What Measures Were Taken By The English Education Act Of 1835?
The English Education Act was introduced in the year(A) 1850(B) 1835(C) 1910(D) 1900 Answer Verified Hint: An act is a document that records a fact or something expressed, done, or agreed upon. Acts are usually written legal documents with probative and executory value.
Complete answer: Thus the correct answer is option ‘B’. Note: The English Education Act of 1835 has three distinct features:
The education Act was introduced in the year 1835. Lord William Bentinck, then Governor-General of the British East India Company, decided in 1835 to reallocate funds needed by the British Parliament to spend on education and literature in India, and the Act of the Council of India gave effect to his decision.They had previously provided very minimal support for traditional Muslim and Hindu education, as well as the dissemination of literature in India’s then-traditional languages of learning (Sanskrit and Persian); they were to assist establishments that taught a Western curriculum using English as the medium of instruction going forward.Macaulay believed in the supremacy of the western learning.
- He held the views that English should be the only medium of education in India.
- This was making English the language of the nation, it was no more native language of its foreign rulers.
- Vernacular language instruction, on the other hand, continued to get little money, despite the fact that it had never had any support before 1835.- English should be used as a medium of instruction in higher education.
– To stop promoting oriental schools like the Calcutta Madrasa and the Benaras Sanskrit College. – Incorporate English textbooks into school curriculum. : The English Education Act was introduced in the year(A) 1850(B) 1835(C) 1910(D) 1900
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- 1 Why is the year 1835 important in the history of English teaching in India?
- 1.1 What was the great debate on education in 1835 India?
- 1.2 What was introduced in India 1835?
- 1.3 What was significant about 1835?
- 2 Why was the education Act of 1835 considered a turning point for Indian education system class 8?
Why was the English Education Act of 1835 introduced?
The English Education Act was introduced in the year, No worries! We‘ve got your back. Try BYJU‘S free classes today! Right on! Give the BNAT exam to get a 100% scholarship for BYJUS courses No worries! We‘ve got your back. Try BYJU‘S free classes today! No worries! We‘ve got your back. Try BYJU‘S free classes today! Open in App Suggest Corrections 0 : The English Education Act was introduced in the year,
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Why is the year 1835 important in the history of English teaching in India?
On this day in 1835, Lord Macaulay successfully westernised education in India; English was made the official language for the government and courts, and was adopted as the official medium of instruction. – Macaulay v/s traditional languages : Ever wondered why we use UK English in India? Thomas Babington, better known as Lord Macaulay, is the man who brought the English language and British education to India. His highly debatable introduction of the English language and the approach to minimalise the use of traditional languages makes an interesting read.
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What was the great debate on education in 1835 India?
Vernacular experiments – A vernacular effort similar to Bengal existed in the Bombay Presidency as well. Supported by Governor Mountstuart Elphinstone, the Bombay Native Education Society offered English classes in 1824. Other colonial officials and Indian scholars translated works in science and western literature into local languages of the Bombay Presidency – Marathi and Gujarati.
- George Ritso Jervis, a civil engineer, translated a work of geometry into Marathi, and there was a translation of Aesop’s Fables into Gujarati.
- In another experiment, Lancelot Wilkinson, the Resident at Bhopal, saw merit in ancient Indian science works such as the Siddantas and proposed their translation, along with western works, into native languages.
These efforts were among the examples cited by officials to vouch for the efficacy of the vernacular approach. The criticisms against the vernaculars were that it would, a) be costly and involve a lot of funds and, b) the vernacular languages were one too many and no one was quite like the other.
- But dismayed at colonial ignorance about the native languages, the vernacularists had their arguments too, as has been detailed by historian John D Windhausen,
- They said that the filtration approach would not work as it would only create an elite educated class.
- Educating what they described as the “native masses” was the most humanitarian thing to do.
They also believed that with the spread of education, aided by the Company and the British government, the subjects would come to appreciate British rule.
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What was decided in 1835 regarding the medium of instruction?
When did the British make English the medium of instruction Free 100 Questions 200 Marks 120 Mins
In 1835, British made English the medium of instruction in India. William Bentinck, the Governor-General of India and Lord Macaulay decided to introduce English in India. The English Education Act 1835 was a legislative Act made by Lord William Bentinck. Wood’s Dispatch, 1854 is considered as the “Magna Carta of English Education in India”. It contained a comprehensive plan for spreading education in India. It was recommended that English should be the language of medium to teach in schools and colleges.
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What was introduced in India 1835?
English Education in India was introduced on the advice of_.A- William Bentinck B- MacaulayC- Sir Charles WoodD- Dalhousie Answer Verified Hint: This person served between 1839 and 1841 as the War Minister, and between 1846 and 1848 as the Paymaster-General.
Complete answer: Hence, the correct answer is option (B) Note: The English Education Act, although, was brought to effect by Lord William Bentinck, was based upon the advice and ideas of Thomas Macaulay and hence these two should not be confused with each other.
The English Education Act 1835 was the Council of India’s statutory act, which gave effect to a decision by Lord William Bentinck, then Governor-General of the British East India Company, in 1835, to reallocate funds that the British Parliament needed to spend on education and literature in India.Previously traditional Muslim and Hindu education and the publishing of literature in the then traditional languages of learning in India (Sanskrit and Persian) had been restricted in support of traditional Muslim and Hindu education; henceforth, they were to support establishments teaching a Western curriculum with English as the language of instruction.Thomas Babington Macaulay created his famous Memorandum on (Indian) Education in discussions leading up to the Act, which scratches on the inferiority (as he saw it of native (especially Hindu) culture and learning.
Therefore through English-language higher education, there was a need to establish a class of people, Indian in blood and color, but English in taste, beliefs, morals, and intellect,’ who could, in turn, acquire the resources to communicate Western learning in the vernacular languages of India.The immediate cessation of printing by the East India Company of Arabic and Sanskrit books and that the Company should not continue to promote traditional education beyond the Sanskrit College at Benares and the Mahometan College at Delhi” were among Macaulay’s recommendations (which he considered adequate to maintain traditional learning).The English Education Act took a less negative attitude to traditional education.It was soon succeeded by further measures based upon the provision of adequate funding for both approaches.
: English Education in India was introduced on the advice of_.A- William Bentinck B- MacaulayC- Sir Charles WoodD- Dalhousie
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What was main objective of Macaulay’s minute 1835?
Thomas Babington Macaulay Presented his Minute on Indian Education on February 2, 1835 – This Day in History
- 2 February 1835
- Macaulay’s Minute on Indian Education
- What happened?
Thomas Babington Macaulay On 2 February 1835, British historian and politician Thomas Babington Macaulay presented his ‘Minute on Indian Education’ that sought to establish the need to impart English education to Indian ‘natives’. This minute is a very important document for history.
- British education policy in colonial India was initially almost non-existent as their sole purpose was to make profit through trade and other means. Gradually, the importance of education was appreciated and the company started building a few institutes of higher learning. These learning centres taught Indian subjects in languages like Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian. Persian was the court language too.
- The Charter Act of 1813 was the first concrete step towards modern education in the country. This act set aside an annual sum of Rs.1 lakh to be used in educating the ‘subjects’.
- One must note that missionaries were already present in the country and they were involved in this field as well. However, they chiefly imparted religious education and their primary motive was Christianizing the ‘heathen’ natives.
- After the Charter Act, there was a split among the British regarding the mode of education to be imparted to Indians. While the orientalists believed that Indians should be educated in their own languages and taught their own scriptures and texts, the other group decided that English education was the best kind to be imparted.
- It was in the midst of this that Macaulay landed in India in June 1834, as the President of the General Committee of Public Instruction (GCPI).
- Macaulay was a proud Englishman convinced of his own nation’s greatness and achievements, which he considered the best whether it was in the sciences or the arts. Nothing wrong with that, except that he was perhaps too prejudiced to see things from a different perspective. His famous minute will reveal his scant regard for anything Indian.
- In his minute on education, he justified the use of English as the medium of instruction, and also the teaching of western education to Indians.
- He lampooned Indian knowledge and languages and thought them completely worthless. For instance, he said of Indian literature:
“a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia.”
- He also believed that western science was far superior to Indian knowledge. “It is, I believe, no exaggeration to say that all the historical information which has been collected from all the books written in the Sanskrit language is less valuable than what may be found in the most paltry abridgments used at preparatory schools in England.”
- Of course, one must remember that these were not just his own ideas or opinions. He was merely reiterating what many in the west thought then.
- Macaulay wanted the government to spend money only on imparting western education and not on oriental education. He advocated the shutting down of all colleges where only eastern philosophy and subjects were taught.
- He also advocated that the government try to educate only a few Indians, who would in turn teach the rest of the masses. This is called the ‘downward filtration’ policy.
- He wanted to create a pool of Indians who would be able to serve British interests and be loyal to them. This class would be “Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellect.”
- Macaulay’s proposals were promptly accepted by Lord William Bentinck, but he cleverly deferred its implementation until he was to relinquish his post as governor-general. Bentinck perhaps wanted to avoid a backlash from some quarters. He nevertheless, did not shut down oriental learning completely as proposed by Macaulay.
- Macaulay’s proposals were officially sanctioned in March 1835. In 1837, English was made the court language. In 1844, high government posts were open to Indians.
- Later the Wood’s Despatch in 1854 regularised British efforts for education in India.
- Macaulay obviously won the debate against the orientalists. It would not be an exaggeration to say that he set the tone of education in India for good.
- In his minute, he had said that a day could come when the vernacular languages would die a natural death. Today, he has been proved wrong. The number of people who use these languages is increasing by the day. The literature in these languages is also expanding and evolving.
- He has of course been successful in creating a class of Indians who have taken to the English language enthusiastically. Many in the country use it as a first language although this number is small.
- It could be argued that moral victory is with the Indians in this English versus native debate. Whether Macaulay was able to make Englishmen out of Indians is debatable, but the English language has been conveniently Indianised and altered to such an extent that sometimes it is hardly discerned by the native English!
Also on this day 1889 : Birth of Amrit Kaur, freedom fighter and Gandhian.1915 : Birth of writer and journalist Khushwant Singh.
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: Thomas Babington Macaulay Presented his Minute on Indian Education on February 2, 1835 – This Day in History
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What was significant about 1835?
On October 2, 1835, the growing tensions between Mexico and Texas erupt into violence when Mexican soldiers attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, sparking the Texan war for independence. Texas—or Tejas as the Mexicans called it—had been a part of the Spanish empire since the 17th century.
- However, even as late as the 1820s, there were only about 3,000 Spanish-Mexican settlers in Texas, and Mexico City’s hold on the territory was tenuous at best.
- After winning its own independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico welcomed large numbers of Anglo-American immigrants into Texas in the hopes they would become loyal Mexican citizens and keep the territory from falling into the hands of the United States.
During the next decade men like Stephen Austin brought more than 25,000 people to Texas, most of them Americans. But while these emigrants legally became Mexican citizens, they continued to speak English, formed their own schools, and had closer trading ties to the United States than to Mexico.
- In 1835, the president of Mexico, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, overthrew the constitution and appointed himself dictator.
- Recognizing that the “American” Texans were likely to use his rise to power as an excuse to secede, Santa Anna ordered the Mexican military to begin disarming the Texans whenever possible.
This proved more difficult than expected, and on October 2, 1835, Mexican soldiers attempting to take a small cannon from the village of Gonzales encountered stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia of Texans. After a brief fight, the Mexicans retreated and the Texans kept their cannon.
- The determined Texans would continue to battle Santa Ana and his army for another several months before winning their independence and establishing the Republic of Texas.
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What is significant about the year 1835?
On January 8, 1835, President Andrew Jackson achieves his goal of entirely paying off the United States’ national debt, It was the only time in U.S. history that the national debt stood at zero, and it precipitated one of the worst financial crises in American history.
- The elimination of the national debt was both a personal issue for Jackson and the culmination of a political project as old as the nation itself.
- Since the time of the Revolution, American politicians had argued over the wisdom of the nation carrying debt.
- After independence, the federal government agreed to take on individual states’ war debts as part of the unification of the former colonies.
Federalists, those who favored a stronger central government, established a national bank and argued that debt could be a useful way of fueling the new country’s economy. Their opponents, most notably Thomas Jefferson, felt that these policies favored Northeastern elites at the expense of rural Americans and saw the debt as a source of national shame.
- Jackson, a populist whose Democratic Party grew out of Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican Party, had a personal aversion to debt stemming from a land deal that had gone sour for him in his days as a speculator.
- Campaigning for re-election in 1832, Jackson vetoed the re-charter of the national bank and called the debt “a moral failing” and “black magic.” Jackson vetoed a number of spending bills throughout his tenure, putting an end to projects that would have expanded nationwide infrastructure.
He further paid down the debt by selling off vast amounts of government land in the West, and was able to settle the debt entirely in 1835. Jackson’s triumph contained the seeds of the economy’s undoing. The selling-off of federal lands had led to a real estate bubble, and the destruction of the national bank led to reckless spending and borrowing.
Combined with other elements of Jackson’s fiscal policy as well as downturns in foreign economies, these problems led to the Panic of 1837. A bank run and the subsequent depression tanked the U.S. economy and forced the federal government to begin borrowing again. The U.S. has been in debt ever since. The debt skyrocketed during the Civil War but was nearly paid off by the early 20th Century, only to balloon again with the onset of World War I,
Numerous presidents and politicians have decried the debt and even pledged to do away with it, with conservatives and libertarians frequently echoing Jackson. Nevertheless, with the debt now surpassing $22 trillion, it is unlikely that the events of 1835 will be repeated in the foreseeable future.
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Why was the education Act of 1835 considered a turning point for Indian education system class 8?
The Education Act made English the medium of instruction for higher education and stopped the promotion of Oriental institutions like the Calcutta Madrasa and Benaras Sanskrit College. These institutions were seen as ‘temples of darkness that were falling of themselves into decay’.
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