What Is Tournament In Physical Education Class 12?

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Tournaments: – A tournament is a competition involving relatively large number of competitors, all participating in a sports or game. It is a series of contests with several rounds in which many contestants compete, individually or as a team to decide the winner.

In other words, tournament is a series of contests in which a number of contestants compete and the one that prevails through the final round or that finishes with the best record is declared the winner.1.3 Tournament: A series of sports competitions, in which, a team finally wins and rest of the participating teams lose the matches.

It depends on various factors i.e – No. of participating teams, availability of grounds and equipment, No. of days and funds. Importance of tournaments are – Source of Recreation; A large number of people go to watch various games and sports for getting recreation.
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What is the meaning of tournament in physical education?

A tournament is a sports competition in which players who win a match continue to play further matches in the competition until just one person or team is left.
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What do you mean by tournament explain?

: a series of games or contests that make up a single unit of competition (as on a professional golf tour), the championship playoffs of a league or conference, or an invitational event.
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How many types of tournament are in PE?

There are four main types of tournaments which are listed below: a Knockout or elimination tournament. b League or round robin tournament. c Combination tournament. d Challenge tournament.
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What do you mean by league tournament class 12?

Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 1 Planning in Sports Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 1 Planning in Sports is part of, Here we have given Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 1 Planning in Sports.1 Mark Questions Question 1.

What is planning in games and sports? OR What do you mean by planning in sports? Answer: Planning is a process of development of a strategy to achieve desired objectives, to solve problems and to facilitate action. With the help of appropriate planning in the field of games and sports, even some hitherto unachievable tasks can be achieved.

Question 2. List the various types of tournaments. Answer: Various types of tournaments are

  • Knock-out or Elimination tournament
  • League or Round Robin tournament
  • Combination tournament
  • Challenge tournament

Question 3. Define knock-out tournament. OR What are knock-out tournaments? Answer: This type of tournament is also known as elimination tournament. In this type of tournament, loser of each bracket is immediately eliminated from the tournament. Question 4.

Round Robin tournament is of two types. Name them and give one major difference between them. (All India 2017) Answer: There are two types of league or round robin tournaments (i) Single League Tournament In single league, every team plays with every other team once. Number of matches \(=\frac \) (N = number of teams) (ii) Double League Tournament In double league, every team plays with every other team twice.

Number of matches =N(N-1) (N = number of teams) Question 5. What do you mean by consolation tournament? Answer: Consolation tournament are those tournaments in which an additional chance is given to the defeated teAnswer: Question 6. What is seeding? (CBSE 2013,11) Answer: Seeding is a procedure by which good teams are placed in fixtures in such a way that stronger teams do not meet each other at the very start of a tournament.

In seeding, the strong teams are selected to keep them at appropriate places in the fixtures so that they should not meet in the earlier rounds. Question 7. What is bye? (All India 2016,14) Answer: Bye is a privilege given to a team which is decided generally by seeding it or by draw of lots. Question 8.

Explain procedure for giving bye. (CBSE 2013,12) Answer: Byes can be applied equally to single person competitions and team sports as well as to single-game eliminations and best of series eliminations. If the number of competitors or competing teams are not a multiple of 2 then some teams may get ‘bye.’ Question 9.

  • Write formula for giving bye.
  • All India 2016) Answer: Formula for giving bye = Next power of 2-No.
  • Of Teams Upper Half \(=\frac -1} \) Lower Half \(=\frac +1} \) Question 10.
  • What do you mean by league tournament? OR What is league tournament? Answer: A league tournament is also known as round robin tournament.

In this type of tournament, each contestant meets all other contestants in turn. Question 11. Enlist two objectives of intramurals. (Delhi 2016, 15, 14) Answer: The two objectives of intramurals are

  • To provide incentive, motivation and opportunity to learn various skills.
  • To develop sportsman spirit among students.

Question 12. What do you mean by extramural? Answer: Extramural means ‘between institutions’ or we can say that these competitions are conducted between the players of two or more institutions. Question 13. What does the school intend by stating that, “only such students shall participate in the Basketball Intramurals who have not represented the school in Basketball in the past and minimum 10 substitutions shall be compulsory.” (CBSE Model Paper 2015) Answer: To promote mass participation and to explore the hidden talent of the students.

  • Health run
  • Run.for fun
  • Run for specific causes
  • Run for unity

3 Marks Questions Question 15. Write the name of various committees. (All Indio 2016) Answer: Arrangement Committee, Technical Committee, Discipline Committee, Reception Committee, Boarding and Lodging Committees, Certificate Writing Committee, Medical Committee, Announcement Committee, Recorders and Bulletin Board Committee.

  1. Source of Recreation A large number of people go to watch various games and sports for getting recreation. Sports tournaments provide ample recreation to the spectators.
  2. Development of Social Qualities Social qualities such as cooperation, tolerance, sympathy, group cohesion, brotherhood and discipline are developed among participants through sports tournaments.

Question 17. What do you mean by knock-out tournament? Draw the fixture of 21 teams on knock-out.basiS, (CBSE 2016,14,13) Answer: In this type of tournament, the team which is defeated once’ gets eliminated immediately and will not be given another chance to play. What Is Tournament In Physical Education Class 12 Question 18. What is a knock-out tournament? Mention any two disadvantages of knock-out tournament. Delhi 2016 Answer: A single elimination tournament (also called an Olympic system tournament) or a knock-out tournament is a type of elimination tournament where the loser of each bracket is immediately eliminated from the tournament.

  • There are chances of weaker team to get to finals.
  • In case of poor play in a particular match, the better team may not qualify for the next round.

Question 19. What are the advantages of knock-out tournaments? Answer: The advantages of knock-out tournaments are

  • Minimum number of officials are required in organising tournaments.
  • Less number of matches are played, thus requiring less time to complete the tournaments.
  • It helps in enhancing the standard of sports.

Question 20. Draw the fixtures of 7 teams on knock-out basis. Answer: Total number of matches = N -1 = 7 -1 = 6 Number of teams in upper half \(=\frac =\frac =\frac =4\) tems Number of teams in lower half \(=\frac =\frac =\frac =3\) terms Total number of byes = Next power of two – Total teams = 8 – 7 = 1 bye Question 21. Draw a fixture of 11 Football teams participating in a tournament on the basis of knock-out. Question 22. Briefly explain types of league tournaments. Answer: There are two types of league tournaments

  1. Single League Tournament In single league, every team plays with every other team once. Number of matches \(=\frac \) (N=number of teams)
  2. Double League Tournament In double league, every team plays with every other team twice. Number of matches =N(N—1) (IV= number of teams)

Question 23. Explain the staircase method of a league tournament for 7 teams. Answer: In staircase method, fixtures are made just like a ladder or staircase. This method is the easiest method because no bye is given to any team and there is no need of the stipulation of odd or even number of teams. Question 24. Explain cyclic method of league tournament for 4 teams. Answer: In this method, one team is kept fixed and other teams are moved clockwise. When the number of teams is even, no bye is given, but if the number of teams is odd, one bye is given in each round. Total matches \(\begin =\frac } \\ =\frac =6}\end \) (2 matches in each round) where team 1 is fixed. Question 25. Briefly mention the objectives of intramurals. Delhi 2015 Answer: The objectives of intramurals are

  • To provide incentive, motivation and opportunity To learn various skills.
  • To develop sportsman spirit among students.
  • To help in recreation of the students.
  • To improve social interaction among the Students.

Question 26. Mention the activities which are included in intramurals and extramurals. Answer: Activities that are included are

  1. Intramurals Lazium, Dumb-bell, Marching, Tag game, Roller skating, Sack race, Shuttle run, Volleyball, Football, Cricket, Basketball, Athletics, Kho-kho, Cycling etc.
  2. Extramural Friendly matches, Restricted competitions, Open competitions etc.

Question 27. Differentiate between intramural and extramural competitions in detail. (Delhi 2016,11) Answer: Differences between intramural and extramural competitions are

S.No. Intramural Competition Extramural Competition
1. Intramural competitions are organised by the schools, institutions or faculty of the institution. Extramural are being organised by either schools, institutions or associations.
2. It is played among the group of students of one school or institution. The participants are from more than one organisation or school or institute.
3. In it a large number of students are known to each other. In it most students are not known to each other.
4. Intramurals are campus competitions and played within the boundaries of an institution. Extramural are out of boundary competitions and may be played at any place where infrastructure is available.

Question 28. Briefly explain about any two specific sports programmes. Answer: Sports programmes can be explained as

  1. Run for Fun It can be organised by any educational institution for another institution or organisation and for people of all ages. It is arranged just for the sake of fun to create good habits for good health.
  2. Run for Unity An institution can organise a run for unity to create a feeling of unity among the people and communities for the unity of the country.

5 Marks Questions Question 29. What are specific sports programmes? Explain with suitable example. (All India 2017) OR What do you mean by specific sports programmes? Explain any three. (CBSE 2013) Answer: Specific sports programmes are those programmes of sports which are not usually related to competitions. 1. Sports Day is rapidly growing in popularity and deserves a prominent place in the intramural and extramural athletic programmes of any school, college or other organisation. Sports day refers to a programme when one or several schools, colleges or other organisations participate in physical education activities.

  1. They may invite several teams for various sports.
  2. When thus organised, each team is identified with the institution it represents.
  3. Sports day may also be used to culminate a season of activity for participants within the same school or college.2.
  4. Health Run It is organised in almost every part of the world.

In India, it is organised by many states to make people health conscious. For this, WHO allots sufficient funds to different organisations. These organisations organise and promote health runs. These health runs lay stress on removing deadly diseases. Health runs and rallies are organised every year in the world on 1st December to commemorate AIDS day.

These runs give knowledge to people about AIDS, symptoms and causes and how to take preventive measures.3. Run for Unity It is a kind of mass running which generates the feeling of unity. It is organised by different nations by their Central Government, State Government, Sports federations etc to create a feeling of oneness among the people.

By organising such runs, people of all ages from different states come together and such runs develop the feeling of patriotism in children and students feel that they all belong to one nation. Question 30. Being sports captain of the school, prepare five important committees with their responsibilities to conduct one day run for health race.

  1. Publicity Committee This committee will prepare the advertisement plans, announce the sports events dates, venues and notify the same to public through newspaper, television, e-mail and websites.
  2. Boarding and Lodging Committee This committee will arrange the accommodation of the participants and ensure the provisions for food and refreshments.
  3. Transportation Committee This committee provides the necessary transportation to the participants to and fro the venue.
  4. Grounds and Equipment Committee This committee takes care of the ground where the event is to take place. At the same time, it also takes care of the equipment and check if they are running properly.
  5. Reception Committee The members of this committee are responsible to welcome the Chief Guest and spectators at opening and closing ceremonies.

Question 31. Suggest the formation of various committees for systematic and smooth conduct of sports day in your school. (All India 2014) Answer:

  • Selection of Members Students who are interested and motivated to take part should be included in the committee.
  • Define Tasks Clearly Next step is to define the tasks of each committee. All the committee members should be given clear guidelines about their task.
  • Planning the entire event properly/looking at each and every aspect of the sports day.
  • Establish Goals Each committee should be clearly told about their goals so that they know what is expected of them.
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Question 32. What is the meaning of tournament? Draw knock-out fixture for 27 teams. (CBSE 2012) Answer: A tournament is a competition held among various teams in a particular activity according to a fixed schedule where a winner is decided. What Is Tournament In Physical Education Class 12 Total no. of teams = 27 Total no. of matches = 27 – 1 = 26 Number of teams in upper half \(\begin } \\ =14}\end \) Number of teams in lower half \(=\frac =\frac =13\) Total no. of byes = 32 – 27 = 5 Number of byes in upper half \(=\frac =2\) Number of byes in lower half \(=\frac =3\) Question 33.

  • What do you understand by fixture? Draw a fixture of 13 teams in knock-out tournament.
  • OR What do you mean by tournament? Draw a fixture of 13 teams in knock-out tournaments.
  • CBSE 2011) Answer: Fixture is the process of arranging the teams in systematic order in various groups for competition in a physical activity.

In other words, it is the set-up of various teams for competitive matches where they play in a systematic order as per the fixture schedule. A tournament is a competition held among various teams in a particular activity according to a fixed schedule where a winner is decided. Question 34. Draw a knock-out fixture of 21 teams mentioning all the steps involved. (All Indin 2015) Answer: Total no. of matches = N – 1 = 21 – 1 = 20 \(=\frac =\frac =11\) terms No. of teams in lower half \(=\frac =\frac =10\) terms Total no. of byes = 32 – 21 = 11 byes No.

of byes in upper half \(=\frac -1} =\frac =5 \mathrm \) No. of byes in lower half \(=\frac +1} =\frac =6 \mathrm \) Total rounds = 5 No. of byeš in I quarter \(=\frac -1} =\frac =2 \mathrm \) No. of byes in II quarter \(=\frac +1} =\frac =3\) byes No. of byes in III quarter \(=\frac =\frac =3\) byes No.

of byes in IV quarter \(=\frac } =\frac =3 \mathrm \) Question 35. What is league tournament? Draw a fixture of 9 teams participating in league tournament. Answer: League Tournament It is also known as round robin tournament. In this type of tournament, all teams play against each other team irrespective of winning or losing. Question 36. What do you understand by intramural? What is its importance? Answer: The word intramural is derived from the Latin words intra and muros, which means ‘within walls’. The teams compete within the walls of an institution e.g. inter-class tournament or inter-house tournament in a school. Importance of Intramurals

  • It improves the sense of citizenship and adult living.
  • It helps in selection of teams for participation in extramural competitions.
  • It brings out the hidden talent of the students.
  • It develops leadership qualities in students.
  • It creates recreational atmosphere among the teachers and students.
  • It helps the students to learn about the conduct of various games.
  • It develops the physical fitness of students.
  • It develops social values and qualities.
  • It develops personality.
  • It provides relaxation from strenuous school work.

Value-Based Question Question 37. Mohan with the intention to win the extramural sports event practised long jump every day for about a month. He participated and won 1st position in interschool sports event. (i) What is extramural? (ii) Comment on the values Mohan possesses.

Answer: (i) Extramural is the activity performed outside the walls of the institution or school. It means two or more schools organise a competition where their students participate. (ii) Mohan shows determination and dedication. He plans beforehand, prepares well for the event then executes his plans successfully.

This develops his self-esteem, social skills and sportsmanship.1 Mark Questions: Question.1. Explain procedure for giving bye. Answer. Before drawing a fixture, two things are ensured, i.e. whether the number of teams participating is a power of two or not.

If the number of teams is a power of two, byes are not given. In case the number of teams is not a power of two, then byes shall be given. For instance if the number of teams participating are 11, next higher power of two will be 16. So, the number of byes is 16 – 11 =5. Question.2. What is seeding? Answer.

Seeding is given to some special teams or those teams which are winners/runners up of the last year’s tournament. In seeding, the strong teams are selected to keep them at appropriate places in the fixtures so that they should not meet in the earlier rounds.

Question.3. Define knock-out tournament. Or What are knock-out tournaments? Answer. This type of tournament is also known as elimination tournament. In this type of tournament, a team which is once defeated automatically gets eliminated from the tournament and only the winning team continues in the tournament.

Question.4. What do you mean by league tournament? Or What are league tournaments? Answer. A league tournament is also known as round-robin tournament. In this type of tournament, all teams play against each other irrespective of winning or losing. Question.5.

Mention any four specific sports programmes. Answer. Specific sports programmes are (i) Health run (ii) Run for fun (iii) Run for unity (iv) Run for awareness Question.6. List the various types of tournaments. Answer. Various types of tournaments are (i) Knock-out tournament (ii) League tournament (iii) Combination tournament (iv) Challenge tournament Question.7.

What is bye? Answer. Bye is a privilege given to a team, generally by drawing lots, exempting it from playing a match in the first round. Question.8. What do you mean by consolation tournaments? Answer, Consolation tournaments are those tournaments in which an additional chance is given to the defeated team.

  • Question.9.
  • What do you mean by extramural? Answer.
  • Extramural means ‘between institutions’ or we can say that these competitions are conducted between the players of two or more institutions.
  • Question.10.
  • What is planning? Or What do you mean by planning in sports? Answer.
  • Planning is a process of development of a strategy to achieve desired objectives, to solve problems and to facilitate action.

Planning covers all the aspects of any tournament.3 Marks Questions: Question.11. Briefly mention the objectives of intramurals. Answer. The objectives of intramurals are

  1. To provide incentive, motivation and opportunity to learn various skills.
  2. To develop sportsman spirit among students.
  3. To help in recreation of the students.
  4. To improve social relations among the students.

Question.12. Discuss any two importance of tournaments. Answer. The importance of tournaments are

  1. Source of Recreation A large number of people go to watch various games and sports for getting recreation. Sports tournaments provide ample recreation to the spectators.
  2. Development of Social Qualities Social qualities such as cooperation, tolerance, sympathy, group cohesion, brotherhood and discipline are developed among participants through sports tournaments.

Question.13. What are the advantages of knock-out tournaments? Answer. The advantages of knock-out tournaments are

  1. Minimum number of officials are required in organizing tournaments.
  2. Less number of matches are played, thus requiring less time to complete the tournaments.
  3. Less expensive, because the team which gets defeated is eliminated from the competition.

Question.14. Briefly explain about any two specific sports programmes. Answer. Sports programmes can be explained as

  1. Run for Fun It can be organised by any educational institution for another institution or organisation and for people of all ages. It is arranged just for the sake of fun to create good habits for good health. –
  2. Run for Unity An institution can organise a run for unity to create a feeling of unity among the people and communities for the unity of the country.

Question.15. Mention the activities which are included in intramurals and extramurals. Answer. Activities that are included are Intramurals Lazium, Dumb-bell, Marching, Tag game, Roller skating, Sack race, Shuttle run, Volleyball, Football, Cricket, Basketball, Athletics, Kho-kho, Cycling etc. What Is Tournament In Physical Education Class 12 Question.17. Draw the fixtures of 7-teams on knock-out basis. Answer. Question.18. Explain cyclic method of league tournament for 4 teams. Answer. In this method, one team is kept fixed and other teams are moved clockwise. When the number of teams is even, no bye is given, but if the number of teams is odd, one bye is given in each round.

Question.19. Explain the staircase method of a league tournament for 7 teams. Answer. In staircase method, fixtures are made just Tike a ladder or staircasev This method is the easiest method because no bye is given to any team and there is no need of the stipulation of odd or even number of teams. Question.20.

Briefly explain types of league tournaments. Answer.5 Marks Questions: Question.21. What do you mean by knock-out tournament? Draw the fixture of 21 teams on knock-out basis. Answer. In this type of tournament, the team which is defeated once gets eliminated immediately and will not be given another chance to play.

The total number of matches to played in this tournament will be equal to the number of teams participating minus one (N -1) e.g. if 21 teams are participating, the total number matches will be 21-1 =20. Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 1 Planning in Sports 14 So, knock-out or elimination tournament for 21 teams will be Question.22.

What do you mean by specific sports programmes? Explain any three. Answer. Specific sports programmes are those programmes of sports which are not usually related to competitions. The programmes have various objectives like creating awareness, creating a sense of integration among people and raising funds for charitable organisations.

  1. Health Run It is organised in almost every part of the world. In India, it is organised by many states to make people health conscious. For this, WHO allots sufficient funds to different organisations. These organisations organise and promote health runs. These health runs lay stress on removing deadly diseases. Health runs and rallies are organised every year in the world on 1st December to commemorate AIDS day. These runs give knowledge to people about AIDS, symptoms and causes and how to take preventive measures.
  2. Run for Unity It is a kind of mass running which generates the feeling of unity. It is organised by different nations by their Central Government, State Government, Sports federations etc to create a feeling of oneness among the people. By organizing such runs, people of all ages from different states come together and such runs develop the feeling of patriotism in children and students feel that they all belong to one nation.
  3. Run for Awareness Run for awareness can be organised by educational institutions to create awareness in the students about sports and games, about health, about a particular disease, about studies, about environment, about pollution or some other topic. Such races should be well planned before organizing them.

Question.23. What is a league tournament? Draw a fixture of 6 teams using round robin method. Answer. In this type of tournament, there is sufficient time to complete the tournament. In this, players or teams play against every other player or team. There are two types of league tournaments (i) Single league (ii) Double league Fixture of 6 Teams There are three methods of drawing a fixture.

  1. We will show the cyclic method.
  2. Cyclic Method Number of teams Question.24.
  3. What do you understand by fixture? Draw a fixture of 13 teams in knock-out tournament.
  4. Or What do you mean by tournament? Draw a fixture of 13 teams in knock-out tournaments. Answer.
  5. Fixture is a planned process of a tournament to be played.

Fixture may be defined as schedule of the teams taking part in the tournament and the methods of deciding the course of competition’. A tournament is played according to the fixture. A tournament is that series of sports in which a team finally wins and rest of the teams lose.

  1. Knock-out tournament or Elimination tournament
  2. League tournament
  3. Combination tournament

There are two types of combination tournament:

  1. League cum knock-out
  2. Knock-out cum league Fixture of 13 teams Total teams =13 Total matches = N-1 = 13-1 = 12 matches

Question.25. Describe the various committees for the organisation of sports events. Answer, The organisation of sports events requires a lot of planning. The planning is executed properly when different committees work together for the smooth conduct of the sports events. The various committees are:

  1. Technical Committee This committee is responsible for the technical conduct of the events. This committee selects various officials such as referees, judges, recorders, starters, umpires, time keepers etc.
  2. Transport Committee This committee is responsible for providing the facilities regarding transportation of various teams to the venue of sports events.
  3. Reception Committee The members of this committee are responsible to welcome the Chief Guest and spectators at opening and closing ceremonies.
  4. Boarding and Lodging Committee This committee is responsible for making necessary arrangements for providing accommodation and serving meals to the sportspersons and other officials.
  5. Ground and Equipment Committee This committee makes necessary arrangements of equipment related to the events.
  6. Medical and First Aid Committee This committee is formed to provide medical assistance to participants round the clock.
  7. Protest Committee In case of a protest against a judgement, the members of this committee decide about it.
  8. Publicity Committee All the press releases and press conferences are conducted by this committee.
  9. Finance Committee This committee is assigned to make the budget for the event and handle all the expenses.
  10. Refreshment Committee This committee is formed to provide refreshment to the participants.

Question.26. What is league tournament? Draw a fixture of 9 teams participating in league tournament. Answer. League Tournament It is also known as round robin tournament. In this type of tournament, all teams play against each other team irrespective of winning or losing.

The number of matches played in league tournament is calculated by Question.27. What do you mean by a specific sports programme ? Explain Health Run and Run for Awareness. Answer. Specific sports programmes are arranged in India and other countries to promote sports and games. These programmes create a feeling for taking part in sports and games.

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Students also become conscious that they must try to remain fit and healthy. In most countries, sports programmes are often organised to keep the people aware about their health and to take part in sports activities. Health Run To make people health conscious, health runs are organised in most places in India and other countries to make people aware, of deadly diseases like AIDS, Cancer, Tuberculosis, Dengue, Diabetes, Swine flu, Jaundice, Polio, Whooping cough etc.

Health runs organised by World Health Organisation (WHO) lay stress on eradication of deadly diseases from the World. Run for Awareness Run for awareness can be organised by educational institutions to create awareness in the students about sports and games, about health, about a particular disease, about studies, about environment, about pollution or some other topic.

Such races should be well planned before organising them. Question.28. What do you understand by intramural? What is its importance? Answer. The word intramural is derived from the Latin words intra and muros, which means within walls. The teams compete within the walls of an institution e.g.

  1. It improves the sense of citizenship and adult living.
  2. It helps in selection of teams for extramural competitions.
  3. It brings out the hidden talent of the students.
  4. It develops leadership qualities in students.
  5. It Creates recreational atmosphere among the teachers and students.
  6. It helps the students to learn about the conduct of various games.
  7. It develops the physical fitness of students.
  8. It develops social values/qualities.
  9. It develops personality.
  10. It provides relaxation from strenuous school work.

We hope the Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 1 Planning in Sports help you. If you have any query regarding Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 1 Planning in Sports, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest. : Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 1 Planning in Sports
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Why is it called a tournament?

Origins – Medieval equestrian warfare, and equestrian practice, did hark back to Roman antiquity, just as the notion of chivalry harked back to the rank of equites in Roman times. There may be an element of continuity connecting the medieval tournament to the hippika gymnasia of the Roman cavalry, but due to the sparsity of written records during the 5th to 8th centuries this is difficult to establish.

  1. It is known that such cavalry games were central to military training in the Carolingian Empire, with records of Louis and Charles’ military games at Worms in 843.
  2. At this event, recorded by Nithard, the initial chasing and fleeing was followed by a general mêlée of all combatants.
  3. Documentation of equestrian practice during the 9th to 10th centuries is still sparse, but it is clear that the tournament, properly so called, is a development of the High Middle Ages,

This is recognized by medieval sources; a chronicler of Tours in the late 12th century attributes the “invention” of the knightly tournament to an Angevin baron, Geoffroi de Preulli, who supposedly died in 1066. In 16th-century German historiography, the setting down of the first tournament laws is attributed to Henry the Fowler (r.919–936); this tradition is cited by Georg Rüxner in his Thurnierbuch of c.1530 as well as by Paulus Hector Mair in his De Arte Athletica (c.1544/5).

The earliest known use of the word “tournament” comes from the peace legislation by Count Baldwin III of Hainaut for the town of Valenciennes, dated to 1114. It refers to the keepers of the peace in the town leaving it “for the purpose of frequenting javelin sports, tournaments and such like.” A pattern of regular tournament meetings across northern France is evident in sources for the life of Charles, Count of Flanders (1119–27).

The sources of the 1160s and 1170s portray the event in the developed form it maintained into the 14th century.
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What is tournament and its types?

A tournament is a series of a particular sports activity in which one team finally wins and all other participating teams loose. The various types of tournaments are : a Knock out tournament : It is a tournament in which any team that gets defeated once gets eliminated from the entire tournament.
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What is tournament in sport?

From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English tournament tour‧na‧ment / ˈtʊənəmənt, ˈtɔː- $ ˈtɜːr-, ˈtʊr- / ●●○ noun 1 DS COMPETITION a competition in which players compete against each other in a series of games until there is one winner I feel I can win this tournament.

tennis/chess/badminton etc tournament 2 DSH COMPETITION a competition to show courage and fighting skill between soldiers in the Middle Ages Examples from the Corpus tournament • The trouble is that the finest tournament starts appear in photographs to be hitting late. • Telford won the local five-a-side football tournament,

• an international golf tournament • He no longer expects to win major tournaments but he settles for creating a noisy sensation in going as far as he can go. • But Sampras is 14-3 lifetime against Courier and he must believe the tournament is his to win.

  1. But a dry day would bring bigger crowds and add to the excitement of the vital third round of the tournament,
  2. Another one down, another step closer to the tournament,
  3. The tournament, played at Bangor Rugby Club, has become one of the highlights of the Ulster rugby season,
  4. For just a moment there, tournament golf had taken its toll : Saavedra had lost the head.

• For example, he won the Phoenix Thunderbird tournament in 1950 and received $ 300 under the table, • There’s a volleyball tournament at Sunset Park which begins today, tennis/chess/badminton etc tournament • Both sides were scrupulously polite, as if participating in a chess tournament,

A nominal charge is made for table tennis and tennis tournaments, • Choirs, plays, gymnastics, book discussions, chess tournaments, lectures and crafts classes took place constantly. • Blue Coat won the Fair Play award at an under-18 international badminton tournament in Barcelona despite not winning a match,

• Athletics meetings, tennis tournaments and horse-races have all been the subject of sponsorship, • If it’s raining in the afternoon there will be a table tennis tournament,
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What is the importance of tournament in physical education?

I Development of sports skills : By participating in tournaments sportspersons do not develop only technical skills of the sports but also the tactical skills. ii Helpful in selection of players: On the basis of tournaments good players can be selected by observing their performance in a tournament.
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What do you mean by tournament give two examples of tournament?

A tournament refers to a gathering of competitors playing a series of games. There are chess tournaments, golf tournaments, tennis tournaments, and a number of tournaments titled ‘Tournament of Champions.’ In medieval times, large groups of knights would gather and compete in a tournament.
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What are the main types of tournament?

Different types of tournaments are — Knock-out or Elimination Tournament (Single Knock- out or Single Elimination, Consolation Type I and Type II, C Double Knock-out or Double Elimination), League or Round Robin Tournament (Single League, and Double League), Combination Tournament (Knock-out cum Knock-out, Knock-out
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What is league tournament * Your answer?

How many total match will be played in League Tournament whe Free 10 Questions 40 Marks 10 Mins Concept: Tournament types:

  • Knock out (single, consolation, and double).
  • League or Round robin (single or double).
  • Combination
  1. knocks out cum knock out.
  2. knock out cum league.
  3. league cum knock out.
  4. league cum league.

Challenge (ladder and pyramid)

Explanation: Matches for 10 teams:

  • Let N be the number of teams
  • Since the number of teams (N) = 10,
  • the formula, N(N-1)/2
  • So, 10(10-1)/2 = 45
  • Thus, a total of 45 matches will be played in League Tournament when teams are ten (10).
  • Additional Information:
  • League tournament:
  • Also called the Round robin tournament.
  • League tournaments are those in which every team gets a chance to play against other teams irrespective of winning or losing a match.
  • Players/teams get eliminated only after a certain number of losses.

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What is league tournament in short?

The league tournament is known as round robin tournament. All teams play their matches in their respective zones irrespective of winning or losing. All the zonal winner teams again play on league basis and one team becomes the winner of inter-zonal or group tournament.
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How many tournaments are there in class 12th?

There are four types of tournaments : Knock-out tournament. League or Round Robin tournament. Combination tournament.
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What was the first tournament?

tournament | medieval military games tournament, also called tourney, series of military exercises, probably of French origin and confined to western, in which knights fought one another to display their skill and courage. Tournaments had become more pageantry than combat by the end of the 16th century, and the term is still used somewhat in this sense—for instance, in the Royal Tournament, an annual naval and military display held in London, and the New Year’s Day Tournament of Roses parade in Pasadena, California.

  1. In the early 20th century, the word tournament also came to be applied to certain methods of conducting competitions.
  2. In the most common modern tournament, the contestants are matched in pairs, with the losers in each test eliminated and the winners paired anew until only one remains as the champion of the tournament.

In some tournaments, called double-elimination tournaments, the contestant is not eliminated until defeated a second time. In a third form, called a round robin, each contestant opposes every other contestant and the one with the highest percentage of victories is declared the champion.

  • The tournament in its earliest form apparently originated in France about the middle of the 11th century.
  • Several chroniclers a French baron, Geoffroi de Preully, with having invented tournaments.
  • The early tournament was a mock battle between two bodies of armed horsemen and was called the,
  • This term is also applied to a predecessor of modern,

See,) Later came the, a trial of skill in which two horsemen charged each other with leveled lances from either end of the lists (the palisades enclosing the jousting ground), each attempting to unhorse the other; the mêlée, however, continued side by side with it.

About 1292 a Statutum Armorum (“Statute of Arms”) that swords with points were not to be used (nor were pointed daggers, clubs, or maces). Fallen knights were to be helped up only by their own squires, wearing their heraldic device. The squire who offended was to lose and arms and be imprisoned for three years.

Disputes were to be settled by a court of honour of princes and earls. Some tournaments were harmless and some rough. For the Tournament of Peace held at Windsor Park,, in 1278, the sword blades were of whalebone and parchment, silvered; the helms of boiled leather; and the shields of light wood.

At others, however, contestants were often killed or wounded. Blunted, or rebated, lance points came into use early, and by the 14th century a crown-shaped coronal head was often fitted in place of the point. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. By the 1400s, jousters usually ran their courses separated by a cloth-covered barrier, or tilt, to prevent the of their horses.

Armourers began to devise special armour that was heavier and less flexible than armour for the field, being used only for tilting. In the 16th century, fighting on foot at the barrier with short spears became popular. Poleaxes also were used, and there were mounted combats with swords or maces.

  • Prizes were presented to the victors by ladies.
  • In continental Europe, lists were jealously closed to all combatants except those of noble birth.
  • In the German lands, questions as to the purity of descent of a candidate for admission to a noble order were often settled by appeal to an ancestor’s having taken part in a tournament.

The tournament eventually degenerated into the, a kind of equestrian polonaise, and the more harmless sport of tilting at a ring. In modern times there have been occasional revivals, the most famous perhaps being the tournament at Eglinton Castle, in, in 1839, described in Disraeli’s novel Endymion (1880).
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Whats a name for a tournament?

Contexts A contest held to establish someone’s, or something’s, superiority or supremacy A contest in which mounted knights fought for a prize Noun ▲ A contest held to establish someone’s, or something’s, superiority or supremacy competition contest event match meet meeting series bout championship clash game matchup sweep-stake sweepstakes tourney fixture trial duel fight games playoffs sport test sporting competition battle encounter derby struggle face-off head-to-head conflict ball game combat race tug-of-war dogfight heat challenge round engagement skirmish scrimmage confrontation war warfare contention joust rivalry tussle scuffle final set-to split tie playdown grapple play-off prizefight cup sports event athletic event races mill fracas attack collision drive tilt showdown strife playoff sports friendly pageant league finals one on one cup tie sporting event test match lists match up dustup vying quiz hunt muster go local derby trials sports meeting concours stakes matches competitive fight performance counteraction candidacy clashes duels feud boxing match run-in battle royal cup final matchups contests play off pairing off one-upmanship one-upping rematch run replay horse race ultramarathon rally biathlon round-robin sudden death heptathlon semifinal set pentathlon marathon decathlon triathlon athletics gala do or die knockout sporting contests sports events sports competitions track-and-field events crown title elimination division circuit conference tier title fight title match crowning achievement association winner takes all scramble running tiebreaker regatta competitive event boat race competition stake quest one-on-one jockeying jostle triple O one-on-one contest hustle jostling quarterfinal rat race free-for-all final round sprint chase dash relay scurry pursuit rush course time trial relay race time-trial steeplechase Cup final tie-break battle royale championship fight last leg final match Super Bowl grand final shootout knockout round final game decider “Unlike many of the games in the tournament this one was played without fear by both teams.” Noun ▲ A contest in which mounted knights fought for a prize joust tourney jousting lists tilt the lists duel combat encounter contest set-to match engagement fight bout passage of arms “Geoffrey was fatally wounded in a tournament in Paris and the baby was born afterwards, in 1187.”

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Is it tournament or tournament?

Tournament ​Definitions and Synonyms ​‌‌

singular tournament
plural tournaments

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What is the tournament structure?

Tournament format refers to what matches are played at a tournament and how they relate to each other and to the tournament’s standings. (The same phrase is also sometimes used to refer the set of rules used at a tournament.)
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How many types of tournaments write names?

Understanding Tournaments and Leagues Nine types of tournaments or leagues are described in this book: single elimination, double elimination, multilevel, straight round robin, round robin double split, round robin triple split, round robin quadruple split, semi-round robins, and extended (such as ladder and pyramid tournaments).

  • In the passages that follow, you will find the details on each kind of tournament or league, including individual strengths and weaknesses and suggestions for the best use for each tournament and league format.
  • Single Elimination The greatest appeal of the single-elimination tournament is its simplicity.

Losers are eliminated, and winners advance to the next round until only one contestant remains—the tournament champion. The single-elimination tourney is valuable when the number of entries is large, time is short, and the number of locations is limited.

  • Of all the tournaments, this one requires the fewest games (or matches); however, half the participants are eliminated after one game, and only a quarter of the participants remain after the second round.
  • When more extensive participation is important and more locations and time are available, a single-elimination tournament is probably not your best choice.

Yes, a single-elimination format is the simplest, but the other tournaments described in this manual are also easy to organize, so the simplicity of single elimination is not a significant factor in its favor. Probably the best use for the single-elimination tournament is play-offs at the end of a season or following a longer tournament, such as a split round robin.

You would then determine seeding for the single elimination by the standings at the conclusion of the previous playing period. Single-elimination tournaments are discussed in depth in chapter 2. Double Elimination The double-elimination tournament addresses two problems inherent in the single-elimination tournament.

The first is that one of the best entries may have a bad first game or match or have been poorly seeded in the single-elimination draw; if that occurs in a single-elimination tournament, that entry is eliminated too soon. Having a losers’ bracket gives such an entry an opportunity to play in the finals.

  • The second problem with the single elimination is that half of the entries play only one game (or match).
  • The double-elimination format ensures that all entries play at least two games.
  • However, this tournament type is often overrated because of those strengths.
  • It also has weaknesses, and there are alternatives.

The major difficulties with the double elimination are that the second- and third-seeded entries play many games, particularly in the final rounds of the tournament, and it takes many rounds to complete. Also, this tournament type often uses available areas inefficiently.

For example, if the tournament consists of nine entries and four locations are available, the double-elimination tournament takes seven rounds to complete. This is as many rounds as in a round robin double split (discussed later) but without the advantages a round robin tournament offers. The double elimination is a good option when the number of locations is limited, time is at a premium, final standings are important, and all entries are to be awarded a minimum of two games.

For more on double eliminations, see chapter 4. Multilevel The multilevel tournament is similar to a single-elimination tournament; in fact, at the top level they are the same. However, in a multilevel tournament, a player is not eliminated following a loss but simply moves down one or more levels of play into the consolation rounds.

  1. This downward movement continues until no other challengers remain.
  2. One result of this approach is that all entries play about the same number of games.
  3. Another benefit is that in each round the players are more likely to encounter other players of their caliber.
  4. In the final rounds of play in single- and double-elimination tournaments, only one or two locations are in use.

This is not the case in the multilevel tournament. As a result, when sufficient locations are available, the multilevel tournament takes the same amount of time to complete as a single-elimination tournament and half the time of a double-elimination tournament.

For example, if six locations are available, and the tournament contains 13 entries, it takes four rounds to complete the tournament using either the single elimination or the multilevel and eight rounds to complete a double elimination. The multilevel tournament is an excellent choice when equality in number of games played and closely contested matches are important, when time is limited, and when knowledge of third and subsequent final placements is not crucial.

This tournament is perhaps most useful in physical education classes or intramural or recreational settings where eliminating players is undesirable and final standings are of little significance. Because this tournament type offers many advantages in these situations, and because it may be new to the reader, we advise a review of chapter 3.

Straight Round Robin The round robin tournament and league schedules consist of all individuals or teams playing each entry an equal number of times. The round robin and round robin split tournaments all use fixed schedules; all entries know exactly who they play and what time they play them, which offers advantage to entries in preparing for the tournament and upcoming games.

Seeding does not affect the outcome because the cumulative results of all games played determine final standings. When the number of entries is small and games are played quickly (as in table tennis, badminton, or volleyball), this type of format is effective for a one-day tournament.

When there are more entries and the games take longer to complete (as in hockey, football, or basketball), then a round robin schedule is best suited for league play. In this case, one time through a round robin provides the league schedule, and, if time permits, you could provide a home and away schedule simply by going through the round robin schedule twice.

The round robin format is not suitable for all situations. Because all entries play each other, a round robin format is problematic when the number of entries is high. For example, a tournament with 32 entries would take 496 games to complete using a round robin.

  • This compares with 62 games in a double elimination and 31 in single elimination.
  • Also, when there is considerable discrepancy in the caliber of play, many games or matches will prove unsatisfactory to all involved in these noncontests.
  • For more on the regular round robin tournament and the other round robin formats discussed in the following paragraphs, see chapter 5.

The largest number of schedules on the accompanying website is for round robins. To help you find the schedule you want, the files have been divided into five main folders: 3-8 entries and 9-12 and 13-16 entries, locations shared and locations different.

  • Within those folders, the files are further subdivided by type of round robin and by league.
  • The league schedules have a home location.
  • The other round robin schedules could also be used for league schedules in which entries share locations.
  • For example, a community soccer league of 10 teams might share two soccer fields.

Round Robin Double Split When a round robin format is desirable but the number of entries is too large, splitting the entries into two divisions is a practical solution. Following the play within the divisions, only the top two entries from each division participate in play-offs to determine the final top standings.

  • The obvious benefit is that the number of games is halved.
  • The drawback is that accurate seeding becomes important.
  • For example, if the top three seeds are placed in one division and only the top two from each division advance to the play-offs, then (if entries perform consistent with their seedings) the third seed cannot play in the play-offs.

The round robin double split is commonly used for league play. You could split the league into two or more divisions, with the play-offs bringing together the top two teams from each division to decide the final standings. Round Robin Triple Split The round robin triple split is similar to the double split.

  • However, because it would be awkward to have a single-elimination play-off with three or six finalists, a round robin format for the finalists is the most suitable.
  • This requires more games in the play-offs and is a satisfactory alternative to the double split only when there are a very large number of entries.

Round Robin Quadruple Split This type of tournament or league is intended to solve the same problems addressed by the double split, but instead of dividing the entries into two groups, they are divided into four groups. This is useful only when the number of entries exceeds 11.

You could use this format in a one- or two-day tournament or in a league over a longer time. The major disadvantage of this approach is that when there are only 12 to 15 entries, the weaker players (or teams) might participate in only two games. Semi-Round Robins The semi-round robin is essentially a round robin tournament that solves the problem of uneven divisions.

For example, in a baseball tournament with seven entries divided into two divisions, one division would have three entries, and the other would have four. This means that the division with four entries requires each team to compete in one more game than in the division with three entries.

  • The semi-round robin corrects for this.
  • This type of tournament is explained further in chapter 7.
  • Extended Ladders and pyramids are two common examples of extended tournaments or leagues.
  • Extended tournaments can be ongoing for an indefinite time or can be abbreviated to a week, a month, or another set period.

For drop-in programs, such as intramurals or racket clubs, this tournament type can be most useful. Its major weaknesses are, first, that players challenge each other, which means that some players might not play as much, and, second, because of the challenge system, the ranking at the end of the tournament might not be accurate because some players may have played very few if any games.
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What is tournament in sport?

From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English tournament tour‧na‧ment / ˈtʊənəmənt, ˈtɔː- $ ˈtɜːr-, ˈtʊr- / ●●○ noun 1 DS COMPETITION a competition in which players compete against each other in a series of games until there is one winner I feel I can win this tournament.

Tennis/chess/badminton etc tournament 2 DSH COMPETITION a competition to show courage and fighting skill between soldiers in the Middle Ages Examples from the Corpus tournament • The trouble is that the finest tournament starts appear in photographs to be hitting late. • Telford won the local five-a-side football tournament,

• an international golf tournament • He no longer expects to win major tournaments but he settles for creating a noisy sensation in going as far as he can go. • But Sampras is 14-3 lifetime against Courier and he must believe the tournament is his to win.

But a dry day would bring bigger crowds and add to the excitement of the vital third round of the tournament, • Another one down, another step closer to the tournament, • The tournament, played at Bangor Rugby Club, has become one of the highlights of the Ulster rugby season, • For just a moment there, tournament golf had taken its toll : Saavedra had lost the head.

• For example, he won the Phoenix Thunderbird tournament in 1950 and received $ 300 under the table, • There’s a volleyball tournament at Sunset Park which begins today, tennis/chess/badminton etc tournament • Both sides were scrupulously polite, as if participating in a chess tournament,

  • A nominal charge is made for table tennis and tennis tournaments,
  • Choirs, plays, gymnastics, book discussions, chess tournaments, lectures and crafts classes took place constantly.
  • Blue Coat won the Fair Play award at an under-18 international badminton tournament in Barcelona despite not winning a match,

• Athletics meetings, tennis tournaments and horse-races have all been the subject of sponsorship, • If it’s raining in the afternoon there will be a table tennis tournament,
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What is importance of tournament in physical education?

I Development of sports skills : By participating in tournaments sportspersons do not develop only technical skills of the sports but also the tactical skills. ii Helpful in selection of players: On the basis of tournaments good players can be selected by observing their performance in a tournament.
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What is the objective of tournament physical education?

To find out the best team.To provide a source of recreation for the public.To learn new skills.
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What do you mean by tournament give two examples of tournament?

A tournament refers to a gathering of competitors playing a series of games. There are chess tournaments, golf tournaments, tennis tournaments, and a number of tournaments titled ‘Tournament of Champions.’ In medieval times, large groups of knights would gather and compete in a tournament.
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