic and cultural responsibilities, and aspects linked to the appropriate use of free time. Total Development: Education seeks to grow the overall personality of the learner.

  • These include physiological, intellectual, moral, social, and spiritual growth.
  • Harmonious development: Harmonious development refers to the overall growth of humans.
  • It includes physical, mental, artistic, and ethical aspects of growth.
  • The goal of education is to develop a balanced personality.
  • Education must nurture every child’s capabilities and qualities in a coordinated manner.

Moral Development: Herbert Spencer, an outstanding English educationist, placed a high value on this educational goal. He considered that education should help children develop moral ideals. Education must develop attributes like kindness, integrity, courage, respect, and honesty.

Character Development: According to some educational systems, this is the ultimate goal of education. It is believed that education comprises the nurturing of particular human ideals. Education helps the formation of mindsets and preferences that comprise a person’s personality. Some renowned personalities, such as Mahatma Gandhi, Swami Vivekananda, and John Dewey, regarded character development as the fundamental goal of education.

Self-realization: According to some professional educators, this is one of the most important aims of education. Education should assist a person in becoming what they need to become, depending on their specific potentials. Cultural Development: Through education, every individual must become sophisticated and civilized.

  • Artistic growth is also a crucial component of education and results in the improvement of artistic sense and compassion.
  • Further, it increases an individual’s regard for others and their cultures.
  • Citizenship: We educate students to become excellent citizens of their country.
  • Education helps them acquire traits that will benefit society.

It makes them aware of their commitments, obligations, and responsibilities to society. This goal is critical in a democratic setting. As a democratic citizen, the child should be taught to respect diverse ideas. He should be able to balance rational thinking, openness to new perspectives, and nationalism.

Personal and Community Goals: A few educationists believe that the most crucial goal of education is the complete growth and evolution of the student. In contrast, others believe that the fundamental goal of education is societal growth. Humans are social beings who require a community to survive. A person owes everything to society that they must repay.

One must work for the betterment of society. Individuals need communities, and communities require individuals. Individual growth requires social connections and bonds. Education should aid in developing and maintaining a sense of commitment and devotion to society and its interests.

Education should create a synergy between personal and social goals. They must be mutually beneficial. There is no necessity for any dispute between the two. The ultimate goal of education is a child’s progression as a community member. Personal ambition and social provision should complement each other.

Individual and societal development should take place at the same time. Education for Leisure: Leisure is defined as time spent for recreation purposes. Leisure is an essential aspect of human life. It is required to maintain rest and replenish energy. One should spend leisure time on tasks that benefit both the individual and the community.

Leisure, when used appropriately, creates cognitive and emotional equilibrium. Practical leisure time usage can stimulate creative, ethical, and aesthetic advancements. Children should be taught how to spend their free time productively and imaginatively. Elevating all aspects of personal and societal growth is the foundation of education.

The aims of education reflect the need and perspectives of education. These aims simply indicate the effect education must have on the learner. The aims are not definite or everlasting. With time, we can update and modify the aims of education as per the current requirements.
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What are the aims and recommendations of the Secondary Education Commission 1952?

Recommendation # 4. Methods of Teaching : – The commission believed that even the best curriculum and the most perfect syllabus remains dead unless quickened into life by the right method of teaching and the right kind of teacher. The methods should be dynamic and scientific.

  • The following recommendations were made:
  • (i) The methods of teaching aim at inculcating desirable values and proper attitudes habits of work in the students besides imparting knowledge.
  • (ii) The methods of teaching should help the students for attachment to work.

(iii) The emphasis in teaching should shift from verbalism and memorization to learn through purposeful, concrete and realistic situations. For this purpose, the principle “Activity Method” and “Project Method” should be followed in practice.

  1. (iv) Methods of learning should enable the children to apply practically the knowledge gained in the classroom to various problems confronting them.
  2. (v) Methods of teaching should provide ample opportunities for students to develop clear thinking and clear expression both in speech and writing.
  3. (vi) Emphasis should be given on acquiring knowledge through personal efforts and initiative and training the students in the techniques of study.
  4. (vii) A well thought out attempt should be made to adopt methods of instruction to the nee of individual students as much as possible so that dull, average and bright student’s may all have a chance to progress at their own pace.
  5. (viii)They should be given adequate opportunity to work in groups and to carry out group projects and activities to develop the qualities for group life and co-operative work.
  6. (ix)In order to popularize progressive methods of teaching, ‘Experimental’ and ‘Demonstration’ schools should be opened.
  7. (x) Co-curricular activities should form an integral part of education.
  8. (xi) Library, class library and subject library should be utilized for promotion of study habit

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What is the structure of secondary education as suggested by Kothari Commission?

The 10+2+3 pattern for secondary, higher secondary, and university education was recommended by which of the following commissions?A) Mudaliar CommissionB) Kothari CommissionC) Operation BlackboardD) None of these Answer Verified Hint: Dr.D.S. Kothari recommended the commission of the 10+2+3 pattern for secondary, higher secondary, and university education and this Commission was appointed in 1964.

Complete answer: Kothari Commission may be a National Education Commission (1964-1966). This commission has been found out by the government of India in order that all aspects of the educational sector are often examined in India to grow a general pattern of education and to advise policies and guidelines so that India’s education can be developed.Under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, this commission was formed on 14 July 1964.

On 29th June 1966, its objectives and the important recommendations had been submitted. After independence, Kothari Commission was the sixth commission in India but related to education it was the first commission. There were a Core group of 20 members in the Kothari Commission.

A consultation from a panel of 20 overseas consultants had been taken in this commission, who were based out of the USA, UK, Japan, France, Sweden. The Commission had interviewed 9000 people who were working as scholars, educators, and scientists in a span of 21 months. First, the report was submitted to M.C.Chagla on 29th June 1966 and then to the minister of education.The main objective of the Kothari Commission is to supply policies and guidelines for the event of education in India and to look at every aspect of the Indian education sector.

It promotes regional languages, Sanskrit as well as international languages, preferably English. This commission improves education at the university level by paying special attention to postgraduate level research, training, providing adequate libraries, laboratories, and funds.Under the leadership of former Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, the bill was passed in the Parliament.

  1. Some objectives of this commission increase Productivity, Promoting National and Social Integration, Modernization, and Education, Developing moral, social, and spiritual values.
  2. This commission deals with general problems and also deals with Education at different stages and in different sectors.It consists of supplementary papers.

It took 100 days to submit the final report and the report was divided into four sections. Pre-primary education should also be given before General education. The time span of Higher education should be fixed for two years. There should be a postgraduate course after the degree course.
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What is education structure as per Kothari Commission?

Recommendation # 3. Educational Structure: –

  • The commission proposed the following:
  • 1. The structure consists of:
  • (i) One to three years of pre-school education.
  • (ii) A Primary Stage of 7 to 8 years dividing into lower primary (4 to 5 years) and higher primary stage (3 or 2 years).
  • (iii) A lower secondary stage of 3 or 2 years.
  • (iv) A higher secondary of 2 years of general education or one to three years of vocational education.
  • (v) A higher education stage having a course of 3 years or more for the first degree and followed by a course for second degree of varying durations.

2. Age of admission to class I not to be less than 6 years.3. First public examination to come at the end of first ten years of schooling.4. The streaming system to be made beyond class X in case of general education.5. Two types of secondary schools—high schools providing a ten year course and higher secondary schools providing a course of 11 or 12 years.6.

Bigger and more efficient schools about 1/4th of the total number to be upgraded and attempts to upgrade every secondary school to the higher secondary to be abandoned.7. New higher secondary course at class XI to be instituted and class XI and XII to provide specialised studies in different subjects; existing higher secondary schools with integrated courses in classes IX, X, XI running satisfactorily to be continued until class XII is added.8.

Transfer of the PU course from the universities and affiliated colleges to secondary schools by 1975-76 and the duration of the course to be lengthened to two years by 1985-86; UGC would be responsible for the transfer of the above course.9. Starting of higher secondary class or classes in selected schools by state education departments as self-contained units and assisted with adequate recurring grants.10.

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Reconstituting Boards of Secondary Education to accept the onus for the higher secondary stage also.11. Vocationalisation at the secondary stage at the end of class VII or VIII and of the end of class X and provision to be made for the introduction of different types of vocational courses at the lower and higher secondary stage, the duration of these courses varied from one to three years which would prepare young person’s for employment.12.

Ten years of schooling should cover a primary stage of 7 or 8 years and a lower secondary stage of 3 or 2 years providing a course of general education without any specialisation.13. Classes XI and XII should provide for specialised studies in different subjects at the higher secondary stage.14.
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What are the aims of secondary education according to Mudaliar commission?

OBJECTIVES OF MUDALIAR COMMISSION To study condition of contemporary secondary education and to suggest measures for its reorganization. To study aims, curriculum & teaching standard of secondary education of every province in India. To study pay-scales & service conditions of secondary school teachers.
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What is the importance of secondary education?

Importance of Secondary Education for kids The first fifteen years of a person’s life are very impressionable and important. These are the foundation years of human life. If that foundation is laid with the bricks of quality education, then children can use it as a launchpad to define their own path to success.

Secondary education is that foundation that prepares students for the challenges that they may face in the future by building their knowledge base and confidence. It empowers them with essential 21 st -century skills that lead them towards their goals. Secondary education is every child’s right and we should ensure that every child gets to exercise that right.

Many well-known ICSE schools in Navi Mumbai are working in this direction by providing scholarships and a world-class learning environment for students to reach their true potential. Now, let’s look at the, Better job opportunities Secondary education can help children get better jobs, thus increasing the possibility of earning more and improving their financial status.

The world has evolved over the years and today, we have a variety of skill-based career opportunities that students can explore after secondary education. The unique curriculum offered by ICSE schools in Navi Mumbai helps students to identify their capabilities and be aware of their own areas of interest.

Over the years, they hone their talents and become equipped to explore a career of their choice. Personality and skill development The specially designed curriculum offered by secondary schools develops every student’s personality and boosts his/her confidence to a great extent.

The faculty trains students to enhance essential traits through extracurricular activities like sports, arts, crafts, music, etc. These activities equip them with social skills and communication skills, other than helping them with finding their hidden talent. Better understanding Till the completion of secondary education, students start understanding the world better, and if they are in the right environment, they develop the right perspective.

During their secondary curriculum, they get an opportunity to interact with students belonging to different cultures, which opens up new horizons. It is the time when children start understanding the nitty-gritty of society. School can help them to understand diverse cultures and their role in keeping society united.

  • Eeps them away from crime and violence Secondary education makes them understand the difference between right and wrong, crime and its repercussion and saves them from getting lost in the dark alleys of crime.
  • They become sensitive towards other people and understand the value of respecting each other’s feelings.

Creates healthy individuals Secondary education makes students aware of good health practices and the importance of staying clean and hygienic, thereby helping them stay healthy while taking care of their family as well. According to one of the studies undertaken to understand the impact of education on health, it was noted that every extra year of secondary education was associated with a 24.5% and 43.1% reduction in young citizens being infected by the deadly HIV.

Top ICSE Schools in Navi Mumbai and their contribution to secondary education To provide multi-disciplinary skills to students, some of the have created 21 st -century frameworks that are globally aligned and have the right set of activities to help children gain skills like critical thinking, creativity, and innovation.Children are taught to take responsibility for their societies and are encouraged to come up with innovative ideas and project-based learning outcomes that give them a clear understanding of the roles they can play as educated citizens.

There is also the emphasis on the holistic development of children, not just in secondary schools but also at the beginning of a child’s educational journey like kindergarten. The idea is to develop them in all areas of life, thus making them emotionally, socially, and academically sound.

Considering the number of benefits a child can gain through secondary school education, parents should ensure that children are given the opportunity to attend a school that emphasizes a wholesome learning approach rather than the traditional bookish method. Even government-run schools are now understanding how holistic education can benefit and improve the educational journey of every child.

There are schemes like the Samagra Shiksha Scheme which helps teachers and students work together to create positive outcomes for all. Secondary education is a crucial part of a student’s learning years, and no child should be denied this opportunity for self-development, which in turn can develop the society and the economy at large.
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What was a goal of the Elementary and secondary education Act of 1956?

Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

Public law Pub.L.89–10
Statutes at Large 79 Stat.27
Acts amended Pub.L.81–874, 64 Stat.1100 ; Pub.L.83–531, 68 Stat.533
Titles amended 20 U.S.C.: Education
U.S.C. sections created 20 U.S.C. ch.70
Legislative history
  • Introduced in the House as H.R.2362
  • Signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on April 11, 1965
Major amendments
Bilingual Education Act Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974 Improving America’s Schools Act of 1994 No Child Left Behind Act Every Student Succeeds Act

Lyndon B. Johnson at the ESEA signing ceremony, with his childhood schoolteacher Ms. Kate Deadrich Loney The Elementary and Secondary Education Act ( ESEA ) was passed by the 89th United States Congress and signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on April 11, 1965.

  1. Part of Johnson’s ” War on Poverty “, the act has been one of the most far-reaching pieces of federal legislation affecting education ever passed by the United States Congress, and was further emphasized and reinvented by its modern, revised No Child Left Behind Act,
  2. Johnson proposed a major reform of federal education policy in the aftermath of his landslide victory in the 1964 United States presidential election, and his proposal quickly led to the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

The act provides federal funding to primary and secondary education, with funds authorized for professional development, instructional materials, resources to support educational programs, and parental involvement promotion. The act emphasizes equal access to education, aiming to shorten the achievement gaps between students by providing federal funding to support schools with children from impoverished families.

  1. Since 1965, ESEA has been modified and reauthorized by Congress several times.
  2. The Bilingual Education Act provides support for bilingual education and educational efforts for Native Americans and other groups.
  3. The Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974 prohibits discrimination against students and teachers.

The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) introduced a testing regime designed to promote standards-based education, The Every Student Succeeds Act retained some of the testing requirements established by the NCLB, but shifted accountability provisions to the states.
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What is the concept of secondary education?

Secondary education, the second stage traditionally found in formal education, beginning about age 11 to 13 and ending usually at age 15 to 18. The dichotomy between elementary education and secondary education has gradually become less marked, not only in curricula but also in organization.
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What are the impacts of Secondary Education Commission?

The Secondary Education Commission 1952 Introduction The Secondary Education commission known as Mudaliar Commission was appointed by the government of India in term of their Resolution to bring changes in the present education system and make it better for the Nation. Dr.A. Lakshmanswami Mudaliar was the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.

  • Highlights
  • The secondary education appointed by the government of India in term of their Resolution number F 9-5/52 B-1 dated 23 September 1952
  • The commission appointed by the government of India,

Dr A. Lakshmanswami Mudaliar (vice-chancellor madras university chairman).

  1. AIMS:
  2. *Development of democratic citizenship
  3. *Development of personality
  4. *Education for leadership.
  5. *Improvement of vocational capability and efficiency
  6. *Concept of world citizenship
  8. Balance mixture of essay type, short answer type and objective type question
  9. *Thought provoking question
  10. *There should be no optional questions
  11. *Question should be made to cover the maximum course
  12. *In place of one paper of three hour duration in a particular subject their should be two paper each of three hour
  13. *Class work be given some consideration
  14. *External exams may be supplemented by vivavoce
  15. *Marking norms should be carefully determined and prescribed
  16. *Difficult, as well as easy question should place in question paper
  17. *There should be no compulsory public examination
  18. *The number of external exam should be reduce
  19. *Cumulative records in respect of every child should be introduced and and maintained
  20. *Symbol / Grades in place of numerical marking should be introduced
  21. Appointment of secondary education commission (1952-53)

The Union Government, appointed the Secondary Education Commission in 1952, under the chairmanship of Mudaliar on the suggestion of Tara Chand Committee and Central Education Advisory Board. Named after its chairman, this Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission.

The Commission thoroughly examined the then prevailing secondary education system and gave a number of suggestions for reforms. Important ones among these were the diversification of the curriculum, and setting up a large number of multi-purpose schools. The courses of study provided in these schools should aim at fulfilling the different aptitudes of the students.

According to the recommendation of the Mudaliar Commission, the outlines for the diversification of curriculum were decided upon. Accordingly, the study of some compulsory subjects was made necessary for all students.

  • Besides, the optional subjects were divided into seven groups for enabling students to get an opportunity to study as many subjects of their liking as they desired. An outline of this curriculum is given below:
  • Compulsory Subjects:
  • (1) Regional language or mother tongue or a combined course of classical language and mother tongue
  • (2) One of the following languages:
  • (A) (a) a classical language (b) besides Hindi one more Indian language (c) Advanced English (for those students who had earlier studied English) (d) Elementary English (for students studying it at the secondary stage) (e) besides English, another modern foreign language, (f) Hindi, (for those students whose mother tongue is not Hindi.)
  • (B) (a) Curriculum of General Science with arithmetic for the first two years only, (b) General course of social sciences for the first two years only.
  • (C) One of the following vocational subjects:-
  • (1) Carpentry (2) Gardening (3) Printing (Spinning and Weaving), (5) Modeling (6) Laboratory test (7) Embroidery (8) Tailoring, embroidery and cutting and (9) Smithy.
  • Optional Subjects:

Optional subjects have been divided into seven groups. It has been made compulsory for a student to study any three subjects of a group. The groups and their subjects are as follows:—

  1. 1. Science Group:
  2. The following subjects have been included in this group:
  3. (1) Chemistry (2) Physics (3) Biology, Zoology or Hygiene (4) Mathematics and (5) Geography.
  4. 2. Humanities Group:
  5. (1) Mathematics (2) Home Science (3) Music (4) Geography (5) History (6) Economics or Civics (7) One language not taken from the group of compulsory subjects or a classical language and (8) Psychology or Logic.
  6. 3. Home Science Group:

This group has been prescribed for girl students. It is compulsory to offer three out of four subjects. The subjects are as under:

  • (1) Home Nursing (2) Home Economics (3) Maternity and Child Welfare (4) Nutrition and Cookery.
  • 4. Commerce Group:
  • (1) Commercial Geography or Economics and Elements of Civics (2) Commercial Practice (3) Short-hand and Type-writing and (4) Book-keeping. «
  • 5. Technical Group:
  • (1) Practical Science (2) Elements of Electrical Engineering (3) Geometrical Drawing and Applied Mathematics and (4) Elements of Mechanical Engineering.
  • 6. Agricultural Group:
  • (1) Botany and Agricultural Chemistry (2) Animal Husbandry (3) Gardening and Orchard keeping (4) General Agriculture.
  • 7. Fine Arts Group:
  • The following six subjects have been included in this group:
  • (1) Painting (2) Photography (3) Drawing and Sketching (4) Dance (5) Music and (6) History.
  • Besides, the optional subjects were divided into seven groups for enabling students to get an opportunity to study as many subjects of their liking as they desired. An outline of this curriculum is given below:
  • Observations of Mudaliar Commission
  • Before the Secondary Education Commission Report, the course content failed to keep pace with the changes in the social, political, economic, and industrial conditions.

It could not keep pace with the latest developments in Education. Theory and practice courses were bookish and theoretical, they encouraged cramming. The instructions become lifeless and monotonous. This has been reflected in the fol­lowing observations of Mudaliar Commission’

  1. (i) The existing curriculum is narrowly conceived.
  2. (ii) It is bookish and theoretical.
  3. (iii) It is over-crowded and the content is not rich and significant.
  4. (iv) It is the provision for practical work is not adequate.
  5. (v) It is not in accordance with the needs and capacities of adolescents.
  6. (vi) It is examination dominated.
  7. (vii) It does not include technical and vocational subjects, which are so essential for industrial and economic development of the country.
  8. The importance of inclusion of technical and vocational sub­jects was also emphasised in its report by Sapru Committee (1934).
  9. A thorough revision and diversification was undertaken on the basis of recommendations made by Mudaliar Commission.

Commerce Education being so closely related with our life its curriculum has to be the nucleus of all the activities. It should, there­fore, include various subjects. At the middle level the following sub­jects are included:

  • (i) Languages, (ii) Social Studies, (iii) General science, (iv) Mathematics, (v) Arts and Music, and (vi) Craft and physical education.
  • At the secondary level there should be a few subjects to be taught as core subjects to be offered by all the students, the subjects to be included as core subjects are as follows:
  • (i) Languages, (ii) Social studies, (iii) General Science, and (iv) Craft
  • For commerce education a separate stream is provided at higher secondary stage and the following subjects are included for being taught in this stream:
  • (i) Book-keeping and Accountancy,
  • (ii) Elements of Commerce or Business Methods and Machinery,
  • (iii) Business Correspondence,
  • (iv) Economics,
  • (v) Commercial Arithmetic,
  • (vi) Short-hand,
  • (vii) Type writing,
  • (viii) Banking, and
  • (ix) Work-experience etc.
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In certain states the courses provide option to select there or four of these subjects e.g. as in Maharastri which has been appreciated by Educationists. However, if this sort of freedom has to be given to the students then the schools should be fully equipped and staffed with the right type of teachers.

  • Though all the subjects listed above are important for com­merce education but four subjects namely type writing, short-hand, book-keeping and general principles of commerce are basic to com­merce and knowledge of these subjects is imparted to all.
  • For ‘The persons joining specialised professions such as those of doctors, lawyers architects etc.

The commerce education be im­ported on the basis of utility”.

  1. It is thus desirable that the course content in commerce programmes is broadly classified into two categories as under:
  2. (i) Vocational Commerce Education, and
  3. (ii) General Commerce Education.
  4. Under the vocational commerce education the knowledge of following subjects be imparted:
  5. (i) Stenography and Sectarian practice,
  6. (ii) Book-keeping and accounts,
  7. (iii) Clerical and general office work, and
  8. (iv) Office practices.
  9. The course content for general commerce education should in­clude the following:
  10. (i) Consumer information-Guidance,
  11. (ii) Business administration and management,
  12. (iii) Economics, and
  13. (iv) Commercial geography etc.
  14. The content and organisation of commerce course is expected to fulfill the following imperative needs if the students:
  15. (i) It is capable of developing saleable skills amongst the pu­pils.
  16. (ii) It develops such attitudes that make the workers an intelligent and productive participant in economic life of the nation.
  17. (iii) It develops in the student a clear understanding of his rights and duties.
  18. (iv) It helps the student to understand, how to purchase and use goods and services intelligently?
  19. (v) It makes clear to the pupil the significance of the family for the individual and the society.
  20. (vi) It helps the student to understand the methods of science and scientific methods of doing business.
  21. (vii) It helps to develop the student’s capacity of appreciating the functioning of an office, business and industry.
  22. (viii) It helps the students to develop respect for other persons.
  23. (ix) It encourages the student to develop and maintain good health so that he can devote himself to his studies whole heartedly.
  24. Curriculum in commerce in high school
  25. Keeping in mind various objectives of commerce education the fol­lowing four sequences have been suggested:
  26. (i) Stenographic sequence,
  27. (ii) Clerical sequence,
  28. (iii) Secterial sequence, and
  29. (iv) Book-keeping sequence.
  30. The following scheme of teaching in different sequences in vari­ous classes has been suggested:
  31. Critical appraisal of curriculum of commerce

India is a vast country and has a number of states and Union Territo­ries. Education is in the concurrent list in Indian Constitution and so the states are free to have their independent education policies. How­ever following general procedure is followed for framing of curricu­lum in commerce by different states “A curriculum committee is committee by the State Board or Secondary Education.

The members of the committee are generally experts, who are nominated by the Board The members meet from time to time and prescribe the courses of study and curriculum in the commerce subjects. There is also a commerce committee of university teachers which recommend the courses of study. Their recommenda­tions are examined at various stages in the Board and then the courses of study are prescribed.

There are some defects in the system of selection of courses and curriculum in commerce stream. Experienced school teachers are not represented. The business circles, for which learners are prepared, are also not represented. The result is that the courses of study suffer in quality and utility.

One of the recommendation made by kothari commission pro­vides for the introduction of specialisation from class XI, but the boards of Secondary Education of most of the Indian states have introduced general education upto class X and specialisation from class XI. Commerce is also being incorporated as a subject of study and in several states it has already been done so in class XI and XII.

According to the growing needs of the economy and the em­ployment opportunities available in the next decade, there is need of bringing about changes in the patterns and composition of the com­merce programme. At present, of the two sequences (i.e. Book-keeping sequence and stenography sequence) only one sequence predominates (i.e.

Book­keeping sequence) and the other sequence (i.e. stenography sequence) remains almost neglected. Even if it has been introduced in a very few schools the programme suffers considerably on vocational grounds. Before finalisation of any syllabus in Commerce it is desirable to have a good deal of discussion among teachers, educators, planners and administrators so that every state may adopt it, maintaining uni­formity in syllabus and standard of achievement in different sequences.

Status of commerce education in secondary schools in India In India commerce education first started at the secondary level but its real growth and development took place at the college level, upto the middle of twentieth century. In India commerce was not considered as a separate discipline and it was reduced to an insignificant item of the twin departments Economics and Commerce, in which Economics had an upper hand.

It hindered any real progress in the field of commerce for a pretty long time. Only after the report of Mudaliar Commission an expansion took place in commerce education. The multipurpose Higher Secondary School were opened and practical subjects were introduced in many fields including commerce. To start with in Commerce education was introduced such subjects as letter writing, Business Methods, Shorthand and Type­writing.

Later on many more subjects such as Book-keeping Economics, Accountancy, Commercial Law, Taxation etc. were introduced. Adopting the recommendation of Dr.V.K.R.V. Rao Committee national Diploma in Commercial practice was started with a view to prepare qualified and skilled persons needed by the growing economy in the country.

With the rapid growth in the field of trade, commerce and industry, the need for proper education and right type of Commerce teachers was felt and to meet the needs of teachers of practical sub­jects a necessity was felt to have some special type of institutes to provide for this type of institution N.C.E.RT.

and Regional Colleges of Education did a commendable job, till about 1963 no facilities existed for providing training facilities in the field of commerce but now such training is available through regular training, in service courses, summer-cum-correspondence courses etc.

But even now the practical aspect of commerce education programme is not quite satis­factory. An effort is needed to accelerate the teaching or shorthand and type-writing etc. in views of an enormously increasing demand in these fields. There is a talk of vocationalisation and work-experience in Education.

It is thus hoped that in recent future the commerce educa­tion will be much more oriented in favour of practical subjects. It would help to achieve the main objective of commerce education i.e. development of employable skills

  • Recommendations of Secondary Education Commission
  • The Commission has defined the aims of secondary education in the following manner:.
  • 1. To Produce Ideal Citizens
  • The Commission has realised that no nation can progress without a national feeling along with social feeling. Therefore, it has laid down that the aim of secondary education should be to produce such ideal citizens who imbued with strong national and social feeling are prepared to shoulder their responsibilities and duties and can easily offer any sacrifice for the sake of their nation
  • Such citizens should have co-operative feeling directed towards universal brotherhood. While describing the national spirit the Commission has sub-divided it into three parts:
  • (a) In the first part the Commission has explained the concept of national feeling. Then it has urged that the students of the country should have faith in the greatness and importance of culture of their country and they should feel proud of the same
  • (b) In the second part the Commission suggests that the student should himself make a self-study and analyze his own positive and negative traits with a view to improve his character and personality.
  • (c) In the third part it has been emphasized by the Commission that one should be prepared to make any sacrifice for the nation.
  • 2. To Develop Capacity for Earning Money

The Commission is of the view that after having received secondary education one should be able to earn enough for maintaining himself. For developing this capacity vocational subjects should be introduced in the curriculum.3. Quality of Leadership Secondary education should develop the quality of leadership in students.

This quality is very necessary for the sake of democracy and for the development of the country as a whole.4. To Develop Human Virtues Man is a social animal. So he should have the spirit of co-operation, discipline, humility, love, kindness and the feeling of brotherhood. The curriculum must have such subjects which may inculcate these virtues in students.

Science, literature, fine arts, humanities, music and dance are some of such subjects. Duration of Secondary Education The Commission has recommended that the secondary education should be for children between 11 to 17 years of age. It has divided this seven years’ education into two parts-(1) Junior High School stage for three years and (2) High School for four years.

The Commission has recommended the introduction of three years’ degree course. For this secondary education should continue up to the eleventh class and the twelfth class should be added to the first degree course (B.A., B.Sc. or B.Com.) of the university. Thus the Commission has suggested the abolition of intermediate colleges existing in some parts of the country.

The Commission has suggested the following changes in the secondary school curriculum: 1. To open multi-purpose schools according to the varying interests of students.2. The multi-purpose schools should be opened near the industrial institutions. The students of these two types of institutions should learn from each other.3.

  1. Agriculture should be made a compulsory subject for schools in villages.4.
  2. In big cities ‘technical area’ should be established on the demands of the local public.5.
  3. Home science should be made compulsory for girls and other subjects should be common for both boys and girls.
  4. Medium of Instruction The mother tongue or the State language should be made the medium of instruction in this connection; the Commission expressed the following ideas also: 1.

The students should be taught at least two languages at the junior high school stage.2. The Commission has suggested that at the secondary stage a student should learn at least three languages, the national language, the mother tongue or the regional language and a foreign language.

Curriculum The Commission has emphasized the necessity of reorganizing the secondary school curriculum in order that the aims of education may be realised. In this connection the Commission wants that: 1. The curriculum should be recognized according to the interests of the students.2. It should be determined for meeting the social aspirations.3.

It should be reorganized keeping in view the demands of the times and those of the country.4. It should be so organized that the student’s time and leisure may not be wasted. Subjects of Lower Secondary Education The Commission has suggested mathematics, general science, languages, social studies, physical education, art, handicraft and music etc., for this stage.

  • Subjects for Secondary Education For this stage the Commissionhas suggested seven groups of subjects as below: 1.
  • Humanities.2.
  • Sciences.3.
  • Agriculture.4.
  • Fine Arts.5.
  • Industrial subjects.6.
  • Commercial subjects.7.
  • Home Science.
  • Selection of Text Books The Commission has opened that text-books should be selected on the basis of their merits and utility.

For this purpose the Commission has recommended the appointment of a High Power Committee which will select books for all the classes. The standard of production, printing and paper used and pictures and illustrations incorporated and suitable content will be the basis of selection.

  1. The Commission has further suggested that the text-book once chosen should not be changed soon.
  2. In addition to text-books each school should have some such books which may impart general knowledge to students.
  3. The teachers should also be provided with new literature and books in order to keep up their interests alive.
  4. Character Formation

Character formation is an important aim of secondary education. This is useful not only for the individual but also for the nation. In fact the character of the nation is reflected by the character of its citizens. Therefore, for raising the character of the nation the character of the students should be well formed.

  • Teaching Method
  • For improving the standard of teaching the Commission has suggested that the Central Government should appoint a Committee of Experts which should make research for finding out ways and means for improving the teaching methods.
  • Improvement of Teachers status

1. Trained teachers should be appointed to teach higher classes.2. The policy of same pay for the same work and ability should be adopted.3. Teachers should be given handsome salary in order that the society may respect them.4. Teachers should be given pension, provident fund and life insurance benefits in order to give then some economic security.

The Government should provide these facilities.5. The children of teachers should be given free education.6. Teachers and their dependents should be given free medical service.7. Separate committees should be appointed for removing the difficulties of teachers.8. The retirement age for teachers should be 60 years.9.

The teachers should not be permitted to take up tuition of students. Training and Qualifications of Teachers The Commission has suggested that for junior classes at least higher secondary school and for senior classes at least graduate teachers should be appointed.

These teachers should be given two years training. Management and Administration of Secondary Schools The Commission has given the following suggestions in this respect: 1. The post of Education Director should be equivalent to the Joint Secretary of the secretariat and he should advise the minister in this capacity.2.

Central and State Committees should be organised for giving advice on secondary education.3. The District Inspector of Schools should not only find faults with teachers but should also assist them in performance of their duties. They should solve their problems arising from time to time and should acquaint them with latest developments in the field of education.4.

  1. The Secondary Education Board should be organised under the chairmanship of Education Director who should arrange for secondary education in his State.5.
  2. A Board for teachers’ training should be established.6.
  3. New schools should be recognised only when they fulfill all conditions.7.
  4. The State Government should organise a Committee for management and administration of schools.
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This Committee should be responsible for the management and administration of schools, but it must not interfere with the work of the Principal. Finance For this the Commission has given the following suggestions: 1. The Government should be responsible for providing vocational education.2.

Industrial education should be levied for the development of vocational and technical education.3. The Centre should give financial aid to States for education.4. No octopi and toll tax should be levied on goods purchased for education institutions. Duration of Session and Leave 1. The school should be opened at least for 200 days a year.2.

The schools in rural areas should be closed at least for 7 days at the time of sowing and harvesting in order that the students may help their family in agricultural pursuits.3. The number of holidays is reduced.4. At least 35 hours should be devoted for teaching per week.5.

  1. The principal should be empowered to decide, about local holidays and school hours.6.
  2. The student should get at least 10 to 15 days’ leave during a session.
  3. The summer vacation should be for two months.
  4. Arrangement of Buildings 1.
  5. School buildings should be away from the hubbub and noise of cities.
  6. They should be situated in peaceful atmosphere.2.

The school building should be adequately ventilated.3. A class should not consist of more than 40 students.4. There should be proper desks and chairs in the schools.5. Each school should have a big hall where all the students may assemble for some group programme.

This hall should be decorated with pictures of great national leaders of different walks of life.6. There should be a well equipped reading room in each school where the students should get newspapers, periodicals, magazines and other literatures of general knowledge. Defects in Secondary Education The defects of secondary education have been pointed out by a number of commissions.

It does not prepare adolescent boys and girls for the pursuit of higher education adequately because, among those who take admission in the university, there is a great incidence of failure in the first year of the first degree course. The Secondary education is too academic and far removed from the problems of life and therefore it is incapable of fulfilling its second objective of equipping boys and girls to enter life confidently and earn their living.

The defects in the school education as highlighted by the Mudaliar Commission are given below.1. An Emphasis on Book Learning The school education does not inculcate in the student the habit of thinking and clear expression. He is unable to reason and sole problems. His expression is weak. Neither can he neither speak nor write.

The instruction is bookish. Answers are crammed. Examinations are passed. But no ability is produced for creative thinking and expression.2. Neglect of Co curricular Activities The emphasis on book learning is so great that all students are supposed to be equally interested in studies.

Co curricular activities are neglected. Facilities for organising such activities in secondary schools are limited. There is paucity of funds. Curricular load is so heavy that teachers and students find time to engage themselves in group games, recreational activities, games and sports, debates and dramas.3.

Education One-sided The school education is one-sided. It trains the intellect and leaves other aspects of personality undeveloped. It aims only at mental growth and development. Little attention is given to the social or emotional development of the child and the youth.

  • It does not cultivate a sense of moral and social responsibility.
  • It does not emphasize character-building.
  • No efforts are made to cultivate interests, attitudes and values for a socialistic society.
  • No arrangements exist for imparting moral instruction.
  • Study of religious is lost sight of.4.
  • Education Unilateral The school education is unilateral.

Secondary schools are one-track schools. They prepare students only for the university. There is little scope for diversification of studies. Individual differences in needs, interests, aptitudes and mental abilities are ignored and all have to pass through the same strait jackets.5.

Teaching Methods Defective The teaching methods are defective. In no secondary school you will find dynamic methods of teaching being followed. Though great efforts have been expended during the last two decades on familiarizing school teachers with right techniques and activity methods through workshops, seminars and refresher courses, yet classroom teaching shows little improvement.

Audio-visual aids, the radio and the T.V. have been provided to some schools generously, but their effect is insignificant. The average teacher suffers from a lack of professional preparation. Educational research on teaching methods suited to Indian needs is nowhere conducted.

The existing educational system is rigid and does not encourage initiative, creativity and experimentation the administrative machinery is not at all concerned with diffusing and dynamic methods of teaching.6. Class Sizes Big The number of pupils in each class in most of the secondary schools is too great.

There is no teacher-pupil relationship, and hence no personal contact is possible. No improvement in methods of teaching is possible when a teacher is required to teach very large class every day and in every period allotted to him. Class sizes in schools where extension of buildings is not possible have grown formidably great.7.

  • Quality of Text-books Defective The quality of text-books, teachers’ guides and teaching materials is not satisfactory; probably there has been no serious effort either on the Central or on the state level to produce good quality text-books.
  • The top ranking scholars do not like the job.
  • There are malpractices in the selection and prescription.

The publishers who are interested in profits do to produce teachers’ guides to accompany text-books.8. Examination System Improper The evils of examination system are known to everybody. These defects have been pointed out, time and again, by committees and commissions.

  1. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) devoted a whole chapter to surveying the limitations of the present examination system and suggesting ways of improvement.
  2. The movement of examination reform that started after the publication of the report does not seem to have the desired impact on objectives, learning experiences and evaluation procedures in school education.9.

Guidance and Counseling Facilities Inadequate Little has been done in the matter of guidance services to secondary school pupils. To supply a trained guidance worker to every school is difficult. It would be unrealistic to think of providing qualified counselors to all schools.

Yet resources could have been mobilised during the 20 years that have elapsed since the setting up of a Central Bureau of Educational and Vocational Guidance in 1954 The report of the Education Commission (1964-66) A national system of education is one which is established firmly on the basic values and traditions which a nation normally clings to.

It tends to support national goal and tries to meet the national objectives. The system of education that existed in the country prior to 1937 had been a foreign plant forced to grow on Indian soil. It was transplanted in India by British rulers and we had to cling to it for more than a century ‘because it happened to be in tune with the traditional hierarchical structure of our society’.

  • Else, it had no right to exist.
  • The English people did try to improve the system from time to time but failed to evolve a system that could satisfy people’s aspirations.
  • Many commissions and committees were appointed to suggest improvements in the system of education prior to 1947.
  • But problems studied by them were specific in nature.

They examined the issues one by one. The entire field was not surveyed and viewed. The significant role that education could play in the economic and social development of the country, in the building of a truly democratic society, in the promotion of national unity could not be realised before 1960, because the conditions were different.

  1. The Education Commission 1964-66 was charged with the responsibilities of examining the entire field of educational development and of advising the Government on the national policies of a fresh educational reconstruction.
  2. The Report that the Commission submitted on June 28, 1966 has been the most comprehensive piece of work on education published so far.

The First Service Attempt to Review all Aspects of Education It contains recommendations on all aspects of education. It covers education at all levels from the pre-primary through the secondary to the higher. It highlights not only the existing defects in the system at each level, but also offers practical suggestion for eradicating them.

  1. The width of scope covered can be gauged through a review of the sections of the report itself.
  2. The Report is divided into three parts.
  3. The first part deals with general problems of Indian education.
  4. Some of these are: How can a national system of education contribute to national development? What should be national pattern of education- How can teacher’s socio-economic status be raised? How can qualitative improvement of education be achieved? How can social justice be achieved in the field of education? The second part of the Report covers different stages and sectors of education.

Stages are related to school and universe education and sectors are concerned with agricultural, technical and vocational education.

  1. The aspects of school education covered are the problems of expansion, curriculum, teaching methods, text-books, guidance, evaluation, administration and supervision.
  2. Some of the problems relating to higher education are those that are connected with the establishment of major universities, programmes of qualitative improvement, enrolment and university governance.
  3. The second part deals with problems of agricultural, vocational, technical and engineering education, and those of science education and research and of adult education.
  4. The last part of the Report deals with the problems of implementation, namely, educational planning and administration and educational finance.

It is the first serious attempt to examine all aspects of education (at all levels). Shri M.C. Chhagla did not exaggerate when he remarked that the Report is ‘a unique document’. It provides realistic and categorical answers to questions in education. Controversial problems have been examined from all possible angles and definite solutions have been suggested.

  • It says that by 1975 Regional languages should become the media of instruction at all stages including the university stage, that English may continue to be the link language of the intellectual people for some time, that it may be replaced by Hindi (the language of the Centre) sooner or later, and that Hindi should not be a compulsory subject in non-Hindi speaking areas.
  • The Report is a serious attempt, because whatever suggestions °r recommendations it presents are practical and can be implemented. When the Report was published, doubts were raised and the following questions were asked:
  • ‘Is the game worth the candle?”
  • “Is it not going to meet the same fate as its predecessors?”
  • “Will it not be devaluated in course of time?”

: The Secondary Education Commission 1952
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What is called Mudaliar commission?

What is Mudaliar Commission? Find the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation The Mudaliar Commission was an education commission set up with the aim of examining the system of secondary education in India. Its main purpose was to examine the conditions of the secondary education system in the country and suggest ways to improve it. : What is Mudaliar Commission? Find the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation
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Which commission is known as the First education commission?

Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation The first education commission in India was the Hunter Commission. It was set up on February 3, 1882 under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter, a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy. The Hunter Commissions made the following recommendations with regards to education in India.

Preference be given to people who can read and write when selecting persons to fill the lowest offices in the government

Formation of school districts taking the area of any municipal or rural unit of Local self-Government and establishment of schools placed under their jurisdiction in each district.

District and Municipal Boards were directed to assign specific funds to primary education.

For further reading check the following articles: : Which is the first education commission in India? Explore the Answer at BYJU’S UPSC Preparation
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What is called the Popular Mudaliar commission?

When Mudaliar Commission was appointed?a.1950b.1951c.1952d.1953 Answer Verified Hint: After achieving independence, India needed major reforms in the education system. With the growing number of secondary schools in India, India needed to take care of the education especially secondary education.

  1. Complete Answer: The Secondary Education Commission was also known as the Mudaliar Commission.
  2. It was appointed by the government of India to make changes in the present education system.The aims of the commission were to enquire about the problems faced by the secondary education system in India, the objectives, organization and content of the secondary education as well as the relation of the secondary education to the higher and primary education.The Commission recommended to take measures for the relationship between the primary, higher and secondary education system, the aims, organization and content of education and other problems that may be necessary for establishing a sound and reliable secondary education system in the country.Now, let’s look at the given options:Option (a) In 1950, the Constitution of India came into force making India a republic country.

Thus, this answer is incorrect.Option (b) The Mudaliar commission was established in 1951 to look after the concerns of secondary education of India. So, this is the correct answer.Option (c) Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru formed his first government in India and the first Lok Sabha session started in India in 1952.Option (d) The government of India had set up the first backward classes commission headed by Kaka Kalelkar in 1953.
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