What Was The Education System Like At The Vedic Time?
Practical Education – Vedic education was not based solely on learning out of books. Hands on training in professions that interested the students was encouraged. They were taught the dignity of manual labour and the value of having a vocational training. Vocations included weaving, pottery and a number of other arts and professions.
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How was the Vedic education system?
what were the chief characteristics of Vedic education system of India
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- The chief characteristics of Vedic Education are:
- The study of Vedas was the main aim of Vedic education. Thus, the Rig Veda forms the most vital aspect of Vedic education.
- The students spend most of their time in self-study, thinking, and meditation. More than worldly materials, knowledge and intellectual plays an integral aspect.
- Religion plays a vital role in Vedic Education. Every student needs to study the course of religion. Thus, Vedic Education gives importance to religion.
- The main aim of Vedic education was to attain salvation through education.
- The teacher teaches the student in Gurukulas and Ashrams. The students and teachers follow the principle of simple living but high thinking.
- Education helped in observance of celibacy, control over sense and purity of life.
- Admission was based on good behavior and education was free for everyone.
- Students had great respect and devotion for their teachers and the teacher-student relationship was cordial and conducive. Teachers were held in high esteem.
- The main focus of education was on practical knowledge and other vocations learning.
- Education was based on one on one teaching. Every teacher teaches one student. The teacher gives importance to the all-round development of the students.
- The method of teaching was psychological.
- Women were given a high place in society. Also, attention was given to their education.
- There was no bias of students on grounds of caste, creed, color, etc.
- Students remain busy in thinking and meditation. Thus, this led to the development of originality among them.
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: what were the chief characteristics of Vedic education system of India
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When did Vedic education started?
Vedic Education – In ancient India, education was imparted and passed on orally rather than in written form. Education was a process that involved three steps, first was Shravana (hearing) which is the acquisition of knowledge by listening to the Shrutis.
- The second is Manana (reflection) wherein the students think, analyze and make inferences.
- Third, is Nididhyāsana in which the students apply the knowledge in their real life.
- During the Vedic period from about 1500 BC to 600 BC, most education was based on the Veda (hymns, formulas, and incantations, recited or chanted by priests of a pre-Hindu tradition) and later Hindu texts and scriptures.
The main aim of education, according to the Vedas, is liberation. Vedic education included proper pronunciation and recitation of the Veda, the rules of sacrifice, grammar and derivation, composition, versification and meter, understanding of secrets of nature, reasoning including logic, the sciences, and the skills necessary for an occupation.
- Some medical knowledge existed and was taught.
- There is mention in the Veda of herbal medicines for various conditions or diseases, including fever, cough, baldness, snake bite and others.
- Education included teaching of Ayurveda, 64 kalas (arts), crafts, Shilpa Shastra, Natya Shastra.
- Educating the women was given a great deal of importance in ancient India.
Women were trained in dance, music and housekeeping. The Sadyodwahas class of women got educated till they were married. The Brahmavadinis class of women never got married and educated themselves for their entire life. Parts of Vedas that included poems and religious songs required for rituals were taught to women.
Some noteworthy women scholars of ancient India include Ghosha, Gargi, Indrani and so on. The oldest of the Upanishads – another part of Hindu scriptures – date from around 500 BC. The Upanishads are considered as “wisdom teachings” as they explore the deeper and actual meaning of sacrifice. These texts encouraged an exploratory learning process where teachers and students were co-travellers in a search for truth.
The teaching methods used reasoning and questioning. Nothing was labelled as the final answer. The Gurukula system of education supported traditional Hindu residential schools of learning; typically the teacher’s house or a monastery. In the Gurukul system, the teacher (Guru) and the student (Śiṣya) were considered to be equal even if they belonged to different social standings.
Education was free, but students from well-to-do families paid “Gurudakshina”, a voluntary contribution after the completion of their studies. Gurudakshina is a mark of respect by the students towards their Guru. It is a way in which the students acknowledged, thanked and respected their Guru, whom they consider to be their spiritual guide.
At the Gurukulas, the teacher imparted knowledge of Religion, Scriptures, Philosophy, Literature, Warfare, Statecraft, Medicine, Astrology and History. The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as technical scientific, philosophical and generally Hindu religious texts, though many central texts of Buddhism and Jainism have also been composed in Sanskrit.
Two epic poems formed part of ancient Indian education. The Mahabharata, part of which may date back to the 8th century BC, discusses human goals (purpose, pleasure, duty, and liberation), attempting to explain the relationship of the individual to society and the world (the nature of the ‘ Self ‘) and the workings of karma,
The other epic poem, Ramayana, is shorter, although it has 24,000 verses. It is thought to have been compiled between about 400 BC and 200 AD. The epic explores themes of human existence and the concept of dharma (doing ones duty).
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Which system of education was followed during the Vedic age?
VEDIC EDUCATION MAJOR FEATURES OF THE VEDIC SYSTEM OF EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA
- v Introduction
- v Salient Features Of Vedic Education In Ancient India
- v Forms Of Educational Institutions In Vedic Period
- v Role Of Teacher And Students
- v Conclusion
The education system which was evolved first in ancient India is known as the Vedic system of education. In other words, the ancient system of education were based on the Vedas and therefore it was given the name of Vedic Educational System. Vedas occupy a very important place in the Indian life.
- The basis of Indian culture lies in the Vedas which are four in number – Rigveda, Samveda, Yajurveda, and Atharavaveda.
- Some scholars have sub divided Vedic Educational period into Rig Veda period, Brahmani period, Upanishada period, Sutra (Hymn) period, Smriti period etc but all these period, due to predominance of the Vedas, there was no change in the aims and ideals of educations.
That is why, the education of these periods, is studied under Vedic period. “Swadesh Pujyate Raja, Vidwan Sarvatra Pujyate” This verse widely quoted in India illustrates the significance of education in India. The education system of Vedic period has unique characteristics and qualities which were not found in the ancient education system of any other country of the world.
- According to Dr.F.E.
- Ey, “To achieve their aim not only did Brahmans develop a system of education which, survived even in the events of the crumbling of empires and the changes of society, but they, also through all those thousands of years, kept a glow of torch of higher learning.” In the words of Dr.P.N.
Prabhu, “Education in ancient India was free from any external control like that of the state and government or any party politics. It was the kings duties to see that learned Pundits, pursued their studies and performed their duty of imparting knowledge without interference from any source what so ever.” The education system that prevailed during the Vedic times had some unique characteristics.
Education was confined to the upper castes, and to those who were BRAHMACHARIS. In Indian tradition, a person’s life cycle is divided into four stages of which BRAHMACHARI is the second phase. This is the time set aside for learning and acquiring skills. During Vedic period, most of the upper castes, which were either Brahmins or Kshatriyas had their education in a unique system called GURUKULAM.
Students had their education by living with their preceptors in forests far removed from cities, towns or villages. The life of students who were called SHISYAS was very rigorous and demanding. Those who failed to live up to these high standards would simply fall by the wayside.
There were legendary acharyas like Sanandeepani and Dronacharya who taught epic heroes like Krishna and Arjuna martial skills, but what makes the Vedic period unique is the existence of sages like Gautama and Jaimini who were founder of different schools of Indian philosophy like Nyaya and Purva Mimamsa,
This was a period of intense intellectual activity and speculation, which we hardly find even now. While Nyaya and Vaisheshika were theistic philosophies, Sankhya was atheistic.
- There were of two types of BRAHMACHARIS who attended such GURUKULAMS, they were: UPAKURVANA BRAHMACHARI who remains a student for a limited time period after which he marries and becomes a householder and NAISHTHIKA BRAHMACHARI who remains a student and celibate throughout life dedicated to the pursuit of learning.
- SALIENT FEATURES OF VEDIC EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA
- 1. Infusion of Spiritual & Religious Values:
The primary aim of ancient education was instilling into the minds, of pupils a spirit of being pious and religious for glory of God and good of man. The pursuit of knowledge was a pursuit of religious values. Education without religions instructions was not education at all.
It was believed that a keener appreciation of spiritual values could be fostered only through a strict observance if religious rites.2. Character Formation and Personality Development In no period of the History of India, was so much stress laid on character building as in the Vedic period. Wisdom consisted in the practice of moral values.
Control of senses and practice of virtues made one a man of character. Moral excellence could come only through practising moral values. The teacher and the taught were ideals of morality, for both practiced it all through their lives. The Guru in the ancient times realized that the development of personality is the sole aim of education.
The qualities of self-esteem, self confidence, self restraint and self respect were the personality traits that the educator tried to inoculate in his pupils through example.3. Development of Civic Responsibilities and Social Values The inculcation of civic virtues and social values was an equally important objective of education in India.
The Brahmachari after his education in the Gurukulas went back to the society to serve the rich and the poor, to relieve the diseased and the distressed. He was required to be hospitable to the guests and charitable to the needy. After a certain period of studies he was required to become a householder and to perpetuate his race and transmit his culture to his own off springs.4.
- 5. Aims of Education:
- The ultimate aim of education in ancient Indian was not knowledge as preparation for life in this world or for life beyond, but for complete realization of self for liberation of the soul from the chains of life both present and future.
- 6. Methods of Instruction
It was a pupil centered education. No single method of instruction was adopted, though recitation by the pupil followed by explanation by the teacher, was generally followed. Besides question – Answer, Debate and Discussion, Story telling was also adopted according to need.
- 7. Medium of Instruction
- As these educational institutions were managed and organized by Brahmans and all the books written in Sanskrit, therefore the medium of instruction was Sanskrit.
- 8. The ‘Upnayana’ Ritual
The word ‗upnayana ‗means to take close to, or to being in touch with. A ceremony called the upnayana ceremony was performed before the child was taken to his teacher. This ceremony was performed at the ages of 8,11 and 12 for the Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, respectively.
The ceremony signaled the childs transition from infancy to childhood and his initiation into educational life. In this context, the term ‗upanayana‘ means putting the students in touch with his teacher.9. Celibacy or Brahamacharya Every student was required to observe celibacy in his specific path of life.
Purity of conduct was regarded as of supreme importance. Only the unmarried could become students in a Gurukul. On entering student life, the student was made to wear a special girdle called a ‗makhla‘. Its quality depended on the caste of the student. The students were not allowed to make use of fragrant, cosmetic or intoxicating things.10.
Alms System The student had to bear the responsibility of feeding both himself and his teacher, this was done through begging for alms, which was not considered bad. Since every domestic knew that his own son must be begging for alms in the same way at some other place. The reason behind the introduction of such a practice was that accepting alms induces humility.
The student realized that both education and subsequent earning of livelihood were made possible for him only through society‘s service and its sympathy. For the poor students, Begging for alms was compulsory and unavoidable, but even among the prosperous, it was generally accepted practice.11.
- 12. Duration of Education
- In the house of the teacher, the student was required to obtain education up to the age of 24, after which he was expected to enter domestic life students were divided into three categories:
- a) These obtaining education up to the age of 24 – Vasu
- b) These obtaining education up to the age of 36 – Rudra
c) These obtaining education up to the age of 48.- Auditya.13. Curriculum Although the education of this period was dominated by the study of Vedic Literature, historical study, stories of heroic lives and discourses on the puranas also formed a part of the syllabus.
Students had necessarily to obtain knowledge of metrics. Arithmetic was supplemented by the knowledge of geometry. Students were given knowledge of four Vedas – Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda. The syllabus took with in its compass such subjects as spiritual as well as materialistic knowledge, Vedas, Vedic grammar, arithmetic knowledge of gods, knowledge of the absolute, knowledge of ghosts, astronomy, logic philosophy ethics, conduct etc.
The richness of the syllabus was responsible of the creation of Brahman literature in this period.14. Plain Living and High Thinking The education institutions were residential in the form of Gurukulas situated in forest, where teachers and pupils lived together.
- 15. Academic Freedom
- Due to academic freedom students remained busy in thinking and meditation. It enhanced originality among them
- 16. High place to Indian culture
Indian culture was full of religious feelings and it was assigned a very high place in the field of education. Vedic culture was kept intact and transmitted through word of mouth to succeeding generations. The ancient Indian education system was also successful in Preserving and spreading its culture and literature even without the help of art of writing, it was only because of the destruction of temples and monasteries by invaders that literature was lost.
The cultural unity that exists even today in the vast- sub continent in due to the successful preservation and spread of culture and the credit goes to Ancient Education System.17. Commercial Education and Mathematics Education Commercial education and Mathematics education is also one of the chief features of vedic period.
The ideas of the scope and nature of commercial education can be held from manu. Knowledge of Commercial geography, needs of the people of various localities, exchange value and quality of articles and language spoken at different trade centre were considered necessary.
Theory of banking was also included in the course. Though there were no organized educational institutional training was usually imparted in the family. As far as Mathematics education is concerned, ancient Indian quite early evolved simple system of geometry. Shulva sutra are the oldest mathematical works probably compased between 400 BC and 200 A.D.
Aryabhata (476.52 BC) is the first great name in Indian Mathematics. The concept of Zero also belonged to this period.18. Female Education During the Vedic age women were given full status with men. For girls also the Upanayan (initiation ceremony) was performed and after that their education began.
- They were also required to lead a life of celibacy during education.
- They used to study the Vedas and other religious and philosophy books, they were free to participate in religious and philosophical discourses.
- Many ‘Sanhitas’ of Rigveda were composed by women.
- In Gurukulas the gurus treated male and female pupils alike and made no distinction what-so-ever.
FORMS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN VEDIC PERIOD 1. Gurukulas Gurukulas were the dwelling houses of gurus situated in natural surroundings away from noise and bustle of cities. Parents sent their wards at the age of five years to nine years according to their castes after celebrating their Upanayan Sanskar.
Pupils lived under the roof of their guru called ‘antevasin’ under the direct supervision of their Guru. Gurukula as the name indicates was the family of the teacher and his residence where the students used to stay during the period of study. Gradually, the Gurukula were extended to include a number of buildings.
However the institution was built up around the family of teacher. The primary duty of the student was to serve the teacher and his family. The students were like sons of the teacher and the whole institution lived like family.2. Parishads Parishads were bigger educational institutions where several teachers used to teach different subjects.
- This may be compared to a college parishad in Upanishads, has been used for a conference of learned men, assembled for deliberations upon philosophical problems.
- Later on the ‘Parishads’ were set up at the places where learned men lived in good number and gradually these institutions became permanent centres of imparting knowledge.
In the words of Dr.R.K. Mukherjee Parishad correspondences to University of students belonging to different colleges.3. Sammelan Sammelan literally means getting together for a particular purpose. In this type of educational institutions scholars gathered at one place for learned discussions and competitions generally on the invitation of the king.
Scholars were appropriately rewarded. ROLE OF TEACHER AND STUDENTS In Bhartiya Darshan ‘Guru‘has significant place. It consists of two words, Gu-ru. The word ‘Gu’ indicated darkness and ‘ru’ means controller. It means to avoid darkness or ignorance. In Vedas the term achariya is used for guru. Guru is considered greatest treasure of knowledge.
In educative process teacher and students are the two components; a teacher provides physical, materialistic and spiritual knowledge to his students. The educative process is teacher centred. Guru satisfies the curiosity and needs of his students. Guru was the spiritual father of his pupils.
- Gurus were taking care of their pupil in same manner as a father takes care of his son.
- When a student was to become a pupil of any Guru, the recognized way of making application to him was to approach him with fuel in his hands as a sign that he wished to serve him and help to maintain his sacred fire.
With ‘Upanayan’ ceremony the disciple (shishya) gained the generous shelter and patronage of his gurus. The term ‘shishya’ indicates the following qualities.
- a) He is to be administered guru
- b) He is able to obey his guru
- c) He may be punished by his guru
- d) He is be wished by his guru
- e) He is to be Preached by his guru
- f) He is to be treated equality
- g) He is devoted committed to acquired wisdom
In the Dharam Sutra, there are rules laid down for the conduct of both teachers and pupils. The pupil was subjected to a rigid discipline and was under certain obligations towards his teacher. He should remain with his teacher as long as his course lasted and not live with anybody else.
CONCLUSION In Vedic era education had the prominent place in society. It was considered as pious and important for society. Education was must for everybody for becoming cultured. Relationship between Guru and pupils were very cordial during vedic and post- vedic period. By means of education efforts were being made to infuse ―Satyam Shivam and Sundaram‖ inside the students.
A great importance was attached to veda in education system, self study Swadhyaya was considered more important during that period. The vedic period favored women education. The ancient Indian education system was successful in preserving end spreading its culture and literature even without the help of art of writing.
It was only because of the destruction of temples and monasteries by invaders that the literature was lost. The cultural unity that exists even today in the vast sub-continent is due to successful preservation & spread of culture. The education system infused a sense of responsibilities and social values.
The ancient education system achieved its aims to the fullest extent. Ancient education emerged from Vedas. The basis of Indian culture lies in the Vedas. READ ALSO : : VEDIC EDUCATION
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What was the importance of education in Vedic period?
Vedic literature is supposed to be a part of our daily life.Its nothing to do with employment opportunities, It would be great if we can have it as a essential subject in school itself. Vedic education is the core foundation of India’s culture & rich heritage.
No one can be called educated who cannot preserve and expand his cultural heritage.This study is about the importance of vedic ideals of education in the modern education system.The need of this study is to maintain the discipline in the modern educational institutes and to create cordial relation between teacher and student.This study can convince the modern generation that in order to achieve high ideal of perfect mastery over senses,in order to erect the ideal of truth, the ideal of liberty,the ideal of equality and ideals of peace and unity then we need to accept the ideals of vedic education.The practice and utilization of Vedic knowledge can indeed assist us in many ways.
Vedic education is the solution to all problems which we presently find in this world.We need to look now deeper view to find out the answers and solutions. The formation of character by proper development of the moral feeling was aim of vedic education.
Therefore the direct aim of all education, whether literary or professional, should be to make the student fit to become a useful member of society.Education ought to develop man’s ideal nature by giving him a sure moral feeling and enabling him to control his original animal nature. The aims and ideals of Vedic education were to promote simultaneous and harmonious development.
Men are social beings,vedic education not only emphasized social duties but also promoted social happiness.I. Introduction Since education has been linked with employment and not knowledge in present society.The Vadic system is dying due to lack of employment potentials.
- Moral education was a perennial aim of vedic education.
- The function of schools, were not only to make the people knowledgeable but also to make them well cultured.
- However, with industrialization, I personally feel that moral education has lost its roots.
- We are living in an age of rapid scientific and technological change, we also do not deny that such changes have varying impacts on different social groups within the same society and across different societies.
We have ignored the ideals of truth in search of material life. The principles of Vedic education have been a source of inspiration to all educational system of the world. These days it has become a big problem for modern institutions that how to tackle with the students and how to impart moral values,because due to indiscipline educational environment has become so venomous.Their is no sense of discipline among modern students.the technology which we can use for improving our knowledge and skills but we have made it harmful by often using it for entertainment purpose only.Modern students are not morally perfect and they behave irresponsible.we can say that it is the influence of materialistic mode of life or it may be an effect of improper care by parents or it may be an effect of change in the society and changing family environment.
- Vedic ideals of education has tendency to change the minds of people and their character,It has tendency to convert the bad into good.
- Because the ultimate aim of Vedic education was development of personality and character.
- If modern student want to achieve perfect mastery over senses then he has to follow the ideals of vedic education.
The ultimate aim of education should not be to full fill the desires of life in this world, but for complete realization of self for liberation of soul. Moral education motivates me to present the importance of Vedic education, because moral education makes a man civilized, cultured.Without moral education a man can not be able to differentiate good and bad.The root problem in modern era is the adaptation of a materialistic mode of life.These days life has become totally full of show and fashion.According to Vedas, the important aspects of education is to train the young to be truthful because the Nobel soul who pursues the path of truth is never defeated.
In Vedic period teaching was considered a holy duty and it shows the world that how much responsible was a Vedic teacher as compared to modern period.Here moral education motivates me to present the importance of Vedic education and in my whole research proposal I will focus on this, because moral education makes a man civilized, cultured.Without moral education a man can not be able to differentiate good and bad.
We lack in all disciplines, we have not understand our responsibilities. Now there is no bond between teacher and student, curriculum is different. The primary aim of any system of education should be development of a whole some personality. we can see all such above statement fairly enough for a man to become as pious as possible but in our modern world It seems impossible because everyone is trying to achieve material life.
- Vedic period was totally a inspirational not only to our mother country but also to whole world.
- The Vedas urge upon men to assemble on a common platform, to think together, and to work together for achieving a common goal.
- Education alone is the panacea for all social evils.
- In vedic era education was must for everybody for becoming cultured, not for making it a source of money.If we want better society, civilized people who are ready to make contribution to the society according to their abilities,then it is necessary to make moral education based on Vedic educational system available for ones reach.
II. Review of Literature Number of studies has grown in the area of vedic education considerably. But still much work needs to be done. Scholars have analyzed the growth and development of Vedic Education with great care and they have examined every aspect of the ancient education system,These studies are very important raw material for the present study.
Sri. Aurabindo (1948) in his edition titled Mahabharatha and Ramayana showed that the Ramayana embodied the Indian imagination to its highest and tenderest human ideals of character, made strength courage gentleness; purity fidelity and self-sacrifice familiar to it in the most harmonious forms colored, so as to attract the emotion and the aesthetic sense.
Saran (1954) attempted to analyse the Gurukula system of education and to explore the possibility of reinstating it in India in a modernized form. He has studied some peripheral concepts regarding the Gurukula system, in comparison with western models ―in order to show the superiority of the ‗rishi-aim‗ of God realization‖, and some suggestions and exhortations were given.
- His main suggestions are: (1) the pupil should read and question their guru in a homely atmosphere.
- 2) The students should develop a religious outlook and aim at God-realization.
- 3) Education should be imparted in a democratic way and (4) it should help to strengthen the national solidarity along with international understanding.
Radhakumud Mookerji (1960) in his detailed study of Ancient Indian Education brings to light the educational ideas found scattered in Hindu thought. He has stated that the aim of life and education was the realization of the absolute truth known as God.
- Education must aim at self-fulfillment and not merely the acquisition of knowledge.
- Education must not be limited to the brain or to the development of the physical senses.
- The aim should be to transform the entire personality of man.
- Education is a process of control of the mind.
- The total individual is its chief concern.
The pupils have to imbibe the qualities and ideals of the teacher. The students should catch‗ the ideas of the teachers. Charle‗s study on Bhagavat Gita (1971) points out that Bhagavat Gita contains many ideas which could become the basis for a sound advanced philosophy and the same is quite significant for various aspects of Educational systems in India.
- Abir (1961), Rawat (1970), Chandras (1977), and Mookherji(1989) present their theory and explanation of Vedic education within a linear framework which is often ambiguous, redundant and rigid.
- The limitations of the framework arise due to insistence on analyzing the development of systems and methods in a linear progression through different ages.
Much of the presentation falls within neat categories of vaguely accepted historical periods of reference. They present a segmented analysis according to Vedic period, post Vedic period, Sutra period, Epic period, Panini period and Philosophical Sutra period.
These classifications tend to distort the overall picture of Vedic Education and artificially attribute its development and maintenance to questionable historical factors. While this approach has received support over the years and reflects the approach established by prominent Ideologists such as MacDonnell A.A.
(1961): A History of Sanskrit Literature, Muller, F.X. (1878) Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion and others, there is growing evidence to indicate its shortcomings. It is beyond the intention and scope of the present thesis to debate Sanskrit scholarship and the historicity of Vedic India.
The educational concepts and ideas for the present study are gleaned from across the historical divisions and presented in consistency and coherence with the overall presentation of Vedic education in the works of Prabhupada. This enables us to develop an outline of the essential principles of Vedic education and evaluate them in terms of contemporary educational theory.
The research in Indian universities in the field of the history of education is based on the three earlier surveys (Buch, 1974; Buch, 1979; Buch, 1986) and also the abstracts of the 51 doctoral theses included here. Radha Kumud Mookerji establishes the standard in scholarly analysis and presentation of Vedic Education in his definitive statement, Ancient Indian Education (1989).
He combines two important scholarly attributes; knowledge of the Sanskrit language, with a depth of historical insight into the development of educational concepts, methods, institutes and curriculum. He also highlights significant salient features of the Vedic educational system, which are especially relevant for an appreciation of their contemporary counterparts.
Prabhupada‘s (1983,1985,1987,1989) contribution to the present debate of relevancy is especially significant in relationship to understanding the principles of the Vedic culture, social system and educational philosophy. Through his translation and commentary on The Srimad-Bhagavatam and The Bhagavad gita, Prabhupada reveals the essence of his educational philosophy.
Three salient features are prominent in his overall analysis and will be examined in light of recent research in teaching children to develop their independent thinking skills. These features are that: • The human form of life is temporary like others, but it affords one the opportunity to inquire into the nature of reality, • This inquiry is most effectively conducted under proper guidance, and • The real goal of education is to develop character.
Sreebhuvanam (1992) critically analysed the vision of Adhyatma Ramayanam with respect to its contents and aim. The investigator points out the difference between Vidya and Avidya and reveals the importance and the ways and methods of attainment of self- realization Radhakrishnan (1993) critically examined the Advaitha philosophy in Ezhuthachan‗s Adhyatma Ramayanam with respect to Advaitha philosophies in Bhagavat Gita and other Indian epics.
- The investigator points out the importance of Advaitha philosophy and its practical implications in the modern world.
- Ramashrya Sharma,(1994) in his book ―A socio-political study of Ramayana‖, revealed every conceivable bit of information about education, state, kingship, administration, war and military organization,position of women and mythology.
It emphasized the importance of moral values in molding personality. The book also brought out the spiritual and material values of education whose relevance can be seen in the present world. Bhurijana (1995), Urmila (1992), and Jagadisa (1982) are the sole contributors to the literature of a contemporary approach to implementing the concepts and principles of Vedic education in the modern classroom.
These authors are experienced educators and have a practical, as well as philosophical appreciation, of the problems encountered at the implementation phase. Bhurijana book, The Art of Teaching, 1995, incorporates contemporary research with examples for clarification from the books and lived example of Prabhupada.
Almost half the book is dedicated to organization and discipline, which indicates a strong emphasis on creating the appropriate environment and maintaining it for the purpose of effective teaching. The study on Educational Ideas of Upanishads by Surendran (1998) reveals that Universal integration was the ultimate aim of education and it was comprehensive in all respects.
- Objective based approach in education was prominent and there was a perfect harmony in teacher-pupil relationship.
- The Upanisadic society was purely secularist.
- The study on Educational Ideas in Vedic period and its relevance to Modern World (1999) is the contribution of Peethambaran Pillai.
- The study reveals that Education should ultimately aim for self-realization and the Education system should be re-arranged to promote the spirit of enquiry by adopting problem solving method.
Joshua David Stone(2003) pointed out that the Ramayana contains the essence of the more technical Vedic scripture with a simplistic treatment to reach the common men. He also asserted that the Ramayana is a text book of morals and ideals for youth and people of all ages to enjoy and aspire.
- He pointed out the high educational ideals that the Ramayana focuses.
- Methodology This is a theoretical work which explores in detail,the system of education in Vedic period, and its importance in the modern educational system.The proposal which I have selected has a great importance because the main aim of this study is to examine the impact of holistic education inspired by the Vedantic (Hindu) conception of epistemology.
An ethnographic research approach is required, as the best means of data collection, analysis and interpretation. This is to allow for greater flexibility and openness in seeking answers to the postulated research questions. This research is a combination of description, exploration and explanation in a Critical Social Research model.
- The Critical Social Science approach is necessary for change.
- This is also analytical type of research because I have to use the data which is already available and to make a critical evolution of the material.
- It felt great to describe the needs and requirements for future maintenance and growth of vedic principles.It is not a hypothetical approach and because I am presenting what I have observed within the society,There is no need of tentative assumption because we all know that present era is full of evils and vedic principles are the only solution to all.
I am trying to have a good kind of response to the question of relevancy.Whether vedic ideals can be able to eradicate the social evils and is it possible for the modern generation to accept the vedic principles,For data collection I have many things in my mind infect I can use relevant methods to solve my problem.This is also exploratory research and I have to explore the new things which can be successfully implemented in the modern educational system.
Objectives To offer valuable suggestions and conclusions for the effective functioning of modern educational system. To enable the student to apply the principles and techniques of vedic educational psychology in developing the integrated personality. Results And Discusions There are various features of vedic education which can be acceptable in the modern education system:- The highest education is that which does not merely give us information but makes our life in harmony with all existence(Rabindranath Tagore).
Education is a purposeful activity.Through vedic ideals we intend to bring certain desirable changes in the students. In Ancient India the ideal of life was spiritualistic. Educational aim was determined by the conception of life. Thus the aim of education was self-realization or the realization of Brahma or the Absolute.so we can use various aspects of vedic education to bring out certain changes in our modern society,e.g 1.Moral Education: As I said earlier it has become big question for modern institution that how to face with different types of behavioral problems among the students.
In-fact institutions are not fully aware how and when moral values should be teaching to the students.Man is a social animal and he has to learn different social habits like respecting elders and teachers,helping the poor,respecting the women.There should be separate department of moral education in the modern institutions.
Vedic education was totally based on moral values and strong emphasis was given to moral education.If we really want better society,pious people then moral education should be made prime weapon for changing the nature of students.2. Discipline: Vedic student always followed the principle of simple living and high thinking but modern generation has adopted its reverse, simple thinking and high living.
Vedic student regard his teacher as his father.In vedic period there was very good kind of mutual understanding between teacher and student.The sense of discipline and the cordial relation between teacher and pupil of vedic age is well known to the world.Today we see the educational atmosphere has become so venomous due to indiscipline.
The sense of discipline can be developed if teacher pupil relationship can be made to adopt the ideal relationship between teacher and pupil.3. Curriculum: We need to make vedic education available for ones reach. In vedic period education was not only for acquisition of knowledge but its main aim was formation of character.Provision was made for the student, he was not prepared for this world, but for the eternal happiness in the other world.
Curriculum of modern institutions is totally different.The ultimate aim of modern education is to prepare the student for the world. Education is something, which makes a man self-reliant and self-less(Rigveda) 4. Life of Students:- In vedic age students were bellowed to lead a simple life. Nowadays the life style of our young generation has altogether changed they like to lead a life with full of fashion and show.
They have given up the principle of ‗Simple Living and High Thinking‗ and adopted its reverse principle i.e. High Living and Simple Thinking. The whole balance of the life is disturbed. In order to make their life healthy and smooth they. Should be made to realize the importance of ancient style of life.5.
- Education for Self sufficiency: Education is that whose end product is salvation (Upanishads).
- Education according to Indian tradition is not merely a means of earning a living; nor it is only a nursery of thought or a school for citizenship.
- It is initiation into human souls in the pursuit of truth and the practice of virtue.
The ancient schools followed the principle of education for self sufficiency. Modern education lays stress upon preparing students to prepare themselves for their future life. Vocational subjects have been included in the curriculum in order to vocational education but much is needed to the done in this direction in order to achieve the desired aim.
Result – Students will be able to learn different social habits like helping the people, gentleness, respect the elders and teachers and so many.These good habits make them good social creatures and they will be known good human beings.Students will be able to realize that the should not engage themselves to criticize others because Vedas warns us those who defame others ultimately cause injurious themselves.Institutions will easily induce moral feelings among students.Relationship between teacher and student will be cordial and most vital thing is formation of character.We will able to realize how to respect women,how to get rid from social evils as we all know vedic ideals of education are the solution to all social evils.Materialism should not be our aim of life because Vedas advise us to become a man of values than success.In every aspect of life we have to be remain truthful because Vedas asserts; truth never dies.
Conclusion Dr. Radhakrishnan has rightly said that:―A civilization is not built of bricks, steel and machinery, it is built with men, their quality and character‖.So the true aim of education is to develop in the body and in soul all the beauty and all perfection of which they are capable.Modern situation is different,we have lost almost lost everything which was inherited to us from generations.The discipline,the cordial relation between student and teacher,the social,moral values which vedic period developed in the education have been totally lost.It is true that we can not follow all the aspects of vedic education but there some ideals which are applicable in present education system.We need to understand our duties and responsibilities and we all have to make some kind of contribution to the society.All such things are possible only when we follow the principles of vedic education,The Vedic system of education was aimed at molding the young pupils into individuals capable of living a perfect and full life – based on the principles of Dharma.
The educated ones in that system were men who had not only knowledge but also character‖. Vedic student were taught to respect their elders, namely, father, mother, teachers and guests.The basic aim of ancient education was instilling into the minds, of peoples spirit of being pious and religious for glory of God and good of man.
The pursuit of knowledge was a pursuit of religious values. The student had to observe strict regulations. Instruction was important, but was even more significant than teaching was discipline – discipline inculcated through strict obedience to laws and regulations of student life, discipline that was rooted in morality and religion A student was required to give up lust, anger, greed, vanity, conceit and over joy.
- In this research work an attempt will be made to highlight the salient features of the Vedic education.
- Here I am suggesting practical modifications to the modern educational system, that will enable teachers and students to improve their skills of discrimination, analysis and evaluation.
- The Vedic education system was successful in preserving and spreading its culture and literature even without the help of art of Therefore, in this Report, an analysis of significant concepts in relation to education have been discussed,In this research I m trying to convey my message that without moral education we can not make any kind of change.
Universities,colleges,institutions etc will not be able to make the students as pious as vedic students were used to be. Lastly I want to conclude my topic with these lines that we are living in modern age but we should feel proud of the civilization and culture of our ancestors inherited to us.
- We should give more preference to character, spiritualism, philosophy rather than wealth, materialism,
- The present world gives reverence to wealth, power violence and diplomacy.We should believe in idealism and wish to lead an ideal life.
- The whole balance of the life of the student is disturbed.
- In order to make his life healthy and smooth he Should be made to realize the importance of vedic education which is totally moral education and I think moral education is enough for the success of every individual.
True education should aim at imparting a humanistic attitude and the spirit of service. The Vedas censure the self-centered man whose accomplishments are aimed exclusively at selfish end. Education should enable an individual to transcend his individuality in conscious social participation.
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